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Submitted by: Submitted to:

Monique Christianne E. Rubian Ms. Aiza Violet B. Alfaro

Theories used in Nursing Informatics

The Novice to Expert Theory

(a construct theory first proposed by sibling researchers, Hubert and Stuart Dreyfus (1980) as the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition, and later applied and modified to nursing by Patricia Benner in 1984,)

> This provides a very useful and important theory that clearly applies to nursing informatics. In fact, the Dreyfus brothers developed the model while working with artificial intelligence development and expert computer system programming.

The Novice to Expert Theory

Novice individuals with no experience of situations and related content in those situations where they are expected to perform tasks Advanced Beginner marginally demonstrate acceptable performance having built on lessons learned in their expanding experience base; needs supervision

Competent enhanced mastery and the ability to cope with and manage many contingencies

The Novice to Expert Theory

Proficient evolution through continuous practice of skills, combined with professional experience and knowledge; individual who appreciates standards of practice as they apply in nursing informatics

Expert individual with mastery of the concept and capacity to intuitively understand the situation and immediately target the problem with minimal effort or problem solving

The Diffusion of Innovation Theory

It was first discussed historically in 1903 by the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde who plotted the original S-shaped diffusion curve, followed by Ryan and Gross (1943) who introduced the adopter categories that were later used in the current theory popularized by Everett Rogers.

The Diffusion of Innovation Theory

> The Diffusion of Innovation theory is often regarded as a valuable change model for guiding technological innovation where the innovation itself is modified and presented in ways that meet the needs across all levels of adopters. > It also stresses the importance of communication and peer networking within the adoption process.

Change Management Theory

> It is a time-tested, easily applied field theory that is often considered the epitome of change models, suitable for both personal and organizational change. > Kurt Lewin, (1890 1947) a Gestalt social psychologist, has been acknowledged as the father of social change theories since several contemporary models are at least loosely based on Lewin's work.

Change Management Theory

> Lewins change theory is a planned change guide that consists of three distinct and vital stages: Unfreezing Stage Moving to a New Level or

Change Stage

The first stage involves finding a method of making it possible for people to let go of an old pattern that was counterproductive in some way.

This is the stage where the desire to change occurs, or at least the recognition that change is needed.
An example is moving from a paper based documentation system to an electronic system, in an organization where paper trails have become unmanageable and archaic. Unfreezing the present Forces that maintain current behavior are reduced through analysis of the current situation.

Imperatives for change are realized through dialogue and re-educational activities such as team building, personal development, and brain-storming.

The more transparent and inclusive the process is, the more readily people move through the unfreezing stage.

The second stage involves a process of changein thoughts, feelings, behavior, or all three, that is in some way more liberating or more productive than doing things the old way. During this stage, the people involved (change target group) are convinced that the new way is better than the old. Having analyzed the present situation, new structures and processes are put in place to achieve the desired improvements. This is the most time-consuming, costly, yet productive stage as far as tangible results go.

The third and final stage consists of establishing the change as a new habit or process, so that it now becomes the standard operating procedure or status quo.

Without some process of refreezing, it is easy to backslide into the old ways of doing things.
Rewards, support, and champion leadership continue to be important through this stage, which is essentially ongoing until the next major change is needed. The changes implemented are frozen in place to ensure that they become part of normal working procedures. This is done by establishing supportive mechanisms such as policies, rewards, ongoing support, and a solid orientation to the new system for incoming personnel.

In application of Nursing Informatics as a Nursing Student, I choose the Novice to Expert theory as for the reason that it can be readily applied to the development of nursing informatics skills, competencies and knowledge. Also, it is greatly influential in terms of the development of technological system competencies for us student nurses, especially when we go on duties to high end institutions. Last but not the least, I think that this theory can evaluate the level of competency, identify the points to improve as well as the strong points of individuals, especially us, student nurses.

FOSS (Free and open source software)

It is a software that is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to use, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. This approach has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognized by both individuals and corporations In the context of free and open-source software, free refers to the freedom to copy and re-use the software, rather than to the price of the software.

Registered Software/Licensed Software

Also known as Proprietary software
It is computer software licensed under exclusive legal right of the copyright holder. The licensee is given the right to use the software under certain conditions, but restricted from other uses, such as modification, further distribution, or reverse engineering Bought from a software company or a licensed distributor of software.

FOSS VS. Registered Software: Advantages and Disadvantages

Registered Software: Advantages and Disadvantages

ADVANTAGES: The software offers a stable system support if it fails or malfunction. The software is safe and guaranteed to be safe from dubious threats like programming bugs and viruses thus providing ease of mind for the user. The software is easier to install and used as the production is planned and extensive research is carried out to ensure users purchase only the best.

Furthermore, free updates and latest information on the software are usually provided

Registered Software: Advantages and Disadvantages

DISADVANTAGES: Users need to spend a long time downloading and installing security patches to fix bugs announced by the manufacturer. Any improvements would usually require fees, which is often expensive. Users are not allowed to describe and share the software as that are licensed. Customizing the software is nearly impossible because when users buy proprietary software will receive binary version of the program, not the code as the code is the manufacturers trade secret.

FOSS: Advantages and Disadvantages

ADVANTAGES: Possibly the biggest advantage of open source software is the fact that everybody has the right to modify and tweak the source code. This means the code can be implemented in other pieces of software and adapted to changing environments.

This access to the source code means that suddenly any number of people, skilled or otherwise, have now become programmers of the open source code. The implications of this are that bugs can be easily fixed. With closed source if there is a bug in certain software the user must wait for a new release whereas in open source the code can be altered and the bug can be fixed.

FOSS: Advantages and Disadvantages

ADVANTAGES: The re-distribution of open source code is also promoted. Meaning that a bug fix can be instantly redistributed instead of having to wait for a newer release. Another advantage of open source is that so many people have access to the code. This means that there are a large number of sources for support. There is also another big advantage of open source software and that is that it is usually completely free in every sense of the word. It is free to use, free to distribute, and free to modify.

FOSS: Advantages and Disadvantages

DISADVANTAGES: Quite a large disadvantage to open source software is that as so many developments are going on at the same time it is hard to keep track of which version is the most up to date. This is also due to the fact that advertising is not as prominent in the open source industry, mainly because most developers are non-profit making. Also there is no guarantee regarding the updates. Since you are not paying for the open source software nobody is bound to give you regular updates. You can get stuck with the same old version for years without ever getting an update.