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ATOMIC THEORY

DEVELOPMENT OF ATOMIC
THEORY
VARIOUS ATOMS AND COMPOUNDS AS DEPICTED
IN JOHN DALTON’S A NEW SYSTEM OF CHEMICAL
PHILOSOPHY
THOMSON’S CROOKE’S TUBE IN WHICH HE
OBSERVED THE DEFLECTION OF CATHODE RAYS
BY AN ELECTRIC FIELD
PLUM PUDDING’S ATOMIC
MODEL
THE RUTHERFORD’S GOLD FOIL
EXPERIMENT
NEIL BOHR’S ATOMIC
MODEL
Electron cloud Model or Quantum Mechanical
Model
Importance 
Name of  Shortcomings 
Scientist &  and
Model, Sketch - Problems
approximate  Improvement 
and main idea  or why was it 
Date on previous 
of theory changed
model

Atom as the •Does not give


Atom the smallest a scientific view
indivisible particle of of the atom
particle matter. only a
conceptual
Atomos (in •Explains definition
Democritus   ancient Greek) certain natural
 c.300 BC means "that occurrences •Does not talk
which cannot such as the about
be further existence of subatomic
broken down elements ` particles
into smaller (Electrons,
pieces". Protons,
Neutrons)
•Explains how • Does not
atoms combine include the
to form existence of the
molecules nucleus
The solid 
•Explains •Does not
sphere model
chemical explain the
Atoms are seen change better existence of
as solid, than the ions or isotopes
Dalton Particle Theory •
indestructible •Does not talk
  c.1800 spheres (like •Confirms the about
billiard balls) basic Laws of subatomic
Chemistry: particles
Conservation of (Electrons,
Mass & definite Protons,
Proportions Neutrons)
The raisin 
bun Model or • Infers on the •Does not
the existence of explain the
chocolate chip electrons and existence of
cookie model : protons electrons
outside the
•Introduces nucleus
Atoms are the concept of
solid spheres the nucleus •Does not talk
made-up of a about
J.J. Thomson
solid positive neutrons
 c.1850
mass (or core) therefore can't
with tiny explain
negative radioactivity
particles and the
embedded in existence of
the positive isotopes
core.
• Does not
place
electrons in
Famous Gold Leaf Experiment
definite
energy levels
proves that the around the
nucleus is nucleus
positive and the
E.  electrons are •Doesn't
Rutherford outside the include
c. 1905 nucleus.
First real neutrons in
• modern view the nucleus
of the atom

Proposes that the atom is really mostly


Electrons in
•It does not
Definite  Explains the role
explain the
energy  of valence
shapes of
Levels electrons in
molecules or
• around the bonding
other
nucleus
abnormalities
Fully explains that result
Used atomic
ionic and form unevenly
spectra to
covalent bonding shared pairs
(Neils Bohr) prove that
of electrons
Bohr-  electrons are
Rutherford placed in Places electrons
c. 1920 definite in definite energy
orbitals levels
around the 2 e- in the first
nucleus. 8 e- in the
second
8 e- in the third
Quantum Mechanical Model

or Electron 
Cloud Model
Modern Theory
Many Scientists
The analogy Advanced Theories wi
Contributed. So
here is that of a the behaviour
some of the more
"beehive" where of atoms and
famous are: the bees are the their chemical
•Schroedinger electrons and physical
•Einstein moving around
properties in
•Luis De Broglie the nucleus in a
forming new
•Max Planck "cloud" of
energy levels. compounds.
•Frank Hertz
•Maxwell
•Fermi
Selected properties of the three basic
Subatomic Particles
Name Charge Mas (amu) Mass (g)
Electrons -1 5.4 x 10 -4 9.1095 x 10 -28

Proton +1 1.00 1.6725 x 10 -24

Neutron 0 1.00 1.6750 x 10 -24


Calculate the number of protons,
neutrons, and electrons in each of the ff:
 a. 32
S16

 b. 23 Na11

 c. 19
F9

 d. 35
Cl17
Isotopes and Atomic Mass
Mass Isotopic % Ave. At.
no. Mass Abundance Mass
1. 35 34.969 amu 75.53
Chlorine 37 36.966 amu 24.47 35.458

2. 16 15.9949 amu 99.76


Oxygen 17 16.9991 amu 0.04
17.9992 amu
18 0.20 15.9993
PERIOD SCIENTIST ATOMIC THEORY
5th Cent. DEMOCRITUS MATTER IS
COMPOSED OF
ATOMOS
1803 JOHN DALTON ATOMIC THEORY
BASED ON THE
NATURE OF MATTER
1830 MICHAEL EFFECTS OF
FARADAY ELECTRICITY ON
MATTER RESULTED
TO THE DISCOVERY
OF SUB ATOMIC
PARTICLES
PERIOD SCIENTIST ATOMIC THEORY
1880 WILLIAM STUDIED ATOMIC
CROOKES STRUCTURE USING THE
ELECTRIC DISCHARGE
THROUGH GASES
1896 EUGEN DISCOVERED NEW
GOLDSTEIN PARTICLES CALLED
CANAL RAYS NOW
CALLED IONS

1897 JOSEPH JOHN AN ATOM COULD BE


THOMSON THOUGHT OF A
UNIFORM, POSITIVE
SPHERE OF MATTER IN
WHICH ELECTRON ARE
EMBEDED.
PERIOD SCIENTIST ATOMIC THEORY
1909 ERNEST ALPHA SCATERRING
RUTHERFORD EXPERIMENT DISCOVERED
NUCLEUS AS A CENTRAL
PART OF ATOM &
DISCOVERED FUNDAMENTAL
PARTICLE CALLED PROTON.
1913 NEILS BOHR PROPOSED THAT AN ATOM IS
A MINIATURE SOLAR SYSTEM
IN WHICH PLANETARY
ELECTRONS REVOLVE
AROUND THE SUN WHICH IS
NUCLEUS AND ELECTRON
HAS A DEFINITE ORBIT
KNOWN AS THE ENERGY
LEVELS
PERIOD SCIENTIST ATOMIC THEORY
1916 ARNOLD LOWER ENERGY
SOMMERFIELD ELECTRON REVOLVED IN
CIRCULAR PATH AND
HIGHER ENERGY
ELECTRON FOLLOW AN
ELLIPTICAL PATH
AROUND THE NUCLEUS.
1900 MAX PLANK INTRODUCE THE
QUANTUM THEORY.HE
POSTULATED THAT
RADIANT ENERGY IS
EMMITTED BY ATOMS &
MOLECULES IN SMALL
DISCRETE AMOUNTS
(QUANTA)
PERIOD SCIENTIST ATOMIC THEORY
1924 LOIUS DE ELECTRON HAS DUAL
BROGLIE PROPERTIES THAT OF A
PARTICLE AND A WAVE.
1924 ERWIN MECHANICAL
SCHRODINGER CALCULATION OF THE
ENERGY OF EACH
ELECTRON.THIS MODEL
SHOWS THAT ELECTRON
OCCUPIES VARIOUS
ENERGY LEVELS AND
SUB LEVELS AND
ORBITALS, THE HISHEST
PROBABILITY OF
LOCATING AN ELECTRON
IS FOUND.
PERIOD SCIENTIST ATOMIC THEORY
1926 HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
STATES THAT IT IS
IMPOSSIBLE TO DETERMINE
SIMULTANEOUSLY THE
EXACT POSITION AND THE
EXACT MOMENTUM OF A
BODY AS SMALL AS AN
ELECTRON.

1932 JAMES HE PROVIDED


CHADWICK EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE
ON THE PRESENCE OF
NEUTRONS IN THE
NUCLEUS.BOMBARDMENT OF
Be WITH ALPHA PARTICLES.