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Narmada Bachao Aandolan

Dams are Temples of Modern India

-P.M. Jawahar Lal Nehru


A temple that symbolizes destruction is no temple!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sBVX5a_lpQ&feature=fvsr

Sardar Sarovar Project


1961: Jawaharlal Nehru laid the foundation stone for

a 49.8 metre dam Sardar Sarovar Project(SSP) 1979: Narmada Water Dispute Tribunal increased height of SSP to 455 Ft (FRL)
Irrigation to 18000 sq km (Drought prone areas) Produce 1450 mega watts of electricity (high unmet demand) Flood Protection to 210 villages and Bharuch city (Gujarat, ppl

:4L) Employ 1 million people Domestic and Industrial Water for 30 million

COSTS
Financial Cost:
Present total cost - 45673.86 Cr Estimated Cost by 2012 70000 Cr

Human Displacement Cost:


Displaces over 200,000 people (48304 families)

Environmental Cost:
Catchment Area treatment Submergence of 13385.45 ha of forest land

Narmada Bachao Aandolan


Started in 1985 by Medha Patkar Social Movement consisting of
Tribal people Farmers Environmentalists Human Rights Activists

Objectives
Addressing issues of
Preservation of land and flora and fauna
Land for the displaced Fair rehabilitation policy Compensated only for immediate standing crops Sustainable Development (Energy and Water Strategy) Improving Dry Farming Technology Watershed Development Small Dams Schemes for Irrigation and Drinking Water Improved efficiency and utilization of existing dams

Means
Non Violence, Satyagrahas and Long Fasts
36 Day long solidarity march
In 1991, took a 22 day fast, almost took her life Another fast in 1993 Filed petition in Court

Other Supporters
Baba Amte Aamir Khan Arundhati Roy Groups such as
Gujarat-based Arch-Vahini (Action Research in

Community Health and Development) Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people affected by the Narmada dam) Madhya Pradesh-based Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti (Committee for a new life in the Narmada Valley) Maharashtra-based Narmada Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada dam-affected people)

Milestones
Exit of the World Bank from Sardar Sarovar in

1994 Halt of Sardar Sarovar construction 1994-99 Withdrawal of foreign investors from Maheshwar dam 1999-2001

Appraisal
Sardar Sarovar Project effected approx 245 villages in

three states Narmada Bachao Adolan voiced the concerns of hundreds of thousands of people who are losing their land ad livelihood to large dams The solidarity march led by Medha Patkar in 1991 symbolized the long path of struggle NBA, a peoples movement has succeeded in generating a debate across the sub continent which has encapsulated conflict between two opposing styles of development

Appraisal
The movement has rendered a yeomans service to

the country by creating a high level of awareness The decade long struggle has resulted in suspension of work on Sardar Sarovar Dam Project Exposed the fraud in the environment compliance reports and massive corruption in rehabitilation The movement compelled the world bank to conduct its first independent review Highlighted the fact that the project was taking malaria to the doorsteps of the villagers.

Criticism

Perception: The dam will displace very large numbers of people, mainly belonging to the weaker sections of society, in a cruel manner
TRUTH
Most of R&R in Gujarat and Maharashtra successfully

completed The total submerged area will be only 1.65% of the total irrigated area In MP, adivasis represent about 30% of the PAFs, remaining practice relatively advanced agriculture in the Nimar area The productivity ratio between land lost and land provided is estimated to be 1:8

Perception: The generous R&R policy that has evolved is entirely due to the efforts of the NBA
Truth
Current R&R policy is based primarily (a) the NWDT

award in 1979, and (b) the Gujarat govt.s R&R policy, 1987 NBAs anti-large-infra-projects ideology adivasis are best suited to subsistence-level existence in harmony with nature Undermined contribution of:
WORLD BANK ARCH vahini

Since 1989, Medha Patkar and the NBA have not made

any sincere efforts to improve R&R policy for SSP oustees

Perception: The R&R policy is good on paper, but the govt. is not serious about actually implementing it
Truth
As per Center for Social Studies Surat, despite

hiccups, R&R generally been carried out successfully in Gujarat. ARCH Vahini (and other NGOs) played a very constructive role in LPC committees but NBA took extreme ideological stand The Taloda forest land incidence - NBAs manipulation of tribal demands and aspiration

Perception: The NBA truly represents the poor, mainly dalits and adivasis living in the valley
Truth
In MP, about 70% of the PAFs are non-adivasi Supporters : Prosperous land-owning Patidar

caste R&R as a chance to become landowners Landless labourers (40% of a village) such as Kadmal, and SC/ST tribes markedly absent from the protests and from the ranks of local [NBA] activists

BENEFITS of SSP
Irrigation to be provided to 1,792,000 hectares of

land spread over 12 districts, 62 talukas and 3,393 villages Water to 75% of drought-prone areas of Gujarat and 73,000 hectares in the arid areas of Barmer and Jalore districts of Rajasthan Irrigation Benefiting more than 5 million people Drinking Water facilities to 8,215 villages and 135 urban centers in Gujarat Total benefiting 25-30 million people Peak power generation of 1450 MW