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# PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

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CHAPTER 4:
Work, Energy and Power
(3 Hours)

1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Learning Outcome:
4.1 Work and energy (1 hour)
www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

## At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

 Define and use work done by a force.
 
W = F •s
 Calculate work done from the force-displacement
graph.
 Discuss the area under graph.
 State and explain the relationship between work and
change in energy.

2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4.1 Work and energy
4.1.1 Work, W
Work done by a constant force
 is defined as the product of the component of the force
parallel to the displacement times the displacement of a
body.
body
OR
is defined as the scalar (dot) product between force and
displacement of a body.
body 
 Equation :
W = F •s
W = ( F cos θ ) s = Fs cos θ
where F : magnitude of force
s : displacement of the body
 
θ : the angle between F and s
3
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 It is a scalar quantity.
 Dimension :
[W ] = [ F ][ s ]
[W ] = ML2T −2
 The S.I. unit of work is kg m2 s− 2 or joule (J).
(J)
 The joule (1 J) is defined as the work done by a force of 1 N
which results in a displacement of 1 m in the direction of
the force.
force 2 −2
1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m s
Work done by a variable force
 Figure 4.1 shows a force, F whose magnitude changes with the
displacement, s.
 For a small displacement, ∆s1 the force remains almost
constant at F1 and work done therefore becomes ∆W1=F1 ∆s1 .

4
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
F/N

FN

F4
F1
∆W1
0 s1∆s ∆s4
s
∆sN 2 s
Figure 4.1 1

##  To find the total work done by a variable force, W when the

displacement changes from s=s1 to s=s2, we can divide the
displacement into N small successive displacements :
∆s1 , ∆s2 , ∆s3 , …, ∆sN
Thus W = F1∆s1 + F2 ∆s2 + ... + FN ∆s N 5
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 When N → ∞, ∆s → 0, therefore
s2
W = ∫ Fds
s1

## W = the area under the force - displacement graph

F/N

Work = Area

0 s1 s2 s/m 6
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4.1.2 Applications of work’s equation
Case 1 :
 Work done by a horizontal force, F on an object (Figure 4.2).

F W = Fs cos θ and θ =0 

 W = Fs
Figure 4.2
s
Case 2 :
 Work done by a vertical force, F on an object (Figure 4.3).

F
W = Fs cos θ and θ = 90
W = 0 J
Figure 4.3
s
7
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Case 3 :

##  forces, F1 and F2 on an object

Work done by a horizontal

## (Figure 4.4). F1  W = F s cos 0

1 1
F2
 W2 = F2 s cos 0 

s
∑W = W + W2 = ( F1 s + F2 s )
Figure 4.4
1

∑ W =( F 1 + F2 ) s and Fnett = F1 + F2

∑W = W nett = ( Fnett )s
Case 4 :
 Work done by a force, F and frictional
 force, f on an object
(Figure 4.5). F
 θ
f 
Figure 4.5 s
Wnett = ( Fnett ) s and Fnett = F cos θ − f = ma
Wnett = ( F cos θ − f ) s OR Wnett = mas 8
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 Caution :
 Work done on an object is zero when F = 0 or s = 0 and
θ = 90° .

9
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 Sign for work.
W = Fs cos θ
 If 0°<θ <90° (acute angle)
angle then cosθ > 0 (positive value)
therefore
W > 0 (positive) ⇒ work done on the system ( by
the external force) where energy
is transferred to the system.
 If 90°<θ <180° (obtuse angle)
angle then cosθ <0 (negative
value) therefore
W < 0 (negative) ⇒ work done by the system
where energy is transferred
from the system.

10
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 1 :
You push your physics reference book 1.50 m along a horizontal
table with a horizontal force of 5.00 N. The frictional force is 1.60
N. Calculate
a. the work done by the 5.00 N force,
b. the work done by the frictional force,
c. the total work done on the book.
Solution : F = 5.00 N
f = 1.60 N
s = 1.50 m
a. Use work’s equation of constant force,
WF = Fs cosθ and θ = 0
WF = ( 5.00 )(1.50 ) cos 0
WF = 7.50 J 11
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution :
b. W f = fs cos θ and θ = 180
W f = (1.60)(1.50) cos180 

W f = −2.40 J
c. ∑W = W + W F f

∑W = 7.50 + ( − 2.40)
∑W = 5.10 J
OR

∑W = F nett s
∑W = ( F − f ) s ∑W = ( 5.00 − 1.60)(1.50)
∑W = 5.10 J 12
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 2 :
A box of mass 20 kg moves up a rough plane which is inclined to
the horizontal at 25.0°. It is pulled by a horizontal force F of
magnitude 250 N. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the
box and the plane is 0.300.
a. If the box travels 3.80 m along the plane, determine
i. the work done on the box by the force F,
ii. the work done on the box by the gravitational force,
iii. the work done on the box by the reaction force,
iv. the work done on the box by the frictional force,
v. the total work done on the box.
b. If the speed of the box is zero at the bottom of the plane,
calculate its speed when it is travelled 3.80 m.
(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)

13
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution : m = 20 kg; F = 250 N; μk = 0.300; s = 3.80 m

a

N Fx
25  
Fy F s

y mg sin 25
x fk 25 
25  mg
 cos 25

W = mg
a. Consider the work done along inclined plane, thus
i. W F = Fx s cos θ and θ = 0 

( )
WF = 250 cos 25 ( 3.80 ) cos 0
WF = 861 J 14
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution :
a. ii. Wg ( )
= mg sin 25 s cos θ and θ = 180
( )
Wg = ( 20 )( 9.81) sin 25 ( 3.80 ) cos180
Wg = −315 J
iii. WN = Ns cos θ and θ = 90
WN = 0 J

## iv. Wf = f k s cos θ and θ = 180

Wf = ( μk N ) s cos180
Wf (
= − μk F sin 25 + mg cos 25 s )
Wf ( )
= −( 0.300) 250 sin 25 + ( 20)( 9.81) cos 25 ( 3.80)
W f = −323 J

15
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution :
a. v.∑ =W +W +W +W
W F g N f

## ∑W = 861 + ( − 315) + 0 + ( − 323)

∑W = 223 J
b. Given u = 0
By using equation of work for nett force,

∑W = mas
223 = ( 20 ) a( 3.80)
a = 2.93 m s −2
Hence by using the equation of linear motion,
v 2 = u 2 + 2as
v 2 = 0 + 2( 2.93)( 3.80)
v = 4.72 m s −1 16
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 3 :
F (N)

0 3 5 6 7 s (m)
−4
Figure 4.6
A horizontal force F is applied to a 2.0 kg radio-controlled car as it
moves along a straight track. The force varies with the
displacement of the car as shown in figure 4.6. Calculate the work
done by the force F when the car moves from 0 to 7 m.
Solution :
W = area under the F − s graph
1 1
W = ( 6 + ( 5 − 3) ) 5 + ( 7 − 6)( − 4)
2 2
W = 18 J 17
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Exercise 4.1 :
1. A block of mass 2.50 kg is pushed 2.20 m along a frictionless
horizontal table by a constant 16.0 N force directed 25.0° below
the horizontal. Determine the work done on the block by
a. the applied force,
b. the normal force exerted by the table, and
c. the gravitational force.
d. Determine the total work on the block.
(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)
ANS. : 31.9 J; (b) & (c) U think; 31.9 J
2. A trolley is rolling across a parking lot of a supermarket. You
apply a constant force 
(
F = 30 )
 î − 40ĵ N
to the trolley as it
undergoes a displacement
( ). Calculate
s = − 9.0î − 3.0ĵ m
a. the work done on the trolley by the force F,
b. the angle between the force and the displacement of the
trolley.
ANS. : − 150 J; 108° 18
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Exercise 4.1 : y
3. 
F3
 35
F1 x

 50
F2
Figure 4.7
Figure 4.7 shows an overhead view of three horizontal forces
acting on a cargo that was initially stationary but that now
moves across a frictionless floor. The force magnitudes are
F1 = 3.00 N, F2 = 4.00 N and F3 = 10.0 N. Determine the total
work done on the cargo by the three forces during the first
4.00 m of displacement.
ANS. : 15.3 J

19
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4.1.3 Energy
 is defined as the system’s ability to do work.
work
 The S.I. unit for energy is same to the unit of work (joule, J).
J
 The dimension of energy ,
[ Energy ] = [Work ] = ML2T −2
 is a scalar quantity.
quantity
 Table 4.1 summarises some common types of energy.
Forms of
Description
Energy
Energy released when chemical bonds between atoms
Chemical
and molecules are broken.
Electrical Energy that is associated with the flow of electrical charge.

## Heat Energy that flows from one place to another as a result of

a temperature difference.
Total of kinetic and potential energy of atoms or molecules
Internal
within a body. 20
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Forms of
Description
Energy
Nuclear Energy released by the splitting of heavy nuclei.
Energy released when there is a loss of small amount
of mass in a nuclear process. The amount of energy
Mass
can be calculated from Einstein’s mass-energy
equation, E = mc2
Energy transmitted through the propagation of a series
Sound
of compression and rarefaction in solid, liquid or gas.
Mechanical
a. Kinetic Energy associated with the motion of a body.
b. Gravitational Energy associated with the position of a body in a
potential gravitational field.
c. Elastic Energy stored in a compressed or stretched spring.
potential
Table 4.1 21
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Learning Outcome:
4.2 Conservation of energy (1 hour)
www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

## At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

 Define and use kinetic energy,
1 2
K = mv
2
 Define and use potential energy:
i. gravitational potential energy,
U = mgh
ii. elastic potential energy for spring,
1 2
U = kx
2
 State and use the principle of conservation of energy.
 Explain the work-energy theorem and use the related
equation.
22
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4.2 Conservation of energy
4.2.1 Kinetic energy, K
 is defined as the energy of a body due to its motion.
motion
 Equation :
1 where K : kinetic energy of a body

K= mv 2 m : mass of a body
2 v : speed of a body

## Work-kinetic energy theorem

 Consider a block with mass, m moving along the horizontal
surface (frictionless) under the action of a constant nett force,
 s in figure 4.8.
Fnett undergoes a displacement,
Fnett m

Figure 4.8 s
∑F = F nett = ma (1) 23
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 By using an equation of linear motion:
v 2 = u 2 + 2as
v2 − u 2
a= (2)
2s
 By substituting equation (2) into (1), we arrive
 v2 − u 2 
Fnett = m 
 2s 
1 2 1
Fnett s = mv − mu 2 = K f − K i
2 2
Therefore Wnett = ∆K
 states “the work done by the nett force on a body equals the
change in the body’s kinetic energy”.
energy
24
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 4 :
A stationary object of mass 3.0 kg is pulled upwards by a constant
force of magnitude 50 N. Determine the speed of the object when it
is travelled upwards through 4.0 m.
(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)
Solution : m = 3.0 kg ; F = 50 N; s = 4.0 m; u = 0

F The nett force acting on the object is given by
Fnett = F − mg = 50 − ( 3.0 )( 9.81)
Fnett = 20.6 N
 By applying the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus
mg Wnett = K f − K i
  1 2
Fnett s = mv − 0
s F 2
1
( 20.6)( 4.0) = ( 3.0) v 2
 2
mg v = 7.41 m s −1 25
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 5 :
A block of mass 2.00 kg slides 0.750 m down an inclined plane
that slopes downward at an angle of 36.9 ° below the horizontal. If
the block starts from rest, calculate its final speed. You can ignore
the friction. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2)
Solution : m = 2.00 kg ; s = 0.750 m; u = 0

N 
a
mg sin 36.9 y
mg cos 36.9
36.9 
mg  x
s
36.9
26
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution : m = 2.00 kg ; s = 0.750 m; u = 0
Since the motion of the block along the incline surface thus nett
force is given by
Fnett = mg sin 36.9
Fnett = ( 2.00)( 9.81) sin 36.9
Fnett = 11.8 N
By using the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus
Wnett = K f − K i
1 2
Fnett s = mv − 0
2
1
(11.8)( 0.750) = ( 2.00) v 2
2
v = 2.98 m s −1

27
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 6 :
F (N)
10

0 6 7
4 10 s (m)
−5
Figure 4.9
An object of mass 2.0 kg moves along the x-axis and is acted on
by a force F. Figure 4.9 shows how F varies with distance
travelled, s. The speed of the object at s = 0 is 10 m s−1.
Determine
a. the speed of the object at s = 10 m,
b. the kinetic energy of the object at s = 6.0 m.

28
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
−1
Solution : m = 2.0 kg; u = 10 m s
a. W = area under the F − s graph from 0 m to 10 m
1 1
W = ( 6 + 4)10 + ( (10 − 6 ) + (10 − 7 ) )( − 5)
2 2
W = 32.5 J
By using the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus
W = K f − Ki
1 2 1
W = mv − mu 2
2 2
1 1
( ) 2
32.5 = 2.0 v − 2.0 10( )( ) 2

2 2
v = 11.5 m s −1

29
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution :
b. W = area under the F − s graph from 0 m to 6 m
1
W = ( 6 + 4 )10
2
W = 50 J
By using the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus
W = K f − Ki
1
W = K f − mu 2
2
1
( )(
50 = K f − 2.0 10 ) 2

2
K f = 150 J

30
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Exercise 4.2.1 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s−2
1. A bullet of mass 15 g moves horizontally at velocity of
250 m s−1.It strikes a wooden block of mass 400 g placed at rest
on a floor. After striking the block, the bullet is embedded in the
block. The block then moves through 15 m and stops. Calculate
the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the floor.
ANS. : 0.278
2. A parcel is launched at an initial speed of 3.0 m s−1 up a rough
plane inclined at an angle of 35° above the horizontal. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the parcel and the plane is
0.30. Determine
a. the maximum distance travelled by the parcel up the plane,
b. the speed of the parcel when it slides back to the starting
point.
ANS. : 0.560 m; 1.90 m s− 1

31
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4.2.2 Potential Energy
 is defined as the energy stored in a body or system because
of its position, shape and state.
state
Gravitational potential energy, U
 is defined as the energy stored in a body or system because
of its position.
position
 Equation :

U = mgh
where U : gravitational potential energy
m : mass of a body
g : acceleration due to gravity
h : height of a body from the initial position
 The gravitational potential energy depends only on the height
of the object above the surface of the Earth.
Earth
32
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 Work-gravitational potential energy theorem
 Consider a book with mass, m is dropped from height, h1 to
height, h2 as shown in the figure 4.10.
The work done by the gravitational force
(weight) is
Wg = mgs = mg ( h1 − h2 )

s mg

h1 Wg = mgh1 − mgh2 = U i − U f

mg
Wg = −(U f − U i ) = −∆U
h2
Therefore in general,

Figure 4.10
W = −∆U
 states “ the change in gravitational potential energy as
the negative of the work done by the gravitational force”.
force
33
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

down h decreases, the
When the body moves down,
gravitational force does positive work because ∆U <0.
 When the body moves up, up h increases, the work done
by gravitational force is negative because ∆U >0.
 For calculation, use

W = ∆U = U f − U i
where
U f : final gravitational potential energy
U i : initial gravitational potential energy
W : work done by a gravitational force

34
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 7 :

F
20.0 m

Figure 4.11
In a smooth pulley system, a force F is required to bring an
object of mass 5.00 kg to the height of 20.0 m at a constant
speed of 3.00 m s−1 as shown in figure 4.11. Determine
a. the force, F
b. the work done by the force, F.
(Given g = 9.81 m s-2)

35
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
−1
Solution : m = 5.00 kg; s = h = 20.0 m; v = constant = 3.00 m s
 a. Since the object moves at the constant
F speed, thus
Fnett = 0
F = mg
 F = ( 5.00)( 9.81)
mg F = 49.1 N
 
F b. From the equation of work,
s
Constant W = Fs cos θ and θ = 0
speed
W = ( 49.1)( 20.0)
 W = 982 J
mg OR
W = Fs cos θ and θ = 0
W = U = mgh
W = 982 J
36
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Elastic potential energy, Us
 is defined as the energy stored in in elastic materials as the
result of their stretching or compressing.
compressing
 Springs are a special instance of device which can store
elastic potential energy due to its compression or
stretching.
stretching
 Hooke’s Law states “the restoring force, Fs of spring is
directly proportional to the amount of stretch or
compression (extension or elongation), x if the limit of
proportionality is not exceeded”
exceeded
OR Fs ∝ − x
Fs = −kx
where
Fs : the restoring force of spring
k : the spring constant or force constant

## x : the amount of stretch or compression ( x f -xi ) 37

PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 Negative sign in the equation indicates that the direction of Fs
is always opposite to the direction of the amount of stretch or
compression (extension), x.
 Case 1:
The spring is hung vertically and its is stretched by a suspended
object with mass, m as shown in figure 4.12.

Figure 4.12

Initial position
Fs
x
Final position
The spring is in equilibrium, thus
Fs = W = mg  
W = mg
38
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 Case 2:
The spring is attached to an object and it is stretched and
 F as shown in figure 4.13.
compressed by a force,
Fs is negative Fs 
x is positive F
The spring is in equilibrium,
x hence  
x=0
Fs = F
Fs = 0
x=0

(Equilibrium position)
 x =0
F Fs Fs is positive
x is negative
x
Figure 4.13 39
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 Caution:
 For calculation,
calculation use : Fs = kx = F where F : applied force
 Dimension of spring constant, k :

[ Fs ]
[ k ] = = MT −2
[ x]
 The unit of k is kg s− 2 or N m− 1

##  sign a restoring force, Fs

From the Hooke’s law (without “− ” sign),
against extension of the spring, x graph is shown in figure 4.14.
Fs
F W = area under the Fs − x graph
1 1
W = Fx1 W = ( kx1 ) x1
2 2
1 2
W = kx1 = U s
2
0 x1 x
Figure 4.14 40
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 The equation of elastic potential energy, Us for compressing or
stretching a spring is
1 2 1
U s = kx = Fs x
2 2
 The work-elastic potential energy theorem,
theorem
1 2 1 2
W = ∆U s OR W = U sf − U si = kx f − kxi
2 2
 Notes :
 Work-energy theorem states the work done by the nett
force on a body equals the change in the body’s total
energy”
energy
OR
Wnett = ∆E = ∑E −∑E f i

41
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 8 :
A force of magnitude 800 N caused an extension of 20 cm on a
spring. Determine the elastic potential energy of the spring when
a. the extension of the spring is 30 cm.
b. a mass of 60 kg is suspended vertically from the spring.
(Given g = 9.81 m s-2)
Solution : F = 800 N; x = 0.200 m
From the Hooke’s law,
Fs = F = kx
800 = k ( 0.20)
k = 4 × 103 N m −1
a. Given x=0.300 m, 1
U s = kx 2
2
1
( )
U s = 4 × 103 ( 0.300)
2
2
U s = 180 J
42
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution :
b. Given m=60 kg. When the spring in
equilibrium, thus
Fnett = 0
 Fs = mg
Fs kx = mg
x ( )
4 × 103 x = ( 60)( 9.81)
x = 0.147 m
Therefore 1 2
U s = kx
2
 
W = mg
1
( )
U s = 4 × 103 ( 0.147 )
2
2

U s = 43.2 J

43
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4.2.3 Principle of conservation of energy
 states “in an isolated (closed) system, the total energy of
that system is constant”.
constant
 According to the principle of conservation of energy, we get
The initial of total energy = the final of total energy
OR

∑E = ∑E
i f

## Conservation of mechanical energy

 In an isolated system, the mechanical energy of a system is the

## sum of its potential energy, U and the kinetic energy, K of the

objects are constant.
E = K + U = constant
OR
Ki + U i = K f + U f
44
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 9 :
A 1.5 kg sphere is dropped from a height of
30 cm onto a spring of spring constant,
k = 2000 N m−1 . After the block hits the
spring, the spring experiences maximum
compression, x as shown in figure 4.15. 30 cm
a. Describe the energy conversion
occurred after the sphere is
dropped onto the spring until the x
spring experiences maximum
compression, x.
b. Calculate the speed of the sphere just
before strikes the spring. Before After
c. Determine the maximum compression, x. Figure 4.15
(Given g = 9.81 m s-2)
45
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution :
a.

h = 30 cm

h0 v

x
h1
h2
(1) (2) (3)
The spring is not stretched The spring is not stretched The sphere is at height h2
hence Us = 0. The sphere is hence Us = 0. The sphere is above the ground after
at height h0 above ground at height h1 above ground compressing the spring by x.
The speed of the sphere at
therefore U = mgh0 and it is with speed, v just before
this moment is zero. Hence
stationary hence K = 0. strikes the spring. Therefore 1 2
∑E 1 = mgh0
∑ E2 = mgh1 +
1
2
mv 2 ∑E 3 = mgh2 +
2
kx
46
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
−1
Solution : m = 1.5 kg; h = 0.30 m; k = 2000 N m
b. Applying the principle of conservation of energy involving the
situation (1) and (2),

∑E = ∑E 1 2
1 2
mgh0 = mgh1 + mv
2
and h = ( h0 − h1 )
1
mg ( h − h ) = mv
0 1
2
2

v = 2 gh
v = 2( 9.81)( 0.30)
v = 2.43 m s −1

47
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
−1
Solution : m = 1.5 kg; h = 0.30 m; k = 2000 N m
c. Applying the principle of conservation of energy involving the
situation (2) and (3),

∑E = ∑E
2 3
1 2 1 2
mgh1 + mv = mgh2 + kx
2 2
and x = ( h1 − h2 )
1 1
mg ( h − h ) + mv = kx
1 2
2 2
2 2

1 1
(1.5)( 9.81) x + (1.5)( 2.43) = ( 2000) x 2
2

2 2
1000 x 2 − 14.7 x − 4.43 = 0
x = 7.43 × 10 −2 m

48
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 10 :

m1 + m2
m1 u1
m2 h
Figure 4.16
A bullet of mass, m1=5.00 g is fired into a wooden block of mass,
m2=1.00 kg suspended from some light wires as shown in figure
4.16. The block, initially at rest. The bullet embeds in the block,
and together swing through a height, h=5.50 cm. Calculate
a. the initial speed of the bullet.
b. the amount of energy lost to the surrounding.
(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)
49
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution : m1 = 5.00 × 10 −3 kg; m2 = 1.00 kg; h = 5.50 × 10 −2 m
a.

v12 = 0

u2 = 0 m1 + m2
u1 u12
m1 m2 h
m1 + m2
(1) (2) (3)
Applying the principle of conservation of energy involving the

situation (2) and (3), E2 = ∑E3
K =U
1
( m1 + m2 )( u12 ) = ( m1 + m2 ) gh
2

2
(
u12 = 2 gh = 2( 9.81) 5.50 × 10 − 2 )
u12 = 1.04 m s −1 50
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution : m1 = 5.00 × 10 −3 kg; m2 = 1.00 kg; h = 5.50 × 10 −2 m
Applying the principle of conservation of linear momentum
involving the situation (1) and (2),
 
∑ p1 = ∑ p2
m1u1 = ( m1 + m2 ) u12
(5.00 × 10 )u = (5.00 × 10
−3
1
−3
)
+ 1.00 (1.04)
u1 = 209 m s −1
b. The energy lost to the surrounding, Q is given by
Q= ∑E −∑E1 2
1 1
Q = m1 u1 − ( m1 + m 2 )( u12 )
2 2

2 2
1
( ) 1
(
Q = 5.00 × 10 ( 209) − 5.00 × 10 −3 + 1.00 (1.04)
2
−3 2

2
2
)
Q = 109 J
51
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 11 :

Smooth
pulley

2m
P
Figure 4.17
Objects P and Q of masses 2.0 kg and 4.0 kg respectively are
connected by a light string and suspended as shown in figure 4.17.
Object Q is released from rest. Calculate the speed of Q at the
instant just before it strikes the floor.
(Given g = 9.81 m s−2)
52
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution : mP = 2.0 kg; mQ = 4.0 kg; h = 2 m; u = 0

Smooth Smooth
pulley pulley

Q v P

2m 2m Q
P v
Initial Final
Applying the principle of conservation of mechanical energy,
∑E = ∑E
i f U Q = U P + KP + KQ
1 1
mQ gh = mP gh + mP v + mQ v 2
2
2 2
1 1
( 4.0)( 9.81)( 2) = ( 2.0)( 9.81)( 2) + ( 2.0) v + ( 4.0) v 2
2

−1 2 2
v = 3.62 m s 53
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Exercise 4.2.2 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s−2
1. If it takes 4.00 J of work to stretch a spring 10.0 cm from its
initial length, determine the extra work required to stretch it an
ANS. : 12.0 J
2. A book of mass 0.250 kg is placed on top of a light vertical
spring of force constant 5000 N m−1 that is compressed by 10.0
cm. If the spring is released, calculate the height of the book
rise from its initial position.
ANS. : 10.2 m
3. A 60 kg bungee jumper jumps from a bridge. She is tied to a
bungee cord that is 12 m long when unstretched and falls a total
distance of 31 m. Calculate
a. the spring constant of the bungee cord.
b. the maximum acceleration experienced by the jumper.
ANS. : 100 N m− 1; 22 m s− 2
54
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Exercise 4.2.2 :
4.

Figure 4.18
A 2.00 kg block is pushed against a light spring of the force
constant, k = 400 N m-1, compressing it x =0.220 m. When the
block is released, it moves along a frictionless horizontal
surface and then up a frictionless incline plane with slope θ
=37.0° as shown in figure 4.18. Calculate
a. the speed of the block as it slides along the horizontal
surface after leaves the spring.
b. the distance travelled by the block up the incline plane before
it slides back down.
ANS. : 3.11 m s− 1; 0.81 m
55
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Exercise 4.2.2 : C
5. u
A

10 m
B D
Figure 4.19
A ball of mass 0.50 kg is at point A with initial speed, u =4 m s−1
at a height of 10 m as shown in figure 4.19 (Ignore the frictional
force). Determine
a. the total energy at point A,
b. the speed of the ball at point B where the height is 3 m,
c. the speed of the ball at point D,
d. the maximum height of point C so that the ball can pass over
it.
ANS. : 53.1 J; 12.4 m s− 1; 14.6 m s− 1; 10.8 m
56
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Learning Outcome:
4.3 Power and mechanical efficiency (1 hour)
www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

## At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

 Define and use power:
 Average power, P = ∆W
av
∆t
 Instantaneous Power, dW
P=
dt
 
 Derive and apply the formulae P = F •v
 Define and use mechanical efficiency,
Poutput
η= × 100%
Pinput
and the consequences of heat dissipation.
57
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4.3 Power and mechanical efficiency
4.3.1 Power, P
 is defined as the rate at which work is done.
done
OR the rate at which energy is transferred.
transferred
 If an amount of work, W is done in an amount of time ∆t by a
power Pav due to force during that time
force, the average power,
interval is
∆W ∆E
Pav = =
∆t ∆t
 power P is defined as the instantaneous
The instantaneous power,
rate of doing work,
work which can be write as
∆W dW
P = limit =
∆t →0 ∆t dt
58
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 is a scalar quantity.
 The dimension of the power is

[ P] = [ ∆W ] ML2T −2
= = ML2T −3
[ ∆t ] T
 The S.I. unit of the power is kg m2 s− 3 or J s− 1 or watt (W).
(W)
 Unit conversion of watt (W), horsepower (hp) and foot pounds
per second (ft. lb s− 1)

## 1 hp = 746 W = 550 ft. lb s −1

 Consider an object that is moving at a constant velocity v along
a frictionless horizontal surface and is acted by a constant force,
F directed at angle θ above the horizontal as shown in figure
4.20. The object undergoes a displacement
 of ds.
F
θ

Figure 4.20
ds 59
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Therefore the instantaneous power, P is given by
dW
P= and dW = ( F cos θ ) ds
dt
P=
( F cos θ ) ds
and v =
ds
dt dt
P = Fv cos θ
OR
 
P = F •v
where F : magnitude of force
v : magnitude of velocity
 
θ : the angle between F and v

60
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 12 :
An elevator has a mass of 1.5 Mg and is carrying 15 passengers
through a height of 20 m from the ground. If the time taken to lift
the elevator to that height is 55 s. Calculate the average power
required by the motor if no energy is lost. (Use g = 9.81 m s−2 and
the average mass per passenger is 55 kg)
Solution : h = 20 m; Δt = 55 s
M = mass of the elevator + mass of the 15 passengers
M = 1500 + (55×15) = 2325 kg
According to the definition of average power,
∆E Mgh
Pav = Pav =
∆t ∆t
Pav =
( 2325)( 9.81)( 20)
55
Pav = 8294 W
61
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 13 :
An object of mass 2.0 kg moves at a constant speed of 5.0 m s−1
up a plane inclined at 30° to the horizontal. The constant frictional
force acting on the object is 4.0 N. Determine
a. the rate of work done against the gravitational force,
b. the rate of work done against the frictional force,
c. the power supplied to the object. (Given g = 9.81 m s−2 )
−1
Solution : m = 2.0 kg; v = 5.0 m  s = constant; f = 4.0 N
 v
N

s

y mg sin30
x f 30 
30  mg cos 30
 
W = mg 62
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
−1
Solution : m = 2.0 kg; v = 5.0 m s = constant; f = 4.0 N
a. the rate of work done against the gravitational force is given by
∆Wg
=
( mg sin 30 ) s cos θ

and θ = 180

∆t t
∆Wg
∆t
(
= − mg sin 30
s
t

and v) =
s
t
∆Wg
∆t
(
= − mg sin 30 v )
∆Wg ∆Wg
∆t
(
= − ( 2.0 )( 9.81) sin 30 ( 5.0) ) ∆t
= −49.1 W
∆Wg
OR = Fg v cos θ
∆t
∆Wg ∆Wg
∆t
(
= mg sin 30 v cos180 ) ∆t
= −49.1 W
63
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
−1
Solution : m = 2.0 kg; v = 5.0 m s = constant; f = 4.0 N
b. The rate of work done against the frictional force is
∆W f
= fv cos θ and θ = 180
∆t
∆W f
= ( 4.0 )( 5.0) cos180
∆t
∆W f
= −20.0 W
∆t
c. The power supplied to the object, Psupplied
= the power lost against gravitational and frictional forces, Plost
∆Wg ∆W f
Psupplied = +
∆t ∆t
Psupplied = 49.1 + 20.0
Psupplied = 69.1 W 64
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4.3.2 Mechanical efficiency, η
 Efficiency is a measure of the performance of a machines,
engine and etc...
 The efficiency of a machine is defined as the ratio of the
useful (output) work done to the energy input.
input
 is a dimensionless quantity (no unit).
 Equations:
Wout
η= × 100%
Ein
OR

Pout
η= × 100%
Pin
where Pout : power produced by the system
Pin : power supplied to a system
65
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
 Notes :
 In practice, Pout< Pin hence η < 100%.
100%
 The system loses energy to its surrounding because it may
have encountered resistances such as surface friction or
air resistance.
 The energy which is dissipated to the surroundings, may
be in the form of heat or sound.
sound

Example 14 :
A 1.0 kW motor is used to lift an object of mass 10 kg vertically
upwards at a constant speed. The efficiency of the motor is 75 %.
Determine
a. the rate of heat dissipated to the surrounding.
b. the vertical distance travelled by the object in 5.0 s.
(Given g = 9.81 m s−2 )
66
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Solution : m = 10.0 kg; η = 75%; Pin = 1000 W
a. The output power of the motor is given by
Pout
η= × 100%
Pin
Pout
75 = × 100 Pout = 750 W
1000
Therefore the rate of heat dissipated to the surrounding is
Rate of heat dissipated = Pin − Pout = 1000 − 750
Rate of heat dissipated = 250 W
b. Pout = Fv cos θ where θ = 0 and F = mg
Pout = mgv cos 0 750 = (10.0)( 9.81) v
v = 7.65 m s −1
Since the speed is constant hence the vertical distance in 5.0 s
h h
v= 7.65 =
is t 5.0
d = 38.3 m 67
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Exercise 4.3 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s−2
1. A person of mass 50 kg runs 200 m up a straight road inclined
at an angle of 20° in 50 s. Neglect friction and air resistance.
Determine
a. the work done,
b. the average power of the person.
ANS. : 3.36× 104 J; 672 W
2. Electrical power of 2.0 kW is delivered to a motor, which has an
efficiency of 85 %. The motor is used to lift a block of mass
80 kg. Calculate
a. the power produced by the motor.
b. the constant speed at which the block being lifted vertically
upwards by the force produced by the motor.
(neglect air resistance)
ANS. : 1.7 kW; 2.17 m s− 1
68
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Exercise 4.3 :
3.

10 1

Figure 4.21
A car of mass 1500 kg moves at a constant speed v up a road
with an inclination of 1 in 10 as shown in figure 4.21. All
resistances against the motion of the car can be neglected. If
the engine car supplies a power of 12.5 kW, calculate the
speed v.
ANS. : 8.50 m s− 1

69
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4

THE END…
Next Chapter…
CHAPTER 5 :
Static

70