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CHAPTER 1

BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS


Sub chapter covered 1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy 1.2 Closed and Open System 1.3 Properties of the System 1.4 Reversible & Irreversible Process 1.5 State and Equilibrium
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http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K12/airplane/shortp.html

1.1 Thermodynamics

Ways energy is stored within a body and how energy transformations, which involve heat and work, may take place.

Fundamental law of nature

Conservation of energy principle: energy can change form but the total amount of energy remains constant. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed
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1.2 Closed and Open system


Mass Flow
Open System Mass Flow Closed System

dm

dt

System and Surroundings


system quantity of matter or region in space chosen for study surroundings mass or region outside the system boundary surface separate system from surrounding (imaginary @ real)
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Surroundings

Closed System
m = constant
System Boundary

Closed system does not have mass flow across the boundary. Only energy
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Surroundings

Control Surface

Open System Mass flow


( Fixed space or volume)

Open systems have mass & energy flow


across their boundaries.

Interactions between system and surroundings...


Surroundings Heat

System

Closed system (control mass) no mass can enter or leave a system Also in special case system can consider as isolated system
Surroundings

Work

Open system (control volume) usually encloses a device that involves mass flow such as compressor, turbine or nozzle.

Mass Flow

Heat System

Power

Mass Flow
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Example of open system and closed system


Closed system (Piston and Cylinder)
m

Piston

Open system (Gas Turbine Engine)


Fuel Flow In Combustor

Air Flow In

Shaft Work Output

Gas at pressure, p Compressor Work Out Exhaust Gases Out


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1.3 Properties of the system


Any characteristic of a system called property

Some familiar property are pressure P,


temperature T, volume V, and mass m

Properties are consider to be either intensive


or extensive

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Intensive properties those that are independent of the size of the system, such as temperature, pressure and density
Extensive properties those whose values depend on the size or extent of the system such as mass, volume and total energy

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1.4 Reversible & Irreversible Process

Process: system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another. Reversible: Process that can be reversed without leaving any trace on the surrounding eg: Pendulum System and surrounding return to their initial state.
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Irreversible: Surrounding do some work on the system & therefore does not return to their initial state.

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1.5 State and Equilibrium

Equilibrium: state of balance A system in equilibrium experiences no changes when it is isolated from its surrounding. Eg: thermal equilibrium, mechanical equilibrium, chemical equilibrium.

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Path: series of state which the system passes during the process completely.
Quasi equilibrium process: Slow process that allows the system to adjust internally so that the properties in one part of the system do not change any faster than those at other part.
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Steady: no change with time Uniform: no change with location Steady flow process Steadily fluid flow process through a control volume. V, m, total E content of control volume remain constant.
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