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# TIRE AND WHEEL

Teknik Kendaraan Ringan Semester 2nd Class X Kompetensi Kejuruan SK-KD 11TH

## DIAGRAM ALUR PENCAPAIAN KOMPETENSI

TIRE
What is a tire made of. What percent of a tire is rubber? What is a pneumatic tire? What is the difference between radial & bias ply tires ? Why are tires black?

## What percent of a tire is rubber?

By weight, give or take 30% By volume, quite a bite more.
Rubber 30 20 Steel Nylon 10 0 Tire compontents Synthetic Rubber Carbon Black Rayon

## What Is Pneumatic Tire?

Filled by air, especially compressed air: a pneumatic tire (dictionary definition). All tires manufactured today are considered Pneumatic tires.

## Who Invented The First Tire?

It was invented in 1888, by John Dunlop. This would be the end of the solid tire.

## Why are Tires Black?

To protect the rubber from the harmful UV rays. A common type of UV stabilizer called a competitive absorber is added to capture and absorb these harmful UV light wave energy.

## Bias Ply Tire

A bias ply tire has plies running at an angle from bead to bead. The cord angle is also reversed from ply to ply. Tread is bonded directly to the top ply.

## Belted Bias Tire

Is a bias tire with belts added to increase tread stiffness. These belts are also ran at a different angle. These belts only lie on the tread area and not on the side walls, like cords.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Has plies running straight across from bead to bead with stabilizer belts lying directly beneath the tread. This results in the radial having flexible side wall, but a stiff tread.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Tire Cutaway

Tire Sidewall

Tire Size

## Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Tire Size
If you switch tire size on a car you can mess up the speedometer to figure out how close you are do the math to figure out the diameter. For a 205/75R15 tire it would look like this 205 X .75 x 2 25.4 + 15= 27.106 Tire size X Aspect ratio X 2 25.4 + Rim size 100

## Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Aspect Ratio
Percentage of tires height in relation to its width A 60 series tire height will be 60% of the width. The aspect ratio can be a 40,50, 60,65,70,75,78 These are some of the most common ones.

## Teknologi dan Rekayasa

SERVICE DESCRIPTION
On some performance tires, you will notice some additional numbers and letters located at the end of the tire size. For Example: P185/70R14 92S In this example the 92S is called the SERVICE DESCRIPTION. The Service Description consists of two parts, the LOAD INDEX and the SPEED RATING. You'll notice the Speed Rating S has been moved from the old Metric size system of: 185/70SR14 to P185/70R14 92S

The SPEED RATING is a letter which designates the rating achieved on indoor wheel testing.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa

The LOAD INDEX is a number ranging from 0 to 279 and covers load capacities from the smallest motorcycle tires to those for the largest earth mover tires. In passenger car tires, the load index typically ranges from 75 to 100. As in aspect ratio where the operative word was ratio, in load index the operative word here is index. An index is a point of reference or a chart to refer to find information. All tire guides used by retail tire stores have them and they have load index charts in them. By referring to the load index chart in the Tire Guide you can determine the maximum load carrying capacity of a tire size from using the load index number at the end of the P-Metric size. For Example: Load Index Max Load (lbs.) 91 1356 92 1389 93 1433

## Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Speed Rating
Rating Maximum Speed Q 99 mph S 112 mph T 118 mph U 124 mph H 130 mph V 149 mph W 168 mph Y 186 mph Z Above 149 mph from goodyear
Teknologi dan Rekayasa

## Effects of speed on a tire

Tires are tested under Laboratory conditions they are not worn out, are properly inflated, not over loaded, damaged or altered. Just because they have a speed rating does not mean the car is safe to drive at those speeds

## Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Tire pressure
Tire pressure should be check monthly Tire pressure should be checked cold for every 10 Fahrenheit change in air temperature, your tire's inflation pressure will change by about 1 psi The air pressure in the tire supports the car, make sure that it is the right amount. If you check the air pressure inside the shop at a temperature of 70 will the tires be the right pressure when it goes outside at 0?

## Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Tire Defects
Separations Bulges sidewall separations tread tearing, chunking shoulder cracking Sidewall cracking Weather cracking Breaks in sidewall/tread Excessive radial runout diameter Excessive lateral runout width Conicity not level accross tread
cone shaped

Tire Defects

Tire Defects

Tire Defects

## Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Wheels
steel \ cast Off set Bump steer Scrub Radius

## Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Static balance
Equals wheel tramp

Dynamic Balance
equals wobble

## Teknologi dan Rekayasa

Bibliography:
The Tire Rack Online Performance Source