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*the transfer of information between two or more points

that are physically not connected. Distances can be short, as a few meters as in television remote control; or long ranging from thousands to millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking.


*Other examples of wireless technology include

GPS units, Garage door openers or garage doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and Headset (telephone/computer), headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones.




*Wireless operations permits services, such as long range

communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF),acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires.[1] Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.




*Wireless communications allow people greater flexibility

while communicating, because they do not need to remain at a fixed location, such as a home or office, but instead can communicate with other people while traveling in a car or walking along a street. Wireless technologies make communications services more readily available than traditional wire-based services (such as ordinary telephones), which require the installation of wires in fixed locations.



*Wireless communications devices are useful in places

where communications services are only temporarily needed, such as at outdoor festivals or large sporting events. These technologies are also useful for communicating in remote locations, such as mountains, jungles, or deserts, where wire-based telephone service might not exist. Police, fire, and other emergency departments use wireless devices, such as two-way radio, to communicate information between vehicles that are already responding to emergency calls.



*Construction and utility workers frequently use handheld

radios for short-range communication and coordination. Many businesspeople use wireless devices, such as cellular radio telephones, also known as cell phones, to stay in contact with colleagues and clients while traveling. Increasingly, people are using wireless devices for a variety of everyday purposes, such as scheduling appointments, arranging meeting places, shopping for food, or agreeing on home video selections while in a video store.


*Telemetry control and traffic control systems

*Infrared and ultrasonic remote control devices

*Modulated laser light systems for point to point


*Professional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) and SMR

industrial and Public Safety entities.

(Specialized Mobile Radio) typically used by business,

*Consumer Two way radio including FRS Family Radio Service,

GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and Citizens band ("CB") radios.

*The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio).

*Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios.

*Airband and radio navigation equipment used by aviators

and air traffic control

*Cellular telephones and pagers: provide connectivity for

portable and mobile applications, both personal and business.

*Global Positioning System (GPS): allows drivers of cars and

trucks, captains of boats and ships, and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth.

*Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices,

not to be confused with cell phones.

*Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a

common example; keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless using technology such as Wireless USB or Bluetooth

*Satellite television: Is broadcast from satellites in

geostationary orbit. Typical services use direct broadcast satellite to provide multiple television channels to viewers.

*radio frequency communication, *microwave communication, for example long-range

line-of-sight via highly directional antennas, or short-range communication, *infrared (IR) short-range communication, for example from consumer IR devices such as remote controls or via Infrared Data Association (IrDA).
multipoint communication, broadcasting, cellular networks and other wireless networks.

* Applications may involve point-to-point communication, point-to-

*The term "wireless" should not be confused with the term

"cordless", which is generally used to refer to powered electrical or electronic devices that are able to operate from a portable power source (e.g. a battery pack) without any cable or cord to limit the mobility of the cordless device through a connection to the mains power supply.

*Some cordless devices, such as cordless telephones, are also

wireless in the sense that information is transferred from the cordless telephone to the telephone's base unit via some type of wireless communications link. This has caused some disparity in the usage of the term "cordless", for example in Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications.

*Security systems
*Wireless technology may supplement or replace hard wired
implementations in security systems for homes or office buildings.

*Mobile telephones
*One of the best-known examples of wireless technology is
the mobile phone, also known as a cellular phone, with more than 4.6 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide as of the end of 2010. These wireless phones use radio waves to enable their users to make phone calls from many locations worldwide. They can be used within range of the mobile telephone site used to house the equipment required to transmit and receive the radio signals from these instruments.

*Wireless data communications

* Wireless data communications are an essential component of mobile computing.The
various available technologies differ in local availability, coverage range and performance, and in some circumstances, users must be able to employ multiple connection types and switch between them. To simplify the experience for the user, connection manager software can be used , or a mobile VPN deployed to handle the multiple connections as a secure, single virtual network. Supporting technologies include: * Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily to the Internet. Standardized as IEEE 802.11 a,b,g,n, Wi-Fi approaches speeds of some types of wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi has become the de facto standard for access in private homes, within offices, and at public hotspots.Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee for service, while others have begun offering it for free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods. * Cellular data service offers effective coverage within a range of 10-15 miles from the nearest cell site. Speeds have increased as technologies have evolved, from earlier technologies such as GSM, CDMA and GPRS, to 3G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000. * Mobile Satellite Communications may be used where other wireless connections are unavailable, such as in largely rural areas or remote locations. Satellite communications are especially important for transportation, aviation, maritime and military use.

*Wireless energy transfer

*Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby
electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load that does not have a built-in power source, without the use of interconnecting wires.

*Computer interface devices

* Answering the call of customers frustrated with cord clutter, many
manufactures of computer peripherals turned to wireless technology to satisfy their consumer base. Originally these units used bulky, highly limited transceivers to mediate between a computer and a keyboard and mouse, however more recent generations have used small, high quality devices, some even incorporating Bluetooth. These systems have become so ubiquitous that some users have begun complaining about a lack of wired peripherals.[who?] Wireless devices tend to have a slightly slower response time than their wired counterparts, however the gap is decreasing. Initial concerns about the security of wireless keyboards have also been addressed with the maturation of the technology.

*Wireless network refers to any type of computer network

that is not connected by cables of any kind. It is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and enterprise (business) installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and administered using a transmission system called radio waves. This implementation takes place at the physical level (layer) of the network structure.

* Wireless networking (i.e. the various types of unlicensed 2.4 GHz

WiFi devices) is used to meet many needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology:

* To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling, * To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network

failure, * To link portable or temporary workstations, * To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or * To remotely connect mobile users or networks.

*Wireless PAN
* Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) interconnect devices
within a relatively small area, that is generally within a person's reach. For example, both Bluetooth radio and invisible Infrared light provides a WPAN for interconnecting a headset to a laptop. ZigBee also supports WPAN applications.[3] Wi-Fi PANs are becoming commonplace (2010) as equipment designers start to integrate Wi-Fi into a variety of consumer electronic devices. Intel "My WiFi" and Windows 7 "virtual Wi-Fi" capabilities have made Wi-Fi PANs simpler and easier to set up and configure.[4]

*Wireless LAN
* A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices
over a short distance using a wireless distribution method, usually providing a connection through an access point for Internet access.

*Wireless mesh network

*A wireless mesh network is a wireless network made up of
radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. Each node forwards messages on behalf of the other nodes. Mesh networks can "self heal", automatically re-routing around a node that has lost power.

*Wireless MAN
* Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks are a type of wireless network that
connects several wireless LANs.

* WiMAX is a type of Wireless MAN and is described by the IEEE 802.16

*Wireless WAN
* Wireless wide area networks are wireless networks that typically cover
large areas, such as between neighboring towns and cities, or city and suburb. These networks can be used to connect branch offices of business or as a public internet access system. The wireless connections between access points are usually point to point microwave links using parabolic dishes on the 2.4 GHz band, rather than omnidirectional antennas used with smaller networks. A typical system contains base station gateways, access points and wireless bridging relays. Other configurations are mesh systems where each access point acts as a relay also. When combined with renewable energy systems such as photovoltaic solar panels or wind systems they can be stand alone systems.

*Mobile devices networks

* With the development of smart phones, cellular telephone networks routinely carry
data in addition to telephone conversations: * Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM): The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and support system. The cell phone connects to the base system station which then connects to the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call is transferred to where it needs to go. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a majority of cell phones.[6] * Personal Communications Service (PCS): PCS is a radio band that can be used by mobile phones in North America and South Asia. Sprint happened to be the first service to set up a PCS. * D-AMPS: Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service, an upgraded version of AMPS, is being phased out due to advancement in technology. The newer GSM networks are replacing the older system.

* Wi-Fi ( /wafa/) is a mechanism for wirelessly connecting electronic

devices. A device enabled with Wi-Fi, such as a personal computer, video game console, smartphone, or digital audio player, can connect to the Internet via a wireless network access point. An access point (or hotspot) has a range of about 20 meters (65 ft) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Multiple overlapping access points can cover large areas.

* "Wi-Fi" is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance and the brand name for

products using the IEEE 802.11 family of standards. Wi-Fi is used by over 700 million people. There are over four million hotspots (places with WiFi Internet connectivity) around the world, and about 800 million new Wi-Fi devices are sold every year.[citation needed] Wi-Fi products that complete Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification testing successfully may use the "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED" designation and trademark.

* Wired Communication refers to the transmission of data over a wire-

based communication technology. Examples include telephone networks, cable television or internet access, and fiber-optic communication. Also waveguide (electromagnetism), used for high-power applications, is considered as wired line.

*Alternatively, communication technologies that

don't rely on wires to transmit data are considered wireless.