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CHAPTER 4:

Work, Energy and Power

(3 Hours)

1

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Learning Outcome:

4.1 Work and energy (1 hour)

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

Define and use work done by a force.

W = F •s

Calculate work done from the force-displacement

graph.

Discuss the area under graph.

State and explain the relationship between work and

change in energy.

2

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

4.1 Work and energy

4.1.1 Work, W

Work done by a constant force

is defined as the product of the component of the force

parallel to the displacement times the displacement of a

body.

body

OR

is defined as the scalar (dot) product between force and

displacement of a body.

body

Equation :

W = F •s

W = ( F cos θ ) s = Fs cos θ

where F : magnitude of force

s : displacement of the body

θ : the angle between F and s

3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

It is a scalar quantity.

Dimension :

[W ] = [ F ][ s ]

[W ] = ML2T −2

The S.I. unit of work is kg m2 s− 2 or joule (J).

(J)

The joule (1 J) is defined as the work done by a force of 1 N

which results in a displacement of 1 m in the direction of

the force.

force 2 −2

1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m s

Work done by a variable force

Figure 4.1 shows a force, F whose magnitude changes with the

displacement, s.

For a small displacement, ∆s1 the force remains almost

constant at F1 and work done therefore becomes ∆W1=F1 ∆s1 .

4

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

F/N

FN

F4

F1

∆W1

0 s1∆s ∆s4

s

∆sN 2 s

Figure 4.1 1

displacement changes from s=s1 to s=s2, we can divide the

displacement into N small successive displacements :

∆s1 , ∆s2 , ∆s3 , …, ∆sN

Thus W = F1∆s1 + F2 ∆s2 + ... + FN ∆s N 5

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

When N → ∞, ∆s → 0, therefore

s2

W = ∫ Fds

s1

F/N

Work = Area

0 s1 s2 s/m 6

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

4.1.2 Applications of work’s equation

Case 1 :

Work done by a horizontal force, F on an object (Figure 4.2).

F W = Fs cos θ and θ =0

W = Fs

Figure 4.2

s

Case 2 :

Work done by a vertical force, F on an object (Figure 4.3).

F

W = Fs cos θ and θ = 90

W = 0 J

Figure 4.3

s

7

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Case 3 :

Work done by a horizontal

1 1

F2

W2 = F2 s cos 0

s

∑W = W + W2 = ( F1 s + F2 s )

Figure 4.4

1

∑ W =( F 1 + F2 ) s and Fnett = F1 + F2

∑W = W nett = ( Fnett )s

Case 4 :

Work done by a force, F and frictional

force, f on an object

(Figure 4.5). F

θ

f

Figure 4.5 s

Wnett = ( Fnett ) s and Fnett = F cos θ − f = ma

Wnett = ( F cos θ − f ) s OR Wnett = mas 8

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Caution :

Work done on an object is zero when F = 0 or s = 0 and

θ = 90° .

9

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Sign for work.

W = Fs cos θ

If 0°<θ <90° (acute angle)

angle then cosθ > 0 (positive value)

therefore

W > 0 (positive) ⇒ work done on the system ( by

the external force) where energy

is transferred to the system.

If 90°<θ <180° (obtuse angle)

angle then cosθ <0 (negative

value) therefore

W < 0 (negative) ⇒ work done by the system

where energy is transferred

from the system.

10

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 1 :

You push your physics reference book 1.50 m along a horizontal

table with a horizontal force of 5.00 N. The frictional force is 1.60

N. Calculate

a. the work done by the 5.00 N force,

b. the work done by the frictional force,

c. the total work done on the book.

Solution : F = 5.00 N

f = 1.60 N

s = 1.50 m

a. Use work’s equation of constant force,

WF = Fs cosθ and θ = 0

WF = ( 5.00 )(1.50 ) cos 0

WF = 7.50 J 11

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution :

b. W f = fs cos θ and θ = 180

W f = (1.60)(1.50) cos180

W f = −2.40 J

c. ∑W = W + W F f

∑W = 7.50 + ( − 2.40)

∑W = 5.10 J

OR

∑W = F nett s

∑W = ( F − f ) s ∑W = ( 5.00 − 1.60)(1.50)

∑W = 5.10 J 12

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 2 :

A box of mass 20 kg moves up a rough plane which is inclined to

the horizontal at 25.0°. It is pulled by a horizontal force F of

magnitude 250 N. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the

box and the plane is 0.300.

a. If the box travels 3.80 m along the plane, determine

i. the work done on the box by the force F,

ii. the work done on the box by the gravitational force,

iii. the work done on the box by the reaction force,

iv. the work done on the box by the frictional force,

v. the total work done on the box.

b. If the speed of the box is zero at the bottom of the plane,

calculate its speed when it is travelled 3.80 m.

(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)

13

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution : m = 20 kg; F = 250 N; μk = 0.300; s = 3.80 m

a

N Fx

25

Fy F s

y mg sin 25

x fk 25

25 mg

cos 25

W = mg

a. Consider the work done along inclined plane, thus

i. W F = Fx s cos θ and θ = 0

( )

WF = 250 cos 25 ( 3.80 ) cos 0

WF = 861 J 14

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution :

a. ii. Wg ( )

= mg sin 25 s cos θ and θ = 180

( )

Wg = ( 20 )( 9.81) sin 25 ( 3.80 ) cos180

Wg = −315 J

iii. WN = Ns cos θ and θ = 90

WN = 0 J

Wf = ( μk N ) s cos180

Wf (

= − μk F sin 25 + mg cos 25 s )

Wf ( )

= −( 0.300) 250 sin 25 + ( 20)( 9.81) cos 25 ( 3.80)

W f = −323 J

15

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution :

a. v.∑ =W +W +W +W

W F g N f

∑W = 223 J

b. Given u = 0

By using equation of work for nett force,

∑W = mas

223 = ( 20 ) a( 3.80)

a = 2.93 m s −2

Hence by using the equation of linear motion,

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

v 2 = 0 + 2( 2.93)( 3.80)

v = 4.72 m s −1 16

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 3 :

F (N)

0 3 5 6 7 s (m)

−4

Figure 4.6

A horizontal force F is applied to a 2.0 kg radio-controlled car as it

moves along a straight track. The force varies with the

displacement of the car as shown in figure 4.6. Calculate the work

done by the force F when the car moves from 0 to 7 m.

Solution :

W = area under the F − s graph

1 1

W = ( 6 + ( 5 − 3) ) 5 + ( 7 − 6)( − 4)

2 2

W = 18 J 17

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.1 :

1. A block of mass 2.50 kg is pushed 2.20 m along a frictionless

horizontal table by a constant 16.0 N force directed 25.0° below

the horizontal. Determine the work done on the block by

a. the applied force,

b. the normal force exerted by the table, and

c. the gravitational force.

d. Determine the total work on the block.

(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)

ANS. : 31.9 J; (b) & (c) U think; 31.9 J

2. A trolley is rolling across a parking lot of a supermarket. You

apply a constant force

(

F = 30 )

î − 40ĵ N

to the trolley as it

undergoes a displacement

( ). Calculate

s = − 9.0î − 3.0ĵ m

a. the work done on the trolley by the force F,

b. the angle between the force and the displacement of the

trolley.

ANS. : − 150 J; 108° 18

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.1 : y

3.

F3

35

F1 x

50

F2

Figure 4.7

Figure 4.7 shows an overhead view of three horizontal forces

acting on a cargo that was initially stationary but that now

moves across a frictionless floor. The force magnitudes are

F1 = 3.00 N, F2 = 4.00 N and F3 = 10.0 N. Determine the total

work done on the cargo by the three forces during the first

4.00 m of displacement.

ANS. : 15.3 J

19

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

4.1.3 Energy

is defined as the system’s ability to do work.

work

The S.I. unit for energy is same to the unit of work (joule, J).

J

The dimension of energy ,

[ Energy ] = [Work ] = ML2T −2

is a scalar quantity.

quantity

Table 4.1 summarises some common types of energy.

Forms of

Description

Energy

Energy released when chemical bonds between atoms

Chemical

and molecules are broken.

Electrical Energy that is associated with the flow of electrical charge.

a temperature difference.

Total of kinetic and potential energy of atoms or molecules

Internal

within a body. 20

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Forms of

Description

Energy

Nuclear Energy released by the splitting of heavy nuclei.

Energy released when there is a loss of small amount

of mass in a nuclear process. The amount of energy

Mass

can be calculated from Einstein’s mass-energy

equation, E = mc2

Radiant Heat Energy associated with infra-red radiation.

Energy transmitted through the propagation of a series

Sound

of compression and rarefaction in solid, liquid or gas.

Mechanical

a. Kinetic Energy associated with the motion of a body.

b. Gravitational Energy associated with the position of a body in a

potential gravitational field.

c. Elastic Energy stored in a compressed or stretched spring.

potential

Table 4.1 21

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Learning Outcome:

4.2 Conservation of energy (1 hour)

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

Define and use kinetic energy,

1 2

K = mv

2

Define and use potential energy:

i. gravitational potential energy,

U = mgh

ii. elastic potential energy for spring,

1 2

U = kx

2

State and use the principle of conservation of energy.

Explain the work-energy theorem and use the related

equation.

22

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

4.2 Conservation of energy

4.2.1 Kinetic energy, K

is defined as the energy of a body due to its motion.

motion

Equation :

1 where K : kinetic energy of a body

K= mv 2 m : mass of a body

2 v : speed of a body

Consider a block with mass, m moving along the horizontal

surface (frictionless) under the action of a constant nett force,

s in figure 4.8.

Fnett undergoes a displacement,

Fnett m

Figure 4.8 s

∑F = F nett = ma (1) 23

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

By using an equation of linear motion:

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

v2 − u 2

a= (2)

2s

By substituting equation (2) into (1), we arrive

v2 − u 2

Fnett = m

2s

1 2 1

Fnett s = mv − mu 2 = K f − K i

2 2

Therefore Wnett = ∆K

states “the work done by the nett force on a body equals the

change in the body’s kinetic energy”.

energy

24

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 4 :

A stationary object of mass 3.0 kg is pulled upwards by a constant

force of magnitude 50 N. Determine the speed of the object when it

is travelled upwards through 4.0 m.

(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)

Solution : m = 3.0 kg ; F = 50 N; s = 4.0 m; u = 0

F The nett force acting on the object is given by

Fnett = F − mg = 50 − ( 3.0 )( 9.81)

Fnett = 20.6 N

By applying the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus

mg Wnett = K f − K i

1 2

Fnett s = mv − 0

s F 2

1

( 20.6)( 4.0) = ( 3.0) v 2

2

mg v = 7.41 m s −1 25

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 5 :

A block of mass 2.00 kg slides 0.750 m down an inclined plane

that slopes downward at an angle of 36.9 ° below the horizontal. If

the block starts from rest, calculate its final speed. You can ignore

the friction. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2)

Solution : m = 2.00 kg ; s = 0.750 m; u = 0

N

a

mg sin 36.9 y

mg cos 36.9

36.9

mg x

s

36.9

26

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution : m = 2.00 kg ; s = 0.750 m; u = 0

Since the motion of the block along the incline surface thus nett

force is given by

Fnett = mg sin 36.9

Fnett = ( 2.00)( 9.81) sin 36.9

Fnett = 11.8 N

By using the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus

Wnett = K f − K i

1 2

Fnett s = mv − 0

2

1

(11.8)( 0.750) = ( 2.00) v 2

2

v = 2.98 m s −1

27

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 6 :

F (N)

10

0 6 7

4 10 s (m)

−5

Figure 4.9

An object of mass 2.0 kg moves along the x-axis and is acted on

by a force F. Figure 4.9 shows how F varies with distance

travelled, s. The speed of the object at s = 0 is 10 m s−1.

Determine

a. the speed of the object at s = 10 m,

b. the kinetic energy of the object at s = 6.0 m.

28

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

−1

Solution : m = 2.0 kg; u = 10 m s

a. W = area under the F − s graph from 0 m to 10 m

1 1

W = ( 6 + 4)10 + ( (10 − 6 ) + (10 − 7 ) )( − 5)

2 2

W = 32.5 J

By using the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus

W = K f − Ki

1 2 1

W = mv − mu 2

2 2

1 1

( ) 2

32.5 = 2.0 v − 2.0 10( )( ) 2

2 2

v = 11.5 m s −1

29

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution :

b. W = area under the F − s graph from 0 m to 6 m

1

W = ( 6 + 4 )10

2

W = 50 J

By using the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus

W = K f − Ki

1

W = K f − mu 2

2

1

( )(

50 = K f − 2.0 10 ) 2

2

K f = 150 J

30

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.2.1 :

Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s−2

1. A bullet of mass 15 g moves horizontally at velocity of

250 m s−1.It strikes a wooden block of mass 400 g placed at rest

on a floor. After striking the block, the bullet is embedded in the

block. The block then moves through 15 m and stops. Calculate

the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the floor.

ANS. : 0.278

2. A parcel is launched at an initial speed of 3.0 m s−1 up a rough

plane inclined at an angle of 35° above the horizontal. The

coefficient of kinetic friction between the parcel and the plane is

0.30. Determine

a. the maximum distance travelled by the parcel up the plane,

b. the speed of the parcel when it slides back to the starting

point.

ANS. : 0.560 m; 1.90 m s− 1

31

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

4.2.2 Potential Energy

is defined as the energy stored in a body or system because

of its position, shape and state.

state

Gravitational potential energy, U

is defined as the energy stored in a body or system because

of its position.

position

Equation :

U = mgh

where U : gravitational potential energy

m : mass of a body

g : acceleration due to gravity

h : height of a body from the initial position

The gravitational potential energy depends only on the height

of the object above the surface of the Earth.

Earth

32

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Work-gravitational potential energy theorem

Consider a book with mass, m is dropped from height, h1 to

height, h2 as shown in the figure 4.10.

The work done by the gravitational force

(weight) is

Wg = mgs = mg ( h1 − h2 )

s mg

h1 Wg = mgh1 − mgh2 = U i − U f

mg

Wg = −(U f − U i ) = −∆U

h2

Therefore in general,

Figure 4.10

W = −∆U

states “ the change in gravitational potential energy as

the negative of the work done by the gravitational force”.

force

33

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Negative sign in the equation indicates that

down h decreases, the

When the body moves down,

gravitational force does positive work because ∆U <0.

When the body moves up, up h increases, the work done

by gravitational force is negative because ∆U >0.

For calculation, use

W = ∆U = U f − U i

where

U f : final gravitational potential energy

U i : initial gravitational potential energy

W : work done by a gravitational force

34

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 7 :

F

20.0 m

Figure 4.11

In a smooth pulley system, a force F is required to bring an

object of mass 5.00 kg to the height of 20.0 m at a constant

speed of 3.00 m s−1 as shown in figure 4.11. Determine

a. the force, F

b. the work done by the force, F.

(Given g = 9.81 m s-2)

35

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

−1

Solution : m = 5.00 kg; s = h = 20.0 m; v = constant = 3.00 m s

a. Since the object moves at the constant

F speed, thus

Fnett = 0

F = mg

F = ( 5.00)( 9.81)

mg F = 49.1 N

F b. From the equation of work,

s

Constant W = Fs cos θ and θ = 0

speed

W = ( 49.1)( 20.0)

W = 982 J

mg OR

W = Fs cos θ and θ = 0

W = U = mgh

W = 982 J

36

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Elastic potential energy, Us

is defined as the energy stored in in elastic materials as the

result of their stretching or compressing.

compressing

Springs are a special instance of device which can store

elastic potential energy due to its compression or

stretching.

stretching

Hooke’s Law states “the restoring force, Fs of spring is

directly proportional to the amount of stretch or

compression (extension or elongation), x if the limit of

proportionality is not exceeded”

exceeded

OR Fs ∝ − x

Fs = −kx

where

Fs : the restoring force of spring

k : the spring constant or force constant

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Negative sign in the equation indicates that the direction of Fs

is always opposite to the direction of the amount of stretch or

compression (extension), x.

Case 1:

The spring is hung vertically and its is stretched by a suspended

object with mass, m as shown in figure 4.12.

Figure 4.12

Initial position

Fs

x

Final position

The spring is in equilibrium, thus

Fs = W = mg

W = mg

38

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Case 2:

The spring is attached to an object and it is stretched and

F as shown in figure 4.13.

compressed by a force,

Fs is negative Fs

x is positive F

The spring is in equilibrium,

x hence

x=0

Fs = F

Fs = 0

x=0

(Equilibrium position)

x =0

F Fs Fs is positive

x is negative

x

Figure 4.13 39

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Caution:

For calculation,

calculation use : Fs = kx = F where F : applied force

Dimension of spring constant, k :

[ Fs ]

[ k ] = = MT −2

[ x]

The unit of k is kg s− 2 or N m− 1

From the Hooke’s law (without “− ” sign),

against extension of the spring, x graph is shown in figure 4.14.

Fs

F W = area under the Fs − x graph

1 1

W = Fx1 W = ( kx1 ) x1

2 2

1 2

W = kx1 = U s

2

0 x1 x

Figure 4.14 40

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

The equation of elastic potential energy, Us for compressing or

stretching a spring is

1 2 1

U s = kx = Fs x

2 2

The work-elastic potential energy theorem,

theorem

1 2 1 2

W = ∆U s OR W = U sf − U si = kx f − kxi

2 2

Notes :

Work-energy theorem states the work done by the nett

force on a body equals the change in the body’s total

energy”

energy

OR

Wnett = ∆E = ∑E −∑E f i

41

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 8 :

A force of magnitude 800 N caused an extension of 20 cm on a

spring. Determine the elastic potential energy of the spring when

a. the extension of the spring is 30 cm.

b. a mass of 60 kg is suspended vertically from the spring.

(Given g = 9.81 m s-2)

Solution : F = 800 N; x = 0.200 m

From the Hooke’s law,

Fs = F = kx

800 = k ( 0.20)

k = 4 × 103 N m −1

a. Given x=0.300 m, 1

U s = kx 2

2

1

( )

U s = 4 × 103 ( 0.300)

2

2

U s = 180 J

42

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution :

b. Given m=60 kg. When the spring in

equilibrium, thus

Fnett = 0

Fs = mg

Fs kx = mg

x ( )

4 × 103 x = ( 60)( 9.81)

x = 0.147 m

Therefore 1 2

U s = kx

2

W = mg

1

( )

U s = 4 × 103 ( 0.147 )

2

2

U s = 43.2 J

43

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

4.2.3 Principle of conservation of energy

states “in an isolated (closed) system, the total energy of

that system is constant”.

constant

According to the principle of conservation of energy, we get

The initial of total energy = the final of total energy

OR

∑E = ∑E

i f

In an isolated system, the mechanical energy of a system is the

objects are constant.

E = K + U = constant

OR

Ki + U i = K f + U f

44

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 9 :

A 1.5 kg sphere is dropped from a height of

30 cm onto a spring of spring constant,

k = 2000 N m−1 . After the block hits the

spring, the spring experiences maximum

compression, x as shown in figure 4.15. 30 cm

a. Describe the energy conversion

occurred after the sphere is

dropped onto the spring until the x

spring experiences maximum

compression, x.

b. Calculate the speed of the sphere just

before strikes the spring. Before After

c. Determine the maximum compression, x. Figure 4.15

(Given g = 9.81 m s-2)

45

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution :

a.

h = 30 cm

h0 v

x

h1

h2

(1) (2) (3)

The spring is not stretched The spring is not stretched The sphere is at height h2

hence Us = 0. The sphere is hence Us = 0. The sphere is above the ground after

at height h0 above ground at height h1 above ground compressing the spring by x.

The speed of the sphere at

therefore U = mgh0 and it is with speed, v just before

this moment is zero. Hence

stationary hence K = 0. strikes the spring. Therefore 1 2

∑E 1 = mgh0

∑ E2 = mgh1 +

1

2

mv 2 ∑E 3 = mgh2 +

2

kx

46

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

−1

Solution : m = 1.5 kg; h = 0.30 m; k = 2000 N m

b. Applying the principle of conservation of energy involving the

situation (1) and (2),

∑E = ∑E 1 2

1 2

mgh0 = mgh1 + mv

2

and h = ( h0 − h1 )

1

mg ( h − h ) = mv

0 1

2

2

v = 2 gh

v = 2( 9.81)( 0.30)

v = 2.43 m s −1

47

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

−1

Solution : m = 1.5 kg; h = 0.30 m; k = 2000 N m

c. Applying the principle of conservation of energy involving the

situation (2) and (3),

∑E = ∑E

2 3

1 2 1 2

mgh1 + mv = mgh2 + kx

2 2

and x = ( h1 − h2 )

1 1

mg ( h − h ) + mv = kx

1 2

2 2

2 2

1 1

(1.5)( 9.81) x + (1.5)( 2.43) = ( 2000) x 2

2

2 2

1000 x 2 − 14.7 x − 4.43 = 0

x = 7.43 × 10 −2 m

48

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 10 :

m1 + m2

m1 u1

m2 h

Figure 4.16

A bullet of mass, m1=5.00 g is fired into a wooden block of mass,

m2=1.00 kg suspended from some light wires as shown in figure

4.16. The block, initially at rest. The bullet embeds in the block,

and together swing through a height, h=5.50 cm. Calculate

a. the initial speed of the bullet.

b. the amount of energy lost to the surrounding.

(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)

49

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution : m1 = 5.00 × 10 −3 kg; m2 = 1.00 kg; h = 5.50 × 10 −2 m

a.

v12 = 0

u2 = 0 m1 + m2

u1 u12

m1 m2 h

m1 + m2

(1) (2) (3)

Applying the principle of conservation of energy involving the

∑

situation (2) and (3), E2 = ∑E3

K =U

1

( m1 + m2 )( u12 ) = ( m1 + m2 ) gh

2

2

(

u12 = 2 gh = 2( 9.81) 5.50 × 10 − 2 )

u12 = 1.04 m s −1 50

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution : m1 = 5.00 × 10 −3 kg; m2 = 1.00 kg; h = 5.50 × 10 −2 m

Applying the principle of conservation of linear momentum

involving the situation (1) and (2),

∑ p1 = ∑ p2

m1u1 = ( m1 + m2 ) u12

(5.00 × 10 )u = (5.00 × 10

−3

1

−3

)

+ 1.00 (1.04)

u1 = 209 m s −1

b. The energy lost to the surrounding, Q is given by

Q= ∑E −∑E1 2

1 1

Q = m1 u1 − ( m1 + m 2 )( u12 )

2 2

2 2

1

( ) 1

(

Q = 5.00 × 10 ( 209) − 5.00 × 10 −3 + 1.00 (1.04)

2

−3 2

2

2

)

Q = 109 J

51

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 11 :

Smooth

pulley

2m

P

Figure 4.17

Objects P and Q of masses 2.0 kg and 4.0 kg respectively are

connected by a light string and suspended as shown in figure 4.17.

Object Q is released from rest. Calculate the speed of Q at the

instant just before it strikes the floor.

(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)

52

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution : mP = 2.0 kg; mQ = 4.0 kg; h = 2 m; u = 0

Smooth Smooth

pulley pulley

Q v P

2m 2m Q

P v

Initial Final

Applying the principle of conservation of mechanical energy,

∑E = ∑E

i f U Q = U P + KP + KQ

1 1

mQ gh = mP gh + mP v + mQ v 2

2

2 2

1 1

( 4.0)( 9.81)( 2) = ( 2.0)( 9.81)( 2) + ( 2.0) v + ( 4.0) v 2

2

−1 2 2

v = 3.62 m s 53

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.2.2 :

Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s−2

1. If it takes 4.00 J of work to stretch a spring 10.0 cm from its

initial length, determine the extra work required to stretch it an

additional 10.0 cm.

ANS. : 12.0 J

2. A book of mass 0.250 kg is placed on top of a light vertical

spring of force constant 5000 N m−1 that is compressed by 10.0

cm. If the spring is released, calculate the height of the book

rise from its initial position.

ANS. : 10.2 m

3. A 60 kg bungee jumper jumps from a bridge. She is tied to a

bungee cord that is 12 m long when unstretched and falls a total

distance of 31 m. Calculate

a. the spring constant of the bungee cord.

b. the maximum acceleration experienced by the jumper.

ANS. : 100 N m− 1; 22 m s− 2

54

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.2.2 :

4.

Figure 4.18

A 2.00 kg block is pushed against a light spring of the force

constant, k = 400 N m-1, compressing it x =0.220 m. When the

block is released, it moves along a frictionless horizontal

surface and then up a frictionless incline plane with slope θ

=37.0° as shown in figure 4.18. Calculate

a. the speed of the block as it slides along the horizontal

surface after leaves the spring.

b. the distance travelled by the block up the incline plane before

it slides back down.

ANS. : 3.11 m s− 1; 0.81 m

55

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.2.2 : C

5. u

A

10 m

B D

Figure 4.19

A ball of mass 0.50 kg is at point A with initial speed, u =4 m s−1

at a height of 10 m as shown in figure 4.19 (Ignore the frictional

force). Determine

a. the total energy at point A,

b. the speed of the ball at point B where the height is 3 m,

c. the speed of the ball at point D,

d. the maximum height of point C so that the ball can pass over

it.

ANS. : 53.1 J; 12.4 m s− 1; 14.6 m s− 1; 10.8 m

56

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Learning Outcome:

4.3 Power and mechanical efficiency (1 hour)

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

Define and use power:

Average power, P = ∆W

av

∆t

Instantaneous Power, dW

P=

dt

Derive and apply the formulae P = F •v

Define and use mechanical efficiency,

Poutput

η= × 100%

Pinput

and the consequences of heat dissipation.

57

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

4.3 Power and mechanical efficiency

4.3.1 Power, P

is defined as the rate at which work is done.

done

OR the rate at which energy is transferred.

transferred

If an amount of work, W is done in an amount of time ∆t by a

power Pav due to force during that time

force, the average power,

interval is

∆W ∆E

Pav = =

∆t ∆t

power P is defined as the instantaneous

The instantaneous power,

rate of doing work,

work which can be write as

∆W dW

P = limit =

∆t →0 ∆t dt

58

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

is a scalar quantity.

The dimension of the power is

[ P] = [ ∆W ] ML2T −2

= = ML2T −3

[ ∆t ] T

The S.I. unit of the power is kg m2 s− 3 or J s− 1 or watt (W).

(W)

Unit conversion of watt (W), horsepower (hp) and foot pounds

per second (ft. lb s− 1)

Consider an object that is moving at a constant velocity v along

a frictionless horizontal surface and is acted by a constant force,

F directed at angle θ above the horizontal as shown in figure

4.20. The object undergoes a displacement

of ds.

F

θ

Figure 4.20

ds 59

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Therefore the instantaneous power, P is given by

dW

P= and dW = ( F cos θ ) ds

dt

P=

( F cos θ ) ds

and v =

ds

dt dt

P = Fv cos θ

OR

P = F •v

where F : magnitude of force

v : magnitude of velocity

θ : the angle between F and v

60

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 12 :

An elevator has a mass of 1.5 Mg and is carrying 15 passengers

through a height of 20 m from the ground. If the time taken to lift

the elevator to that height is 55 s. Calculate the average power

required by the motor if no energy is lost. (Use g = 9.81 m s−2 and

the average mass per passenger is 55 kg)

Solution : h = 20 m; Δt = 55 s

M = mass of the elevator + mass of the 15 passengers

M = 1500 + (55×15) = 2325 kg

According to the definition of average power,

∆E Mgh

Pav = Pav =

∆t ∆t

Pav =

( 2325)( 9.81)( 20)

55

Pav = 8294 W

61

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Example 13 :

An object of mass 2.0 kg moves at a constant speed of 5.0 m s−1

up a plane inclined at 30° to the horizontal. The constant frictional

force acting on the object is 4.0 N. Determine

a. the rate of work done against the gravitational force,

b. the rate of work done against the frictional force,

c. the power supplied to the object. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2 )

−1

Solution : m = 2.0 kg; v = 5.0 m s = constant; f = 4.0 N

v

N

s

y mg sin30

x f 30

30 mg cos 30

W = mg 62

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

−1

Solution : m = 2.0 kg; v = 5.0 m s = constant; f = 4.0 N

a. the rate of work done against the gravitational force is given by

∆Wg

=

( mg sin 30 ) s cos θ

and θ = 180

∆t t

∆Wg

∆t

(

= − mg sin 30

s

t

and v) =

s

t

∆Wg

∆t

(

= − mg sin 30 v )

∆Wg ∆Wg

∆t

(

= − ( 2.0 )( 9.81) sin 30 ( 5.0) ) ∆t

= −49.1 W

∆Wg

OR = Fg v cos θ

∆t

∆Wg ∆Wg

∆t

(

= mg sin 30 v cos180 ) ∆t

= −49.1 W

63

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

−1

Solution : m = 2.0 kg; v = 5.0 m s = constant; f = 4.0 N

b. The rate of work done against the frictional force is

∆W f

= fv cos θ and θ = 180

∆t

∆W f

= ( 4.0 )( 5.0) cos180

∆t

∆W f

= −20.0 W

∆t

c. The power supplied to the object, Psupplied

= the power lost against gravitational and frictional forces, Plost

∆Wg ∆W f

Psupplied = +

∆t ∆t

Psupplied = 49.1 + 20.0

Psupplied = 69.1 W 64

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

4.3.2 Mechanical efficiency, η

Efficiency is a measure of the performance of a machines,

engine and etc...

The efficiency of a machine is defined as the ratio of the

useful (output) work done to the energy input.

input

is a dimensionless quantity (no unit).

Equations:

Wout

η= × 100%

Ein

OR

Pout

η= × 100%

Pin

where Pout : power produced by the system

Pin : power supplied to a system

65

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Notes :

In practice, Pout< Pin hence η < 100%.

100%

The system loses energy to its surrounding because it may

have encountered resistances such as surface friction or

air resistance.

The energy which is dissipated to the surroundings, may

be in the form of heat or sound.

sound

Example 14 :

A 1.0 kW motor is used to lift an object of mass 10 kg vertically

upwards at a constant speed. The efficiency of the motor is 75 %.

Determine

a. the rate of heat dissipated to the surrounding.

b. the vertical distance travelled by the object in 5.0 s.

(Given g = 9.81 m s−2 )

66

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Solution : m = 10.0 kg; η = 75%; Pin = 1000 W

a. The output power of the motor is given by

Pout

η= × 100%

Pin

Pout

75 = × 100 Pout = 750 W

1000

Therefore the rate of heat dissipated to the surrounding is

Rate of heat dissipated = Pin − Pout = 1000 − 750

Rate of heat dissipated = 250 W

b. Pout = Fv cos θ where θ = 0 and F = mg

Pout = mgv cos 0 750 = (10.0)( 9.81) v

v = 7.65 m s −1

Since the speed is constant hence the vertical distance in 5.0 s

h h

v= 7.65 =

is t 5.0

d = 38.3 m 67

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.3 :

Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s−2

1. A person of mass 50 kg runs 200 m up a straight road inclined

at an angle of 20° in 50 s. Neglect friction and air resistance.

Determine

a. the work done,

b. the average power of the person.

ANS. : 3.36× 104 J; 672 W

2. Electrical power of 2.0 kW is delivered to a motor, which has an

efficiency of 85 %. The motor is used to lift a block of mass

80 kg. Calculate

a. the power produced by the motor.

b. the constant speed at which the block being lifted vertically

upwards by the force produced by the motor.

(neglect air resistance)

ANS. : 1.7 kW; 2.17 m s− 1

68

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.3 :

3.

10 1

Figure 4.21

A car of mass 1500 kg moves at a constant speed v up a road

with an inclination of 1 in 10 as shown in figure 4.21. All

resistances against the motion of the car can be neglected. If

the engine car supplies a power of 12.5 kW, calculate the

speed v.

ANS. : 8.50 m s− 1

69

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

THE END…

Next Chapter…

CHAPTER 5 :

Static

70

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