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LTE L2 Introduction

Susan Sun Date: 2009.07.24

Version: 00.01

Revision History

Version Number






Initial Version

Susan Sun

After the presentation, the audience are expected to have: > An overview understanding of the LTE radio interface architecture

> An overview understanding of bears and channels, which are important concepts in LTE
> An overview understanding of LTE L2 lays functions and procedures, including MAC and RLC

> P.S. To better explain the MAC scheduler, the PHY overview is included as the backup slides.

> LTE Radio Interface Protocol Architecture > Bearers Vs Channels > LTE RLC Introduction > LTE MAC Introduction > LTE PHY Introduction

LTE Radio Interface Protocol Architecture

Architecture Basics
> LTE is structured into different protocol layers
Lower protocol layers provide services for upper layers
The data from/to higher layers is known as a Service Data Unit (SDU) The data from/to lower layers is known as a Protocol Data Unit (PDU)

Each layer is responsible for different tasks

The upper layers should not have to care about the details

> This structure is common to most modern systems

Some layers are almost universal Others are LTE specific

> In LTE, IP packets enters through on of the SAE bearers

SAE = System Architecture Evolution The IP packets are then processed by the protocols

LTE Radio Interface Protocol Architecture

> The layer 1 supports all functions required for the transmission of bit streams on the physical medium. > The layer 2 protocol is responsible for providing functions such as mapping, ciphering, retransmission and segmentation. It is made of three sub-layers: MAC (Medium Access Control), RLC (Radio Link Control), PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol)

> The layer 3 is split into 2 parts: the access stratum and the non access stratum.

LTE Radio Interface Protocol Architecture

Short Description of Layers(1/2)

> Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)
Performs IP header compression Reduces the number of bits to transmit over the radio interfaced Based on Robust Header Compression (ROHC)

> Radio Link Control (RLC)

Responsible for Segmentation/concatenation Retransmission handling In-sequence delivery to higher layers

Short Description of Layers(2/2)

> Medium Access Control (MAC)
Responsible for Uplink/downlink scheduling Hybrid-ARQ retransmissions Choice of modulation Resource assignment

> Physical Layer (PHY)

Responsible for Coding/decoding Modulation/demodulation Resource mapping

Data Flow

Bearers & Channels


> Bearers, which carry information from one part of the system to another, with a particular quality of service.
> Channels, which carry information between different levels of the air interface protocol stack.

Bearers: Bearer Model

> A bearer carries data from one network element to another. It is associated with a particular quality of service, which describes parameters such as the data rate, error rate and delay.

EPS Bearer Terminology

> Quality of service
GBR bearer Non-GBR bearer Guaranteed bit rate No guaranteed bit rate

> Establishment time

Default bearer Established when UE connects to PDN Provides always-on connectivity Always non-GBR Dedicated bearer Established later Can be GBR or non-GBR

Quality of Service (QoS) Parameters

> Every EPS bearer
QoS class identifier (QCI) Allocation and retention priority (ARP)

> Every GBR bearer

Guaranteed bit rate (GBR) Maximum bit rate (MBR)

> Non-GBR bearers, collectively

Per APN aggregate maximum bit rate (APN-AMBR) Per UE aggregate maximum bit rate (UE-AMBR)

From TS 36.300 13.2, and TS 23.401 4.7.3

Standardized QCI Characteristics

From TS 23.203 6.1.7

Signaling Radio Bearers (SRBs)

From TS 36.331 4.2.2

Channels: Channel Description

> Logical channels: each logical channel type is defined by what type of information is transferred, > Transport channels: each transport channel is described by how and with what characteristics data are transferred over the radio interface > Physical channels: provide the real transmission resource, being in charge of the association between bits of the transport channels and physical symbols (electrical signals).

LTE Channel Architecture

> 1. RLC layer passes data to the MAC layer as logical channels. > 2. The MAC layer formats and sends the logical channel data as transport channel. > 3. The physical layer encodes the transport channel data to physical channels.

Logic Channel
Channel Control Channel BCCH Definition Broadcast Control Channel Direction DL Characteristic Transmission of system control information from the network to all mobile terminals in a cell. Transmission of paging to mobile terminals whose location on cell level is not known to the network Transmission of control information between network and UEs (RRC connection and cell update). Commonly used by UEs having no RRC connection with network or by UE when accessing a new cell after cell reselection MCCH Multicast Control Channel DL Transmission of control information required for reception of the MTCH Transmission of control information to/from a mobile terminal. This channel is used for individual configuration of mobile terminals such as different handover messages.


Paging Control Channel



Common Control Channel



Dedicated Control Channel


Traffic Channel


Dedicated Traffic Channel


Transmission of user data to/from a mobile terminal. Transmission of MBMS services.


Multicast Traffic Channel


Transport Channel(1/3)
Channel Definition Directio n Characteristic

Common Transport Channels


Broadcast Channel


Fixed, pre-defined transport format Broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell
Supports UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving Broadcasts in the entire coverage area of the cell;


Paging Channel


Mapped to physical resources which can be used dynamically also for

traffic/other control channels. DL-SCH Downlink Shared Channel DL Supports Hybrid ARQ Supports dynamic link adaptation by varying the modulation, coding and transmit power Optionally supports broadcast in the entire cell; Optionally supports beam forming Supports both dynamic and semi-static resource allocation Supports UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving Supports MBMS transmission

Transport Channel (2/3)

Channel MCH Definition Multicast Channel Directio n DL Characteristic Broadcasts in the entire coverage area of the cell; Supports MBSFN combining of MBMS transmission on multiple cells; Supports semi-static resource allocation e.g. with a time frame of a long cyclic prefix.


Random Access Channel


Channel carries minimal information

Transmissions on the channel may be lost due to collisions


Uplink Shared Channel


Optional support for beam forming Supports dynamic link adaptation by varying the transmit power and potentially modulation and coding Supports Hybrid ARQ Supports dynamic and semi-static resource allocation

Transport Channel(3/3)
> Transmission Time Interval (TTI): is defined as the inter-arrival time of Transport Block Sets, i.e. the time it shall take to transmit a Transport Block Set. > Transport Block (TB): is defined as the basic data unit exchanged between L1 and MAC. An equivalent term for Transport Block is MAC PDU. > Transport Block Set (TBS): is defined as a set of Transport Blocks that is exchanged between L1 and MAC at the same time instance using the same transport channel. An equivalent term for Transport Block Set is MAC PDU Set. > Transport Format (TF): includes information about the transport-block size, the modulation scheme, and the antenna mapping. By varying the transport format, the MAC layer can thus realize different data rates

Physical Channel(1/2)

Physical Channel Structure(2/2)

Channel Mapping (Downlink)

Channel Mapping (Uplink)


High Level RLC Architecture

RLC has 3 modes of operation: - Transparent mode (TM) - Unacknowledged mode (UM)

- Acknowledged mode (AM)

In TM & UM modes, one RLC entity acts like the Sender and another entity acts like the Receiver. In AM mode, one RLC entity acts as both the Sender and the Receiver. Upper Layer

In all modes: RLC Downlink: gets SDUs from upper layer and transmits PDUs to MAC. RLC Uplink: gets PDUs from MAC and transmits SDUs to upper layer.



LTE RLC Sub Layer

Model for TM Mode

Tr mode services & functions: -No segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs -No RLC headers are added -No delivery guarantees -Suitable for carrying voice
Transm. Tr-Entity Transmission buffer Receiving Tr-Entity Receiver buffer Upper Layer Radio Interface

Upper Layer



Model for UM Mode

UM mode services & functions:
Upper Layer Radio Interface

Upper Layer

-Segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs -Padding -RLC Headers are added -No delivery guarantees -Sequence number check -SDU Discard -Suitable for carrying streaming traffic
DTCH/DCCH/M TCH/MCCH DTCH/DCCH/M TCH/MCCH Transmission buffer Transm. UM-Entity Receiver UM-Entity Reassembly Remove RLC header Segmentation & Concatenation

Add RLC header

Receiver buffer

Model for AM Mode

AM mode services & functions: - Segmentation/Reassembly - Concatenation - Padding - Error correction
Transmission buffer


RLC control

SDU reassembly

Remove RLC header Segmentation & Concatenation Retransmission buffer

- In sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs

- Duplicate detection - Protocol error detection and recovery - SDU Discard - Suitable for TCP traffic

Reception buffer & HARQ reordering


AM Transmit Overview

AM Transmit State Variables

> VT(A): Acknowledged State Variable
Holds the value of the SN of the next AMD PDU for which a positive acknowledgment is to be received in-sequence Serves as the lower edge of the transmitting window. It is initially set to 0, and is updated whenever a positive acknowledgment for an AMD PDU with SN = VT(A) is received

> VT(MS): Maximum Send State Variable

This state variable equals VT(A) + AM_Window_Size It serves as the higher edge of the transmitting window.

> VT(S): Send State Variable

This state variable holds the value of the SN to be assigned for the next newly generated AMD PDU. It is initially set to 0, and is updated whenever the AM RLC entity delivers an AMD PDU with SN = VT(S).

> POLL_SN: Poll Send State Variable

This state variable holds the value of VT(S)-1 upon the most recent transmission of a RLC data PDU with the poll bit set to 1. It is initially set to 0.
transmitting window S N




AM Transmit Procedure

AM Receive Overview

AM Received Positive Acknowledgement - Overview

AM Received Negative Acknowledgement - Overview

AM Received Retransmission - Overview

ARQ procedures Polling & Retransmission

> Polling is to trigger STATUS reporting at the peer AM RLC entity > STATUS PDUs is to provide positive and/or negative acknowledgements of RLC PDUs
Transmitting side 1. AMD PDU(SDU0, SN=0, P=0) 2. AMD PDU(SDU1, SN=1, P=0) Polling 3. AMD PDU(SDU2, SN=2, P=1) 4. STATUS PDU(ACK_SN=3, NACK_SN=1) 5. AMD PDU segment(SDU1, SN=1, LSF=0,SO=0, P=1) 6. AMD PDU segment(SDU1, SN=1, LSF=1,SO=100, P=1) T_status_prohibit expires 7. STATUS PDU(ACK_SN=3) Start T_status_prohibit receiving side


MAC Layer Overview

> eNB functions (TS 36.321)
Mapping logical channels to transport channels Multiplexing (demuxing) MAC SDUs from (to) one or more logical channels to (from) transport blocks of transport channels HARQ error correction Priority handling between UEs and between logical channels of the same UE Transport format selection (i.e. MCS)








Downlink Logical channels

Downlink Transport channels




> Procedures
Random access and contention resolution Data transfer over DL-SCH/UL-SCH Paging Broadcast of system info Discontinuous reception (DRX)

Uplink Logical channels

Uplink Transport channels



MAC Procedures

Random Access Procedure

> The main purpose of the preamble is to indicate to the network the presence of a random-access attempt and to obtain uplink time synchronization within a fraction of the uplink cyclic prefix. > The RACH procedure is used in four cases: Initial access from disconnected state (RRC_IDLE) or radio failure Handover requiring random access procedure DL or UL data arrival during RRC_CONNECTED after UL PHY has lost synchronization (possibly due to power save operation) UL data arrival when are no dedicated scheduling request (PUCCH) channels available > The network broadcasts information to all terminals in which timefrequency resources random-access preamble transmission is allowed.

Random Access Procedure (Contention-based)

Random Access Procedure (Contention-based) > Step 1: Random access preamble transmission
Generation of the random-access preamble in UE MAC(PHY?) ; Random-access preamble transmission from UE to eNB; Random-access-preamble detection in eNB (by PHY);

> Step 2: Random access response

Sent on Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH); Sent within a time window of a few TTI ; For initial access, conveys at least RA-preamble, identifier, timing alignment information, initial UL grant, and assignment of temporary C-RNTI ; One or more UEs may be addressed in one response;

> Step 3: Terminal identification

Uses HARQ and RLC transparent mode on UL-SCH; Conveys UE identifier;

> Step 4: Contention resolution

Random Access Procedure (Non-Contention Based)

> 1. Random access preamble assignment: the eNodeB assigns the 6 bit preamble code > 2. Random access preamble: the UE transmits the assigned preamble > 3. Random access response
Same as for contention based RA Sent on PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel) Sent within a time window of a few TTI Conveys at least the timing alignment information and initial Ul grant for handover, and the timing alignment information for DL data arrival. In addition, RA-preamble identifier if addressed to RA-RNTI on L1/L2 control channel. One or more UEs may be addressed in one response

Timing Alignment (TA)

> Function
To keep time alignment between uplink transmissions from multiple UEs at the receiver side

Same signal

Different Timing => Different Samples

> Timing detection

UE timing adjustment has to cover the following cases.
Unsynchronized UEs Synchronized UEs but with no UL traffic Synchronized UEs with UL traffic
RACH Preamble

Sounding Reference Signal

Timing Alignment (2/2)

> Timing detection UE RACH unsynchronized RA preamble RACH preamble is detected by RA Response (with TA info) eNB Adjust uplink time ... a time adjustment value will be Start Time Alignment Timer calculated by the eNB, this should Uplink be calculated by PHY synchronized SRS/ with uplink data time adjustment value will be sent as part of RACH response message Time Alignment Command Adjust uplink time SRS Start Time Alignment Timer SRS transmit to eNB by UE Uplink a time adjustment value will be synchronized calculated by the eNB (PHY) . TA timer time adjustment value will be sent timeout Time Advance Command
unsynchronized eNB

Calculate TA tim

Random Access Procedure UE Behaviour

Random Access Procedure UE Behaviour (cont.)

Cell search/frame sync

Initialize RACH

Wait for RACH time/ frequency slot

Send access preamble

Random backoff time

Wait for response No No Response received?

Adjust RACH Tx power

Response timer expired? Yes Retry number+1 Yes


Max retries reached?


Notify MAC

DL-SCH Data Transfer UE Behaviour

UL-SCH Data Transfer UE Behaviour

Resource Scheduling of Shared Channel (UL/DL) Overview

> Dynamic resource scheduler resides in eNB on MAC layer. > Radio resource assignment based on radio condition, traffic volume, and QoS requirements. > Radio resource assignment consists of:
Physical Resource Block (PRB) Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS)

> The basic operation is so-called dynamic scheduling Downlink/Uplink are independently scheduled Time-frequency resources dynamically shared between users Each 1 ms TTI a new decision is taken Each mobile unit scheduled by the eNodeB > Scheduling strategy is not specified by 3GPP
Implementation specific Normally aiming at taking advantage of channel variations Channel status report from mobile unit to eNodeB

Downlink scheduling
> Dynamically decide which users to transmit to and on which resources. > In control of several layers In control of several layers
RLC: Need for concatenation/segmentation depending on data rate. MAC: Multiplexing of streams is priority dependent. Has to be considered. L1: Selection of coding modulation and Selection of coding, modulation and layers (MIMO).

> Scheduling decisions transmitted on PDCCH to the users

Downlink scheduling (cont.) >May require information about

>Channel conditions at terminal: - obtained through channel-status reports obtained through channel-status reports (and any other means) for decisions on power control, modulation and coding >Buffer status and priorities of data flows

- so that empty buffers are not scheduled so that empty buffers are not scheduled
- so that the most important data is handled first by the MAC >Interference situation in neighboring cells - if inter-cell interference cooperation is implemented

Uplink Scheduling
> Uplink scheduling
> eNodeB in full control > eNodeB deliver scheduling grants which - provide info about the resources and transport format (block size, modulation etc.) - are valid for one subframe

- needed for a terminal to be allowed to transmit

- are transmitted on downlink PDCCH > Priority handling performed by MAC at terminal, given a set of rules > Scheduler may use buffer, channel and interference information.

Uplink scheduling: Scheduling requests

> Terminal make a scheduling request (SR) if it wants to transmit > One bit SR is transmitted on a dedicated PUCCH schedule request resource > Initially, buffer situation at terminal unknown: Possibly, scheduler give small resource and then ask for buffer status (etc ) transmitted via a specific MAC control header (etc.) > Terminal without SR resource has to rely on random access mechanism

Semi-persistent scheduling
> Semi-persistent scheduling
Possible to schedule recourses to be used until further notice (on every n:th subframe) Help reduce control signaling Used for e.g. VoIP

Channel-Dependent Scheduling (CDS)

> Channel-dependent scheduling relies on channel-quality variations between users to obtain a gain in system capacity, so-called channel-dependent scheduling.

> Closely related to scheduling is link adaptation, which deals with how to set the transmission parameters of a radio link to handle variations of the radio-link quality.
> Channel-dependent scheduling is typically used for the downlink. In principle, this can be used also for the uplink. However, estimating the uplink channel quality is not as straightforward as is the case for the downlink.

Channel-status reporting
> Channel-status reports provided by the terminal Contains recommendations on what signaling format the eNodeB should use for downlink

Contain one or several of:

> Reports may be

periodic or a-periodic/trigger based CQIwideband or per-subband reports

From TS 36.213 7.2

Channel-status reporting (cont.)

> The 10 MHz bandwidth is to be divided into J Resource Block Groups (RBG) or J sub-bands with each RBG consisting of K RB as shown below. Based on the standard proposal, for 50 RB (10 MHz),
J = 17 RBGs K = 3 RB

> Due to the signaling capacity constraints on PUCCH, the granularity or size of the UE sub-band reporting will be 6 RB (equivalent to 2 RBG), except for the last sub-band which will consist of only 2 RB. (Relation between RBs, RBGs and sub band is shown on figure below ) > The UE will report the location of the best-M RBG and the corresponding CQI value for the best-M sub-bands. The value of M will be configured by eNB and signals to the UE through RRC signaling Sub-band 1 Sub-band 8 Sub-band 9




RBG 16
RB47 RB48

RBG 17
RB49 RB50

Resource Allocation
PCFICH Sub-frame (1 ms) RB-0


Rerference signal


> Data should be mapped to resource elements which are not reserved for pilot as well as synchronization signals > For each sub-frame, the DL/ UL resources are assigned/ granted through CCEs in PDCCH > PCFICH defines the number of OFDM symbols used for control signaling (only 1-3 symbols are allowed) > CCE for UL grant and DL assignment are roughly 36 and 40 bits respectively (strongly dependent on the resource allocation type) > VoIP Type-2 resource assignment is recommended > Due to SC-FDMA property on UL, only contiguous localized (subband) RB can be assigned to a given UE.

Control region

Resource Allocation Type

> A resource block group (RGB) consists of a set of consecutive physical resource blocks (14 depending on system bandwidth). > Resource Allocation Type
Type 0: RB groups are allocated by Bit Map. Type 1: RBs in selected 'Distributed" RBG subset are allocated by Bit Map. Type 2: Start position and Width is assigned. To have a better frequency distribution in case of type 2, notion of Virtual Resource Blocks (VRB) has been introduced in LTE Localized and distributed virtual resource block assignment

Resource Allocation Type (to be finished)

HARQ (to be finished)

> Hybrid ARQ with soft combining controlled by MAC
Different simultaneous processes running When error in one part, only that process needs to retransmit Soft combining with adaptive coding leads to better chance of reception

Discontinuous reception (DRX)

> Packet data transmissions are generally bursty, transmissions may occur anytime occur anytime. > If terminal is always awake high power consumption

> To save power, terminal may listen only on specified subframes, and sleep in-between.
> Two DRX cycles possible:
Long cycle: Sufficient in most cases. Terminal assumed to stay awake a while after being scheduled. Short cycle: A shorter cycle may be needed for e.g. VoIP

Active Mode Discontinuous Reception (DRX)

> eNB configures DRX in UE via RRC messages > Two DRX periods supported: long DRX and short DRX
For long inactivity, UE can use long DRX cycle
Web browsing: UE can enter DRX sleep during reading time

Short DRX cycle can be used during VoIP

Optimal value of on duration DL SIP/RTCP signaling will be held until on duration

CQI and SRS are not sent when not in active time
Impacts ability to adapt MCS to channel conditions

> Support measurement and reporting adjustment

Relax measurement requirement and reporting criteria according to the length of DRX interval. If DRX interval is above a threshold and if the channel quality of the serving cell is above a threshold, UE can omit measurement of a neighbor cell. Thresholds are set by eNB.

When measurement report is sent, UE may change DRX status, eNB should support this in scenarios such as handover.

On Duration UE shall monitor PDCCH


Opportunity for DRX

DRX inactivity timer HARQ RTT timer Active time DRX retransmission timer

DRX Cycle

MAC-PHY Interfaces for DL/UL Data Transmission

DL Grant message

Every TTI

Part of PDCCH for PCFICH

UL Grant message

DL Grants

Part of PDCCH for PHICH

DL Data message

DL Data UL Grants


UL Control message

Part of PDCCH information required by UL DSPs as decoding instructions Additional information for UL DSP process

Every TTI
UL Control


> All those control information above received from MAC will be mapped into corresponding physical channels to build one physical DL radio frame by DSP

> 3GPP 23.401 <General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access> > 3GPP 36.322 <Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification > V8.6.0 2009-06-18 > 3GPP 36.321 <Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Medium Acces Control (MAC) protocol specification > V8.6.0 2009-0618 > 3GPP 36.213 <Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer procedures> V8.7.0 2009-06-08 > E. Dahlman et al., <3G Evolution HSDA and LTE for Mobile Broadband> Academic Press, 2007 > <LTE PHY Overview V0.3> From Gavin Peng

Backup slides

LTE PHY Overview

> LTE PHY Overview > LTE DL PHY Layer > LTE UL PHY Layer > LTE PHY related Procedure

> The physical layer is responsible for coding, physical-layer hybrid-ARQ processing, modulation, multi-antenna processing, and mapping of the signal to the appropriate physical time-frequency resources.

Multiple access scheme

DL: OFDMA with CP (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access)

Modulation and coding scheme (MCS)

DL modulations: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM

UL modulations: QPSK and 16QAM

Rel-6 Turbo code: Coding rate of 1/3, two 8-state constituent encoders, and a contention-free internal interleaver

Multi-antenna techniques
Spatial Multiplexing (MIMO) within the LTE multi-antenna framework
Space Frequency Block Coding (SFBC) within the LTE multi-antenna framework Beam-forming within the LTE multi-antenna framework.

Radio access
> DL- OFDM based

> UL- SC-FDMA based

Modulation and Channel Coding

> Downlink:
Conventional OFDM with cyclic prefix QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM supported Asynchronous adaptive H-ARQ using IR
PUSCH PDSCH PMCH Physical channel Modulation schemes


> Uplink:
SC-FDMA QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM (for UE class 5) supported Synchronous H-ARQ using IR





> Channel coding

Rel-6 turbo coding only for SCH with coding rate 1/3 Tail-biting convolutional coding for control signaling

Control Information

Coding scheme Tail biting convolutional coding Block code Repetition code Block code

Coding rate 1/3 1/16 1/3 variable 1/3



Tail biting convolutional coding



LTE downlink time-domain structure: FDD Frame Structure (FS1)

One radio frame, Tf = 307200Ts=10 ms One slot, Tslot = 15360Ts = 0.5 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19

One subframe

Ts = 32.55 sec fs = 1/Ts = 30.72 Msamp/sec

The LTE downlink physical resource.

N symb

One downlink slot T slot

OFDM symbols



For 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing and normal CP, 1 RB is 12 sub-carriers x 7 OFDM/SC-FDMA symbols(84 resource element)

Resource block
N symb N sc

resource elements

N RB N sc


Resource element ( k , l )


N sc


l 0

l N symb 1


LTE downlink Time domain structure

LTE downlink frequency-domain structure

> Flexible bandwidth: 6110 resource blocks (120 MHz )

LTE Physical Layer Configuration para

Transmission BW Sub-frame duration Sub-carrier spacing Sampling frequency FFT size Number of occupied subcarriers Number of OFDM symbols per slot (Short/Long CP) Useful Symbol Time (s) CP length (s/samples) Short Long

1.4 MHz

3 MHz

5 MHz

10 MHz

15 MHz

20 MHz

1.92 MHz ( x 3.84 MHz) 128 73

3.84 MHz 256 181

1.0 ms 15 kHz 7.68 MHz 15.36 MHz (2 x 3.84 MHz) (4 x 3.84 MHz) 512 1024 301 7/6 66.67 601

23.04 MHz (6 x 3.84 MHz) 1536 901

30.72 MHz (8 x 3.84 MHz) 2048 1201

(4.69/9) x 6, (5.21/10) x 1* (16.67/32)

(4.69/18) x 6, (5.21/20) x 1 (16.67/64)

(4.69/36) x 6, (5.21/40) x 1 (16.67/128)

(4.69/72) x 6, (5.21/80) x 1 (16.67/256)

(4.69/108) x 6, (5.21/120) x 1 (16.67/384)

(4.69/144) x 6, (5.21/160) x 1 (16.67/512)

*: {(x1/y1) x n1, (x2/y2) x n2} means (x1/y1) for n1 OFDM symbols and (x2/y2) for n2 OFDM symbols

Number of occupied sub-carriers includes DC sub-carrier which contains no data

LTE system bandwidth and maximum channel rate

> Maximum channel rate > 14 OFDM symbols per 1ms > 100 RB * 12 sc = 1200 IQ symbols > 20MHz: 14*1200 = 16.8Msps > SISO 64QAM(6 bit/per symbol): 16.8*6 = 100.8Mbps > 2*2 MIMO 64QAM: 2*100.8 = 201.6Mbps > 4*4 MIMO 64QAM: 4*100.8 = 403.2Mbps > Overhead: control information, common singling, coding and header overhead, guard, etc so the maximum payload rate to a single user is considerably lower > Simulations in 3 km/h and siteto-site distance 500 m indicates 173 Mbps (2x2 MIMO) and 326 Mbps (4x4 MIMO) in the downlink

LTE downlink Radio Frame Structure

LTE downlink transport-channel processing (DL-SCH )

> Physical control format indicator channel (PCFICH)
The PCFICH carries information about the number of OFDM symbols (1, 2 or 3 or 4) used for transmission of PDCCHs in a sub frame.
Subframe Subframe 1 and 6 for frame structure type 2 MBSFN subframes on a carrier supporting both PMCH and PDSCH MBSFN subframes on a carrier not supporting PDSCH
DL All other subframes when N RB [10]

Number of OFDM symbols for PDCCH 1, 2 1, 2 0 2, 3, 4

All other cases

1, 2, 3

32 bit PCFICH will be mapped to 16 complex-symbol with QPSK modulation PCFICH is transmitted on the first OFDM symbol in each sub-Frame using four mini-CCEs, which are evenly spread across the whole bandwidth with a cell-specific shift

> PDCCH occupy the first 1-3 or 4 (narrow band only) OFDM symbols per sub frame --- indicated by PCFICH > PDCCH Contents (DCI: Downlink Control Indication)
Scheduling assignments for a DL-SCH or an UL-SCH and other control information for each UE

Downlink Control Information (DCI) Formats 0, 1, 1A, 1C, 2, 3, 3A Scheduling grant information for Uplink (Format 0) and downlink (Formats 1/1A, 2) One DCI format for one user, except for Formats 3, 3A

> Allocation Unit:

Control Channel element (CCE), which is set of 36 Resource Elements
1 CCE = 9 REG (REG: RE Group) = 36 RE

A PDCCH is transmitted on an aggregation of one or several (1,2,4,8) CCEs

1 PDCCH = 1, 2, 4, 8 CCEs

Multiple PDCCHs can be transmitted in a sub frame

Processing chain for downlink L1/L2 control signaling


> What is Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)?
Utilizes single carrier modulation and frequency domain equalization. Has similar performance and essentially the same overall structure as those of OFDMA system. Also, referred to as DFT-spread OFDMA. Has low PAPR because of its inherent single carrier transmitter structure. An attractive alternative to OFDMA, especially in the uplink communications where lower PAPR greatly benefits the mobile terminal in terms of transmit power efficiency.

LTE Uplink Time domain structure

> Normal CP: 5.1us (1.5Km) 1 slot = 7 OFDM symbols > Extended CP: 16.7us (5Km) 1 slot = 6 OFDM symbols

LTE Uplink Frequency domain structure

> Flexible bandwidth: 6110 resource blocks (120 MHz )

LTE uplink resource allocation

LTE UL Radio Frame Structure

> Uplink shared channel structure > The PUSCH can be scheduled in multiples of 1, 2, 3 or 5 of the PRB size. The sounding reference will only be transmitted when data is not being transmitted.
Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 19


Subframe Sounding reference Demodulation reference

Physical Resource (symbol)

LTE uplink transport-channel processing (ULSCH)

Uplink L1/L2 control signaling

> The uplink L1/L2 control signaling includes:
Hybrid-ARQ acknowledgments for received DL-SCH transport blocks. CQI (Channel-Quality Indicator), indicating the downlink channel quality as estimated by the mobile terminal.The CQI reports can be used by the network for downlink channel-dependent scheduling and rate control. Scheduling requests, indicating that a mobile terminal needs uplink resources for UL-SCH transmissions.

> Where to transfer

1. Uplink resource assigned (simultaneous transmission of UL-SCH): L1/L2 control multiplexed with UL-SCH before DFTS-OFDM processing. 2. No uplink resource assigned (no simultaneous transmission of UL-SCH):L1/L2 control transmitted in frequency resources specifically assigned for uplink L1/L2 control signaling.

Uplink L1/L2 control signaling

> Uplink L1/L2 control signaling on PUCCH

> Reasons to use the edges of the spectrum

>Maximize frequency diversity

>Not to block the assignment of very large bandwidths to a single terminal

LTE PHY related Procedure

> Cell search
> System Information Receive > Random access > Run-time procedure
> Link Adaptation > PUSCH-related procedure > PDSCH-related procedure > PDCCH-related procedure > PUCCH-related procedure

Run-time procedure

CELL Search
> Cell search: Mobile terminal or user equipment (UE) acquires time and frequency synchronization with a cell and detects the cell ID of that cell.
Based on BCH (Broadcast Channel) signal and hierarchical SCH (Synchronization Channel) signals.

> P-SCH (Primary-SCH) and S-SCH (Secondary-SCH) are transmitted twice per radio frame (10 ms) for FDD.
> Cell search procedure
1. 5 ms timing identified using P-SCH. 2. Radio timing and group ID found from S-SCH. 3. Full cell ID found from DL RS. 4. Decode BCH.

Cell Search (1/3)

> Two types
Initial cell search for first access Non-initial cell search for mobility (in LTE_ACTIVE) & cell reselection (in LTE_IDLE)

Cell Search
> Uses Primary and Secondary Sync Channels
P-SCH & S-SCH transmitted on center 72 sub-carriers (6 RBs) independent of channel BW P-SCH only uses even sub-carriers to create symmetric time waveform allows auto-correlation detection Three P-SCH sequences to allow better detection performance

> 2-step Initial Access Process:

1. Scan frequency raster to detect P-SCH
Determines slot timing and frequency acquisition one of three sequences. This determines cell-ID within cell-ID Group

2. Detect S-SCH
Determines radio frame boundary and cell ID group (one of 168 possibilities). CP length is also blindly detected in step 2

Cell Search

Cell Search (FDD/TDD structure)



System Information Receive

Master information block of system information transmitted on Primary broadcast channel (PBCH) Including system information (RAN2 conclusions)
L1 parameters (e.g. DL system bandwidth, etc.) System Frame Number (SFN) PHICH duration (1 bit) PHICH resource (2 bits) Etc

> Dynamic BCH

After successful reception of PBCH, UE can read D-BCH in PDSCH (including PCFICH and PDCCH) which carries information not included in PBCH

System information
> The system information includes:
Information about the downlink and uplink bandwidths Uplink/Downlink configuration in case of TDD Parameters related to random-access transmission and uplink power control, etc.

> It can be derivered by two different mechanisms relying on different transport channels

System information
> MIB and BCH transmission

System information
> MIB and BCH transmission

> System-Information Blocks

The main part of the system information is included in different System Information Blocks (SIB), transmitted during DL-SCH. Eight different SIBs exist:
SIB1, info on wether the terminal is allowed to camp on the cell (period = 80 ms) SIB2, info on uplink bandwidth, random access parameter and power control (period = 160 ms) SIB3, info on cell-reselection(period = 320 ms) SIB4-SIB8, info on neighbor-cell, LTE or not (period = 640 ms)

Random Access
> Problem:
From the base station to the UE, there is delay between the transmission and reception The UE therefore need an estimate of the timing to send its data so that the base station can receive all the UE signals at the same time

> Solution: random access channel (RACH)

Adjust the timing offset at the UE by informing the UE how to compensate for the round trip delay Uplink timing synchronization
Cyclic prefix (CP) time interval eNB FFT processing time line Rx signal from user#1 OFDM symbol boundary Rx signal from user#2 FFT processing time interval Cyclic prefix (CP) time interval FFT processing time interval Cyclic prefix (CP) time interval FFT processing time interval


Random Access (Cont)

> Plays a role similar to CDMA ranging codes in WiMAX

> In eNB, PHY detects PRACH preamble and sends the following to the MAC:
Timing offset (of UE transmission from eNB frame timing) SINR Preamble code detected

Link Adaptation in Downlink (Closed Loop)

Link Adaptation in Uplink (Closed Loop)

PUSCH related procedure for HARQ 36.213 Sec 8

Uplink ACK/NAKs in response to downlink (re)transmissions are sent on PUCCH or PUSCH Downlink ACK/NAKs in response to uplink (re)transmissions are sent on PHICH

n=0 eNB Tx PDCCH eNB Rx





Ue Rx (detection) Ue Tx

PDCCH Format 0 PN, RV, RBs, NDI,



PN: process number RV: redundancy version NDI: new data indication