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RECTIFIER

Saturday, April 14, 2012


Dr. RS
1
Half-Wave rectifier
Block diagram of a rectifier and a dc power supply with a load.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Half-wave rectifier operation. The diode is considered to be ideal.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
The effect of the barrier potential on the half-wave
rectified output voltage is to reduce the peak value of
the input by about 0.7 V.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
V
p
0
-V
P
t 2t
V
i
(t)
t
V
D
V
p
- V
D
0 t 2t
V
o
(t)
t
Figure 23 Average value of the half-wave rectified signal.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Average value of HWR
| |

V
cos
2
V
d 0 d sin V
2
1
dt V
T
1
V
P

0
P
2
0
p
T
0
DC
=
=
(

+ =
=
} }
}
t
t
RMS Value of HWR
( )
4
V
sin
4
V
d 2 cos 1
2
1
2
V
d
2
V
d 0 d sin V
2
1
dt V
T
1
V
P

0
P
P

0
P
2
0
2
p
T
0
2
rms
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
sin
=
(

=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
(

+ =
=
} }
} }
}
t
t
t
V
DC
V
rms
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
V
p
V
O
t
The PIV occurs at the peak of each half-cycle of the input voltage
when the diode is reverse-biased. In this circuit, the PIV occurs
at the peak of each negative half-cycle.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Half-wave rectifier with transformer-coupled input voltage.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Center-tapped Full-wave Rectifier
Figure 211 Full-wave rectification.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Average Value
| |

V 2
cos

V
d sin V

1
dt V
T
1
V
P

0
P

0
p
T
0
DC
=
=
=
=
}
}
RMS Value
( )
2
V
sin
2
V
d 2 cos 1
2
1

V
d sin V

1
dt V
T
1
V
P

0
P
P

0
2
p
T
0
2
rms
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
1
=
(

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
}
}
}
t
Figure 213 A center-tapped full-wave rectifier.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Basic operation of a center-tapped full-wave rectifier. Note that the current through the
load resistor is in the same direction during the entire input cycle, so the output voltage
always has the same polarity.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Center-tapped full-wave rectifier with a transformer turns ratio of 1.
V
p(pri)
is the peak value of the primary voltage.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Center-tapped full-wave rectifier with a transformer turns ratio of 2.
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Diode reverse voltage (D
2
shown reverse-biased and D
1
shown forward-biased).
Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier
Figure 223
24
Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Figure 220 Operation of a bridge rectifier.
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Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Figure 221 Bridge operation during a positive half-cycle of the primary and secondary voltages.
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Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
V
p
0
-V
P
t 2t
V
i
(t)
t
V
p
- V
D
0
t
2t
V
o
(t)
t
27
Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Figure 222 Peak inverse voltages across diodes D
3
and D
4
in a bridge rectifier
during the positive half-cycle of the secondary voltage.
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Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Figure 224 Power supply filtering.
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Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Figure 230
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Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Figure 225 Operation of a half-wave rectifier with a capacitor-input filter. The current indicates charging or discharging of the capacitor.
31
Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Figure 226 Half-wave ripple voltage (green line).
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Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Figure 227 The frequency of a full-wave rectified voltage is twice that of a half-wave rectified voltage.
33
Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Figure 228 Comparison of ripple voltages for half-wave and full-wave rectified voltages with the same filter capacitor and load and derived from the
same sinusoidal input voltage.
34
Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012
V
r
and V
DC
determine the ripple factor.
V
p(rect)
: unfiltered peak rectified voltage
V
r(pp)
: peak to peak ripple voltage
V
DC
: average value of ripple voltage

r
hwr
=
V
r( pp)
V
DC
=
1
2 3 fR
L
C
35
Dr. RS
Saturday, April 14, 2012

r
fwr
=
V
r( pp)
V
DC
=
1
4 3 fR
L
C
Effects of RL and C
Saturday, April 14, 2012
Dr. RS
36
C=1000F C=470F
C=100F
R=1500
R=1000

R=500





(a) R
L
fixed (b) C fixed