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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY

Personality
The overall profile or combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others.

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY

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Heredity and environment
Heredity sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics Environment determines development within these limits About a 50-50 heredity-environment split

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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY

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Personality and the self-concept
Personality dynamics
The ways in which an individual integrates and organizes social traits, values and motives, personal conceptions, and emotional adjustments

Self-concept
The view individuals have of themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral beings Self-esteem Self-efficacy
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


How do Personalities differ? Big Five personality traits
Extraversion
Being outgoing, sociable, assertive

Agreeableness
Being good-natured, trusting, cooperative

Conscientiousness
Being responsible, dependable, persistent
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


How do Personalities differ? Big Five personality traits
Emotional stability
Being unworried, secure, relaxed

Openness to experience
Being imaginative, curious, broad-minded
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


How do Personalities differ? Social traits
Surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings

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How do Personalities differ? Social traits Information gathering
Getting and organizing data for use Styles range from sensation to intuitive
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How do Personalities differ? Social traits Evaluation in problem solving
Making judgments about how to deal with information once it has been collected Styles vary from an emphasis on feeling to an emphasis on thinking
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How do Personalities differ? Personal conception traits
The way individuals tend to think about their social and physical settings as well as their major beliefs and personal orientation concerning a range of issues

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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


How do Personalities differ? Personal conception traits Locus of control
The extent to which a person feels able to control his/her own life Concerned with a persons internalexternal orientation
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY

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How do Personalities differ? Personal conception traits Authoritarianism
Tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority

Dogmatism
Tendency to view the world as a threatening place
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


How do Personalities differ? Personal conception traits People with a high-Machiavellian personality:
Approach situations logically and thoughtfully. Are capable of lying to achieve personal goals. 2008 John CopyrightAre rarely swayed by loyalty, friendships, 2-16 Wiley & Sons, Inc. past promises, or others opinions.

Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


How do Personalities differ? Personal conception traits People with a low-Machiavellian personality:
Accept direction imposed by others in loosely structured situations Work hard to do well in highly structured situations
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


How do Personalities differ? Personal conception traits Self-monitoring
A persons ability to adjust his/her behavior to external, situational (environmental) factors
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Personality & Stress Stress
A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities

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Personality & Stress Source of stress
Stressors
The wide variety of things that cause stress for individuals

Types of stressors
Work-related stressors Life stressors
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


Personality & Stress Work-related stressors
Task demands Role ambiguities Role conflicts Ethical dilemmas Interpersonal problems Career developments Physical setting
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


Personality & Stress Life stressors
Family events Economic difficulties Personal affairs

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Personality & Stress Stress and performance
Constructive stress (or eustress)
Moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization

Destructive stress (or distress)


Low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization

Job burnout
A loss of interest in and satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


Personality & Stress Stress and health
Stress can harm a persons physical and psychological health Health problems associated with stress
Heart attack. Stroke. Hypertension. Migraine headache.
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


Personality & Stress Stress management
Stress prevention
Taking action to keep stress from reaching destructive levels in the first place

Stress management
Begins with the recognition of stress symptoms and continues with actions to maintain a positive performance edge
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Behavioural Science PERSONALITY


Personality & Stress Stress management (cont.)
Personal wellness
Pursuit of ones job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program

Employee assistance programs


Provide help for employees who are experiencing personal problems and related Copyright 2008 John 2-26 stress Wiley & Sons, Inc.