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Computer Network and Network Components

M A Baig,

Computer Network

two or more computers are wired together so that they can communicate, share computer equipment, software, and data, voice its called a network. Computers connected using telecommunication system. Protocol :- a set of rules that are followed when two or more computers exchange data/information.

ARPANET: Advanced

Research Projects Agency Network was a project started by Department of Defense, USA in 1969 at the time of Cold war. Its objective was to communicate between the Research Centers and Military Organizations within USA. ARPANET had gradually grown in to present shape of Internet over the years.

1. Wired LAN Cables Network Adapters 2. Wireless Access Points WL Network Adapters


A Network of computers requires many devices other than computers to establish communication. Now we learn about these devices :



1. File Server (or) Server :Server is the most powerful and fast computer in which all the data (or) information of the organization is stored. 2. Work station (or) Client :Client is a Desktop or Laptop computer used to access another computer such as a File server.

Network Interface card (or) Ethernet Card


network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network.


hub is used to connect computers in a LAN connection. A 4 port HUB can connect 4 computers.

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Network switch

network switch is intelligent hub and a computer networking device that connects network segments or computers. It controls the traffic in the LAN.

All Switched Network

Switch 1

Switch 2

One Network

Network bridge

network bridge connects Similar LANs It operates in the Data link layer of OSI model. Copies frames from one network to another network.



connect two or more networks and forward data packets between them.

data arrives from one of the segments, the router decides, according to it's routing table, to which segment to forward that data.

Routed Networks
Switch 1


Switch 2

Routed Networks Two Subnets

Communication between subnets


signals traveling through wires (such as copper wires used in most networks), weaken due to the wire's electrical resistance & Long distance. A repeater is connected to two cable segments. Any electrical signal reaching the repeater from one segment, will be amplified and retransmitted to the other segment.


The word "Modem" stands for "MOdulator-DEModulator". A modem is a device that converts digital data originating from a terminal or computer, to analog signals used by voice communication networks such as the telephone system.


Local Area Network (LAN)


network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or building. Connects Computers that are Physically close together (<1mile) Technology used : Ethernet -- 10 or100 Mbps Eg: With in a Office Building.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one country to another and one continent to another continent) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN Connects computers that are physically far apart. long-haul network. A WAN consists of 2 or more LANs Technologies:

-telephone lines -Satellite communications Eg: Internet

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

A network that connects two or more Local Area Networks or CANs together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area. Larger than a LAN and smaller than a WAN Multiple routers, switches & hubs are connected to create a MAN

WAN-LAN Interconnection

Network Topology

geometric arrangement of devices on the network.

Network Topology types

Bus Topology

Bus topology
Commonly referred to as a linear bus, all the devices on a bus topology are connected by one single cable called Backbone.
Systems connect to this backbone using T connectors or taps. Coaxial cablings were popular options years ago.

Ring Topology

Ring Topology
Meaning that data travels in circular fashion from one computer to another on the network. Typically FDDI, SONET or Token Ring technology are used to implement a ring network


All computers/devices connect to a central device called
hub or switch. Each device requires a single cable point-to-point connection between the device and hub. Most widely implemented

Data Transmission-Send/ Receive


International standards organizations Open Systems Interconnection Model: This model contains 7 Layers.


The model was developed by the International Standard Organisation (ISO) in 1983. This model is the fundamental building block for all Networking, Hardware, Software, Drivers, Applications and communications The upper 3 layers of the OSI model (7.Application, Application 6.Presentation and 5.SessionLayers) are orientated more Session toward services to the applications. The lower 4 layers (4.Transport, 3.Network, 2.Data link and 1.Physical Layers) are concerned with the flow of data from end to end through the network.

Application Layer (User Interface)

It is the top layer and closer to the user. The Application Layer provides user interface to the Network. Prepare (or) Turn human communication into data for transmission over the data network. Eg:- HTTP, SMTP,

OSI Model Layers 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

Presentation Layer (Translation)

All different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform format that the rest of the OSI model can understand.

OSI Model Layers 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical



-Translation, Encryption, Compression of data

This layer is mostly used in encoding and decoding information to and from the Application Layer

Session Layer "syncs and sessions"

The Session layer defines how to start, control and End conversations (called Sessions) between Applications. Responsible for name recognition (identification) so only the designated parties can participate in the session Standards to manage communication between the sending and receiving computer. The session layer offers provisions for efficient data transfer.

OSI Model Layers 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

Transport Layer
Flow control & Error-handling

Receives data from session layer and Divides them into Segments. Manages the flow control of data between parties across the network Provides error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery, with no losses or duplications Provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions; requests retransmission if some packets dont arrive error-free Provides flow control and error-handling

OSI Model Layers

7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

Network Layer Addressing, Routing

Receives Data Segments from transport layer and translates them into Packets. Responsible for IP Addressing Determining best Paths (or) routes for sending the data. Managing network problems such as packet switching, data congestion and routing It determines how packets are routed from source to destination.

OSI Model Layers

7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

Data Link Layer (Data frames to bits)

This layer takes the Packets from the Network layer and converts it into Frames. Handles data frames between the Network and Physical layers and ensures the correct delivery. Responsible for error-free transfer of frames to other computer via the Physical Layer

OSI Model Layers 7 Application 6 presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

Physical Layer Hardware, Raw bit stream

Responsible for taking the frame from the Data link layer and transmitting it on the network cabling structure. Divides the Frames into Bits. It is Closer to the Network Concerned with the transmission of bits. Coordinates functions required to transmits raw bit stream over physical medium. Defines cables, cards, and physical aspects

OSI Model Layers

7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

Networking Models
Comparing TCP/IP with OSI

Network Media Components - Cables

Coaxial Cable Twisted Pair

Thick Net

Thin Net



Fiber Optic Cable

Single Mode


Network Interface Card Communication Medium Options

Coaxial cable (thick and thinnet) Twisted-pair (shielded and unshielded) Fiber-optic Wireless (infrared, radio wave, microwave, satellite

Optical Fiber

This technology uses glass or plastic threads (Fibres) to transmit data. Infrared light is transmitted through fiber in the form of Light waves and confined due to total internal reflection. Used for high speed backbones and pipes over long distances. The Bandwidth is very high.

Network Components
Fibre Patch

network connection chord


Wireless Networking-Components

Access Point

PCI adaptor for Desktops

Wireless adaptor for Laptops

Wireless Network

A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. It sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection.