You are on page 1of 40

September 28 Chapter 7

Our 2nd Exam will be Friday, Oct 7th

Chapter 7: Mendelian Inheritance

Family resemblance: how traits are inherited


Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College; Clicker Questions by Kristen Curran, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

(note the hand position of each twin)

Where do we begin and our parents end?

Selective Breeding: Observing Heredity

Observations are easy figuring out how is hard!!!

Are any human traits determined by a single gene?


Traits that are determined by the instructions a person carries at one gene are called single-gene traits.

9,000 human traits

Other traits, such as height, hair color, and eye color, are a bit trickier.

What did scientists know, at the time?


Made observations Previous science Did experiments Made predictions Nature of Science

Sexist view of science?

Plants could be self-fertilized or cross-fertilized

True-Breeding

7.4 Segregation: youve got two copies of each gene but put only one copy in each sperm or egg.

dominant trait masks the effect of a recessive trait.

Three Ideas Mendel Used for Explaining This Pattern of Inheritance


1) Each parent puts into every sperm or egg it makes a single set of instructions for building the trait. 2) Offspring thus find themselves with two copies of the instructions for any trait (called alleles). 3) The actual trait produced by an individual depends on the two copies of the gene that they inherit from their parents.
homozygous and heterozygous

7.5 Observing an individuals phenotype is not sufficient for determining its genotype.

Phenotypes and Genotypes


The

outward appearance of an individual is called their phenotype. genotype. the phenotype is the

Underlying

This is an organisms genetic composition.

Surprise???

How do we analyze and predict the outcome of crosses?

Assign symbols to represent the different variants of a gene.


Generally we use an uppercase letter for the dominant allele and lowercase for the recessive allele. If we dont know which of the two possible genotypes the pigmented individual is, we can write A_, where the _ is a placeholder for the unknown second allele, whose identity we arent certain of.

7.6 Chance is important in genetics.

Probability has a central role in genetics for two reasons:


The The

first is a consequence of segregation.

second reason is that fertilization, too, is a chance event.

Probabilities
Any

gamete produced by an individual heterozygous for a trait has a 50% probability of carrying the dominant allele and a 50% probability of carrying the recessive allele.

Probabilities
If

a male is heterozygous for albinism (Aa) and a female is homozygous for albinism (aa), what is the probability that their child will be homozygous for albinism (aa)?

Take-home message 7.6


Chance All

plays a role in fertilization too.

of an individuals sperm or eggs are different. of these gametes may be the gamete involved in fertilization.

Any

You mate a pigmented male alligator to a female albino alligator. The clutch of baby alligators includes both pigmented and albino individuals. What is the genotype of the father? 1. 2. 3. 4. MM Mm mm 1 and 2 are equally possible.

You mate a pigmented male alligator to a female albino alligator. The clutch of baby alligators includes both pigmented and albino individuals. What is the genotype of the father? 1. 2. 3. 4. MM Mm mm 1 and 2 are equally possible.

Analyzing Which Individuals Manifest the Trait and Which Do Not

Why do breeders value pedigreed horses and dogs so much?

7.10 Whats your blood type?


Some genes may have more than two alleles.
It can be O, A, B, or AB

Multiple Allelism
in

which a single gene has more than two alleles individual still carries only two alleles

each

Inheritance of the ABO Blood Groups


A, B, and O alleles The A and B alleles are both completely dominant to O. The A and B alleles are codominant to each other. Individuals can be one of four different blood types: A, B, AB, and O.

Why are people with type O blood considered universal donors? Why are those with type AB considered universal acceptors?