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Reframing Organizations, 4th ed.

The Power of Reframing
Virtues and Drawbacks of Organized Activity
The Curse of Cluelessness Strategies for Improving Organizations: The

Track Record Framing Multiframe Thinking

Are top managers clueless?

Home Depot CEO Bob

Nardelli somehow didnt anticipate that a rushed shareholders meeting where no one but him got to say anything would produce bad press and a major rebellion by shareholders and analysts.

Are top managers clueless?

CEO Jeff Skilling

thought Enron was in excellent shape when he quit a few months before it collapsed

Are top managers clueless?

Joseph Berardino, CEO

of Enrons auditor, Andersen Worldwide, said no one told him some of his partners thought the firm was at risk in approving Enrons aggressive accounting practices.

Are top manager clueless?

As New Orleans recovered from Hurricane Katrina, the Secretary of Homeland Security told reporters he had no reports of things that viewers had already seen on television news.

Virtues and drawbacks of organization

Prevalence of large, complex organizations is

historically recent Much of societys important work is done in or by organizations, but They often produce poor service, defective or dangerous products and Too often they exploit people and communities, and damage the environment

Signs of Cluelessness
Management error produces bankruptcies of

public companies every year Most mergers fail, but companies keep on merging One study estimates 50 to 75% of American managers are incompetent Most change initiatives produce little change; some makes things worse

Strategies to improve organizations

Better management Consultants Government policy and regulation

What is a frame?
Mental map to read and negotiate a territory

The better the map, the easier it is to know

where you are and get around (a map of New York wont help in San Francisco) Frame as window: enables you to see some things, but not others Frame as tool: effectiveness depends on choosing the right tool and knowing how to use it

Framing and Blink process

Well-learned and practiced frames facilitate

rapid cognition the capacity to quickly and accurately size up situations Qualities of rapid cognition:

Nonconscious (you can do it without thinking about it) Fast Holistic Results in affective judgments

Structural Frame
Roots: sociology, management science

Key concepts: goals, roles (division of labor),

formal relationships Central focus: alignment of structure with goals and environment

Human Resource Frame

Roots: personality and social psychology

Key concepts: needs (motives), capacities

(skills), feelings Central focus: fit between individual and organization

Political Frame
Roots: political science

Key concepts: interests, conflict, power,

scarce resources Central focus: getting and using power, managing conflict to get things done

Symbolic Frame
Roots: social and cultural anthropology

Key concepts: culture, myth, ritual, story,

Central focus: building culture, staging

organizational drama

Structural and Human Resource Frames

Frame Metaphor for organization Structural Factory or Machine Human Resource Family Needs, skills, relationships Empowerment

Central concepts Rules, roles, goals, policies, technology, environment Image of Leadership Social architecture

Basic leadership Align structure to task, Align organization and challenge: technology, environment human needs

Political and Symbolic Frames

Frame Metaphor for organization Central concepts Political Jungle Symbolic Carnival, temple, theater

Power, conflict, Culture, meaning, competition, metaphor, ritual, organizational politics ceremony, stories, heroes Advocacy Inspiration Create faith, beauty, meaning

Image of Leadership

Basic leadership Develop agenda and challenge: power base

Expanding managerial thinking

Traditional management thinking See only one or two frames Artistic thinking Holistic, multi-frame perspective

Try to solve all problems with logic, structure

Seek certainty, control, avoid ambiguity, paradox

Rich palette of options

Develop creativity, playfulness

One right answer, one best Principled flexibility way

Narrow thinking clueless managers

Multiple frames improve understanding,

promote versatility Multiple frames enable reframing: viewing the same thing from multiple perspectives