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Dr. Maria F. Soetanto, Dipl.Ing., MT.

Program Studi Teknik Aeronautika Jurusan Teknik Mesin POLITEKNIK NEGERI BANDUNG

The dream of flying is as old as mankind itself The concept of the airplane has only been around for two centuries , before that time, men and women tried to navigate the air by imitating the birds. They built machines with flapping wings called ornithopters.

An ornithopter -- it's every bit as impractical as it looks.

Problem ??
it works better at birdscale than it does at the much larger scale needed to lift both a man and a machine off the ground. SO.. people began to look for other ways to fly but this was hardly a practical way to fly. no way to get from here to there unless the wind was blowing in the desired direction

Beginning in 1783, a few aeronauts made daring, uncontrolled flights in lighter-than-air : balloons

Concept of Airplane
Begin at the nineteenth century an English baronet, Sir George Cayley, conceived a flying machine with fixed wings, a propulsion system, and movable control surfaces. This was the fundamental concept of the airplane.

The first true aircraft

Sir George Cayley's 1799 design for an airplane :

fixed wings for lift, a movable tail for control, and rows of "flappers" beneath the wings for thrust.

From Goerge Cayley to Wright Brothers ( 1799- 1903 )

The first gliding experiments with fixed-wing craft. (1799-1853)

The first airplane -- a kite on a stick -- built by Sir George Cayley in 1804.

The first gliding experiments with fixed-wing craft. (1799-1853)

John Stringfellow's unsuccessful 1868 steam-powered triplane.

Felix Du Temple ( 1874) builds a man-carrying steam-powered monoplane, was the first powered aircraft in history to make even a brief hop with a man aboard.

The first attempts to build powered airplanes. (1854-1879)

John Stringfellow's unsuccessful 1868 steam-powered triplane.

Otto Lilienthal piloting a glider in 1896. Otto Lilienthal established the concept of the airman a skilled pilot who controlled his aircraft and carefully balanced it while in the air. Lilienthal died in a flying accident, and his death set the Wright brothers in motion

The controversy between those that believe airplanes should be inherently stable (like boats) and those who believed that a pilot or an airman should keep them
balanced. 1880-1890


Otto Lilienthal, Germany, begins to test cambered wing surfaces and measures their lifting capability.
Hiram Maxim(1892), england, build an enormous biplane was powered by two 180-hp steam engines

The events leading up to the first sustained, controlled powered flight (1899-1903)
1899 Wright brothers experiment with twisting wings, trying to deform the front edges.

After some experimentation the Wrights converted the fixed tail to a movable rudder. This, together with wing warping and the elevator, gave the glider roll, pitch, and yaw control.

The events leading up to the first sustained, controlled powered flight (1899-1903)
The 1910 Dunne Flying Wing, the world's first airplane that was developed in strict secrecy.

The Wright brother's best flight on December 17, 1903 covered only 852 feet at a speed of about 34 mph. Today, aircraft routinely fly across oceans at speeds in excess of 1000 mph. The space shuttles circles the globe at over 15,000 mph.

The Golden Age (1918-1939)

Flagg biplane (1933)

In 1929 Jimmy Doolittle developed instrument flight. In the 1930s development of the jet engine began in Germany and in England.

Periode of War II
B-29 Superfortress, a Heavy Bomber

Periode Cold war

D.H. Comet, the world's first jet airliner

World War II saw a drastic increase in the pace of aircraft development and production. The first functional jetplane

Boeing 707 Bell X-1 the rocked powered past the speed of sound

Stealth Aircraft
F-117 Nighthawk stealth ground attack aircraft of the U.S Air Force B-2 Spirit stealth bomber of the U.S Air Force

Stealth technology also known as LOT (Low Observability Technology) is a sub-discipline of military electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared and other detection methods.

The B-2 Stealth Bomber has a skin made with highly specialized thermoplastics and composites which are radar-absorbent.

Challenge of peak oil

Shinkansen : V = 300 km/hr


Challenge of peak oil


Challenge of peak oil


Challenge of peak oil

Aerodynamic cars use less gasoline