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Test-Taking Tips

Practice makes perfect! - Gives peace of mind when one knows he is prepared. Having an accurate expectation of examination questions is calming and provides quicker computation. Focus only on the sought data - There could be excess data, tables and graphs which serves to confuse. One must develop a data-selection ability and ignore those unnecessary info. Control the Timing - Precision is important BUT do not spend too long on one item. Skip difficult questions and solve easy questions first. Easy items are scattered all throughout the test.

Watch out for tricky questions - These questions will ask about something not stated from the problem. Knowing how to detect them will spare you time. Don't leave blank spaces - Many tests are really lengthy that no one could finish them all. But many test-takers fail to fill-in those unanswered items. It would be nice to allot about 2 minutes before the end of the exam to make good guesses on unanswered items. Remain Calm - Do visualization and other relaxation techniques.

Topics
Logical & Spatial Reasoning

Clerical Ability Test Analogies Numerical Reasoning

Logical Reasoning
is a system that we use to construct an argument from observation and known facts.

Deduction

means determining the conclusion using the rule and its precondition to make a conclusion

Logical Reasoning
- Are classified into three. They are:

Induction

Abduction

Deduction
means determining the rule. Knowing the rule after several events prove a consistent idea.

Logical Reasoning
- Are classified into three. They are:

Induction

Abduction

Deduction

Logical Reasoning
- Are classified into three. They are:
means determining the precondition. using the conclusion & the rule to support that the precondition could explain the conclusion.

Induction

Abduction

Logical Statements have the following:


Precondition Conclusion

Maria is a nun.

All nuns are prayerful.

Maria is prayerful.

Rule

Deduction - determining the conclusion (Precondition) It rained. (Rule) "When it rains, the grass gets wet. (Conclusion) ?

Ans.

Therefore, the grass is wet.

Induction - determining the rule

(Precondition) "The grass has been wet


(Rule) ?

(Conclusion) every time it has rained.

Ans. Therefore, the rule is, when it rains, the grass gets wet."

Abduction - determining the precondition. (Precondition) ?

(Rule) "When it rains, the grass gets wet. (Conclusion) Therefore, the grass is wet.

Ans.

It rained.

Logical Reasoning

Given: Argument or Explanation

Task: To Analyze

Product:
Description of the Argument Draw Conclusion Contradict or Defend the Argument Draw an Assumption

Avoid being influenced by your own personal opinions.


Draw rough diagrams, charts

*Follow the line of reasoning then use the Common Sense standard of logic.
Note: You dont need to have a masteral or doctorate degree to answer logical questions

How to answer logical reasoning questions?

I. Read the question first before reading the passage and mark the keyword

II. Read the passage, focus on elements important to the question

III. Read the question again.

IV. Do the analysis of the answer choices by eliminating those that are irrelevant, inconsistent, or beyond the scope of the passage.

V. Of the remaining answer choices, choose the best answer

Suggested Answering Approach

Types of Logical Questioning

Conclusion Determination

Supposition Argument Enhancement / Reduction Error Identification Error Correction

Appraisal

Harmonizing

Construction

Inference

Divergence Process Standard Parallel Reasoning

Underlying issue

Supposition
These questions require the examinee to make an assumption about a missing portion of the argument presented.

Argument Enhancement/Reduction
These problems require the examinee to make a selection that will either enhance or reduce the validity of a stated argument.

Appraisal Questions

Error Identification
These problems require the examinee to identify the logical error contained in the argument or scenario given.

Error Correction
These problems require the examinee to choose the selection that best corrects the problems in a reasoning statement or argument.

Appraisal Questions

Inference
These problems require the examinee to follow the facts provided to a reasonable conclusion.
Conclusion Determination

Divergence
These problems require the examinee to follow two points of view on a particular topic and identify where the two points of view diverge.

Process
These problems require the examinee to recognize the process(es) used by the exam writer to produce the problem.

Harmonizing

Standard
These problems require the examinee to correlate facts given to specific standards or provided standards to their necessary facts.

Parallel Reasoning
Examinee must identify identical reasoning used in different circumstances.

Harmonizing

Underlying issue
These problems require the examinee to identify the underlying issue and separate it from the facts. Function: These problems require the examinee to identify the purpose of various statements given in a passage.

Construction

Syllogistic Reasoning basic logic


is concerned with using syllogisms to draw conclusions from premises.

a form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
Here is an example of a valid categorical syllogism: Major premise: All mammals are warm-blooded. Minor premise: All black dogs are mammals. Conclusion: Therefore, all black dogs are warm-blooded.

Major Premise makes a general statement that the writer believes to be true.

Minor Premise presents a specific example of the belief

Conclusion If the reasoning is sound, the conclusion should follow from the two premises. . . .

Syllogistic Reasoning

What Makes a syllogism valid? true? sound?


true when it makes valid (or logical) when accurate claims--that is, To be sound, a its conclusion follows when the information it syllogism must be both contains is consistent from its premises. valid and true. with the facts.

Syllogistic Reasoning

Is this syllogismValid? True? Sound?


Major premise: All mammals are warm-blooded. Minor premise: All black dogs are mammals. Conclusion: Therefore, all black dogs are warm-blooded.

Ans. Yes, it is valid, true and sound. How about statements A & B? Are they Valid, True and Sound Syllogisms?

Valid, False, Unsound

Statement 1: All men are animals. Statement 2: Some animals are female. Conclusion: Some men are female.

Invalid, True, Unsound

A)

B) Statement 1: All men are animals. Statement 2: Some animals are aggressive. Conclusion: Some men are aggressive.

Syllogistic Reasoning

The previous syllogisms were examples of Syllogistic traps. Simply, Syllogistic Traps mean we are using what we know to be true as substitute for the logic of the statement.

Using Venn Diagrams

Syllogistic reasoning uses rational logic and hence set theory applies and the best way to visualize it is to draw a Venn Diagram. Proof: The animals who are aggressive are not necessarily men.

Syllogistic Reasoning

Common Syllogistic Traps


Affirming the Consequent: If A then B. B is true, so A is true. Denying the Antecedent: If A then B. A is false, so B is false. Four Terms: All A is B. All C is D. So all A is D. Illicit Major: All X is Y. No P (which is a subset of Y) is X. Therefore no P is Y. Illicit Minor: All X are Y. All X are P. Therefore all P are Y. Unspoken assumption: All Y is X. Undistributed Middle: All A is B. All C is B. Therefore all C is A. Unspoken assumption: All P are X.

Syllogistic Reasoning

Affirming the Consequent


I am in London, England. I am in England, therefore I am in London.

Denying the Antecedent


If you give a man a gun, he may kill someone. If he has no gun, then he will not kill anyone.

Four Terms
All dogs are mammals. All fish are animals. So all dogs are animals. [true, but not proven by the first two statements] Man is an intelligent animal. No woman is a man. Therefore no women are intelligent animals. ['man' has two different meanings]

Illicit Major
All Londoners are European. No Parisiens are Londoners. Therefore no Parisiens are European.

Syllogistic Reasoning

Illicit Minor
All New Yorkers are beautiful. All New Yorkers are intelligent. Therefore all intelligent people are beautiful.

Undistributed Middle
All Californians are beautiful. All women are beautiful. Therefore all women are Californian. All fools act stupid. You acted stupid. Therefore you are a fool. All elephants are big. Some boys are big. Therefore some boys are elephants.

Syllogistic Reasoning

Rules for Categorical Syllogism


(a common type of syllogism)
Rule 1: There must be three terms and only three the major term, the minor term, and the middle term. (Sample Error) Animals are living beings. Plants are heavenly bodies. Therefore

Rule 3: The middle term Rule 2: Each term must must be distributed at occur twice in the least once. syllogism: the major must occur in the conclusion (Sample Error) and in one premise, the All sharks are fish. minor in the conclusion All salmon are fish. and in one premise; the middle in both premise Therefore, all salmons are but not in the conclusion. sharks.

Syllogistic Reasoning

Rules for Categorical Syllogism


(a common type of syllogism)
Rule 4: The major and minor terms may not be universal in the conclusion unless they are universal in the premises. Same applies for minor terms. (Samle Error) All horses are animals. All dogs are not horses. Therefore, all dogs are not animals. Rule 5: If both premises are affirmative, the conclusion must be affirmative. The reason for this rule is that affirmative premises either unite the minor or major terms. (Sample Error)All sins are detestable. All pretenses are a sin. Therefore, all pretenses are not detestable.

Rule 6: If one premise is affirmative and the other negative, the conclusion must be negative. (Sample Error) All crows are birds. All wolves are not crows. Therefore, all wolves are birds.

Syllogistic Reasoning

Rules for Categorical Syllogism


(a common type of syllogism)

Rule 7: If both premises are negative and not equivalently affirmative there can be no conclusion. (Sample Error)Reptiles are not mammals. Dogs are not reptiles. Therefore

Rule 8: If both premises are particular there can be no conclusion.

Syllogistic Reasoning

Ready for some fun Logic Exercises?


Lets GO!!!!!!

1.The fact that the _______ of confrontation is no longer as popular as it once was _______ progress in race relations.

A.insidiousness reiterates B.practice inculcates C.glimmer foreshadows D.technique presages E.reticence indicates

2. Which can be inferred from the following conversation? Heidi: I have just have heard that Rico failed the bar exams. Mavic: Impossible, Rico was very witty.

A. Mavic thinks Heidi is telling a lie. B. Heidi thinks that Rico failed the bar exams. C. Mavic assumes that no witty individual can fail the bar exams.* D. Heidi thinks that Rico failed the bar exam. E. Mavic thinks that Heidi got the wrong information.

Logic Exercises

3. At MSA preschool, Rochelle holds a position senior to Ruth, and Kai holds a junior post to Ruth. Who holds the junior-most position? A. Rochelle

4. It is either one of ours or one of yours. It is not one of ours. Therefore, ______________. A. It is one of ours B. It is one of yours. C. It is not one of yours. D. It is not one of ours. E. None of the above.

B. Ruth

C. Kai

D. MSA

E. no one

Logic Exercises

5. Caloy is an artist. This conclusion can be deduced from which of the following statements?

A. If one is an artist, he draws meaningful pictures. B. At all concerts, everyone who is not an artist is seated in one of the back rows. Caloy is seated in the front row.

6. Statement: "If you trouble me, I will slap you." - A mother warns her child. Assumptions: I.With the warning, the child may stop troubling her. II.All children are basically naughty.

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Some of the artists belong to the AAP. Caloy belongs to the AAP. C. Either I or II is implicit D.If Caloy was not asked to join the Seniors Club, then he is not an artist. Caloy was asked to join the said club. D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. None of the above. E.Both I and II are implicit

Logic Exercises

7) At a conference, 12 members shook hands with each other before & after the meeting. How many total number of hand shakes occurred?

8) The day after the day after tomorrow is four days before Monday. What day is it today?

9) Forest is to tree as tree is to ?

A) 100

A. Monday

A. plant

B) 132

B. Tuesday

B. leaf

C) 145

C. Wednesday D. Thursday

C. branch

D) 144

D. mangrove

E) 121

E. Friday

Logic Exercises

A fisherman has 5 fishes (namely A, B, C,D, E) each having a different weight. (i) A weighs twice as much as B. (ii) B weighs four and a half times as much as C. (iii)C weighs half as much as D.

(iv) D weighs half as much as E. (v) E weighs less than A but more than C.
10) Which of the following is the lightest? (i) A weighs twice as much as B. (ii) B weighs four and a half times as much as C. (iii)C weighs half as much as D. (iv) D weighs half as much as E. (v) E weighs less than A but more than C.

Ans: (iii) C

Logic Exercises

A fisherman has 5 fishes (namely A, B, C,D, E) each having a different weight. (i) A weighs twice as much as B. (ii) B weighs four and a half times as much as C. (iii)C weighs half as much as D.

(iv) D weighs half as much as E. (v) E weighs less than A but more than C.
11) In the same problem, E is lighter in weight than which of the following pairs? (i) B,D (ii)D,C Ans: (v) A,B (iii)A,D (iv)B,C (v)A,B

Logic Exercises

12) 6121135 is to flame as 21215120 is to ?

13) What is the missing letter in this series: h g ? e d

14) What is the missing letter in this series: c c d ? e f g g h

A. voice A. a B. bald B. b B. c C. d A. b

C. bloat
C. c D. castle D. f E. i

D. e
E. f

Logic Exercises

15) What is the missing letter in this series: a z b ? c x

16) What is the missing letter in this series: f g e h d i c ?

17) What is the missing letter in this series: r q p r q p ?

A. b

A. a B. b

A. o

B. c
C. w D. x

B. p
C. q D. r E. s

C. j
D. k E. l

E. y

Logic Exercises

18) Tanya is older than Eric. Cliff is older than Tanya. Eric is older than Cliff. If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

19) Children are in pursuit of a dog whose leash has broken. James is directly behind the dog. Ruby is behind James. Rachel is behind Ruby. Max is ahead of the dog walking down the street in the opposite direction. As the children and dog pass, Max turns around and joins the pursuit. He runs in behind Ruby. James runs faster and is alongside the dog on the left. Ruby runs faster and is alongside the dog on the right. Which child is directly behind the dog?

A. true

B. false A. James C. uncertain

B. Ruby

C. Rachel

D. Max

Logic Exercises

Direction (for Q.Nos. 20 - 21): Each question given below consists of a statement, followed by two arguments numbered I and IL You have to decide which of the arguments is a 'strong' argument and which is a 'weak' argument. 21) Statement: Is paying ransom or agreeing to the conditions of kidnappers of political figures, a proper course of action? Arguments: Yes. The victims must be saved at all cost. No. It encourages the kidnappers to continue their sinister activities.

A.Only argument I is strong B.Only argument II is strong C.Either I or II is strong D.Neither I nor II is strong E.Both I and II are strong
Ans. E Both the arguments are strong enough.

Logic Exercises

21) Statement: Should there be a world government? Arguments: Yes. It will help in eliminating tensions among the nations.

No. Then, only the developed countries will dominate in the government.
A.Only argument I is strong B.Only argument II is strong C.Either I or II is strong D.Neither I nor II is strong E.Both I and II are strong

Ans. B Clearly, a world government cannot eliminate tensions among nations because it will also have the ruling group and the opposition group. Further, the more powerful and diplomatic shall rule the world to their interests. So, only argument II holds.

Logic Exercises

Direction (for Q.Nos. 22- 23): In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts. Statements: Some pastries are toffees. All toffees are chocolates. Conclusions: Some chocolates are toffees. Some toffees are not pastries.

A.Only conclusion I follows B.Only conclusion II follows C.Either I or II follows D.Neither I nor II follows E.Both I and II follow

Ans. A

Logic Exercises

23) Statements: No gentleman is poor. All gentlemen are rich. Conclusions: I. No poor man is rich. II. No rich man is poor.
A.Only conclusion I follows B.Only conclusion II follows C.Either I or II follows D.Neither I nor II follows E.Both I and II follow

Ans. D

Logic Exercises

24) Which word does NOT belong with the others?

A. seat B. rung

Directions: The words in the bottom row are related in the same way as the words in the top row. For each item, find the word that completes the bottom row of words. 25) tadpole lamb frog sheep amphibian ?

C. cushion
D. leg

A) animal B) wool C) farm D) mammal

Ans. D.

Logic Exercises

Spatial Reasoning
is the ability we use to position and orientate ourselves in everyday environments.

Spatial reasoning consists of two main abilities:


spatial visualization ability which is your ability to call up images in your mind and the ability to reason with these images.

Spatial reasoning ability questions cover:


shape matching, shape rotation, combining shapes, cube views in 3-dimensions, and the manipulation of other solid shapes in 2 and 3 dimensions.

Spatial Reasoning

Spatial Reasoning Combining Shapes

These questions show you a series of 2-dimensional shapes. One of the shapes has been cut up into pieces. The questions presents you with the pieces and you are asked to work out which of the shapes has been cut up.
Spatial Reasoning Cubes in 3-dimensions

These questions show you views of a 3-dimensional cube with unique figures, markings or symbols on each face. You are then asked to say which symbol is on the opposite face.
Spatial Reasoning Matching 2-dimensional shapes

These are speed questions. In these types of question you will be presented with a number of objects only two of which are identical. You will need to identify the identical shapes, one of which may have been rotated.

Spatial Reasoning

Spatial Reasoning Matching Rotated Groups

In these types of question you will be presented with a series of groups of objects, only 2 of the groups are identical. You will need to identify the identical groups, one of which will have been rotated.
Spatial Reasoning Solids in 2 and 3-dimensions

These questions use solid shapes which may be irregular. In other words, each face of the solid shape has a shape of its own rather than just being square.
Spatial Reasoning Maps and Plans

These questions often appear in tests for emergency services, military and law enforcement jobs where the ability to give or follow directions based on a map or street plan is essential.

Spatial Reasoning

How to Improve on Spatial Reasoning Tests

Identify relationships,

Find similarities and differences between shapes and patterns,

Recognize visual sequences and relationships between objects,

and Retain the pattern/rule.

How to Answer Spatial Reasoning Tests

B.

A.

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 1,2

E.

C.

blue square, blue square + red circle underneath, blue square + red circle + green triangle on top, blue square + red circle + green triangle + black circle underneath, blue square + red circle + green triangle + black circle + red square on top: C is the answer

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 3,4

D.

D.
Hint: Mind the gap

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 5,6

B.
Hint: Colour Cycling

B.
Hint: Count everything!

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 7,8

C.
Hint: Count the lines

E.
Hint: Rectangle orientation

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 9,10

E.
Hint: Blue squares

D.
Hint: Clockwise

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 11,12

B.
Hint: Follow the leader

C.
Hint: Lines

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 13,14

Your task here is to look at the target figure and decide which of the rotated figures below is identical to it. If you do not think any of the figures is the same as the target shape then choose the answer option (e) none of these.

Ans. e

Ans. c

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 15,16

Ans. B

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 16

Ans. A

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 17

Ans. D

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 18

Ans. D

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 19

Ans. C

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 20

Ans. B

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 21

Ans. D

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 22

Ans. A

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 23

Ans. West Ans. B) N

Spatial Reasoning Exercises 24,25

Clerical Ability Test


This part of the Civil Service Exam will only cover two abilities i.e. Alphabetization and Matching Ability.

Alphabetization
Exercise: Job Jack Fragrance Indecent Hill Heel Flamboyan Fragrant

Matching Ability
Requires one to match an exact duplicate of the given set of words or phrase to the choices given.

Be careful with:
Spelling, Numbers, Punctuations, Designation, Special Symbols, Abbreviations, Salutations

1. John L. Smith Po Box 2354 Chico, CA 95927

2. Expedia.Com Ltd - Travel Agency7 Soho Square West Central London W1D 3QB
A. Expedia,Com Ltd - Travel Agency 7 Soho Square West Central London WLD 3QB

A. John L. Smith P.O. Box 2854 Chico, CA 95927

B. John L. Smith Po Box 2354 Cico, Ca 95927

B. Expedia.Com Ltd - Travel Agency 7 Soho Square West Central London W1D 3QB

C. Jonn L. Smith Po Box 2354 Chico, CA 95927

C. Expedia.Com Ltd - Travel Agency 7 Sobo Square West Central London W1D 3QD

D. John L. Smith Po Box 2354* Chico, CA 95927

D. Expedia.Com Ltd - Travel Agency 7 Soho Square W. Central London w1D3Qb

Matching Ability Exercises

Analogies
These types of questions ask you to determine the relationship between a pair of stem words and find the same relationship in one of the answer pairs.

Working Analogy Questions


When reading the analogy questions you can interpret the colons like this: (:) translates to "is to" and (::) translates to "as". Let's try one. The capitalized words are the stem words.

SKYSCRAPER:SHACK::
A) elevator:escalator

(B) house:building

(C) village:town

(D) jetliner:biplane (E) chimney:fireplace

Analogies

So whats the answer? D.

Comparing the Stem Words


SKYSCRAPER:SHACK::
The stem words - skyscraper and shack.
(A) elevator:escalator

What's their relationship?


(B) house:building

A skyscraper is a large, modern structure. A shack is a small oldfashioned structure So the relationship is: large, modern structure vs. small and old-fashioned structure

(C) village:town

(D) jetliner:biplane

(E) chimney:fireplace

So whats the answer?

SKYSCRAPER:SHACK::

Finding the Answer


Notice something? The stem words are about buildings, but the correct answer has nothing to do with buildings. You're looking for

(A) elevator:escalator

(B) house:building

(C) village:town

same RELATIONSHIPS, NOT same CATEGORIES. The first word was a modern and big version of the second word.

(D) jetliner:biplane

(E) chimney:fireplace

SPORT:SOCCER::

Defining the Relationship


Here are some helpful tricks to determine the relationship.

(A) fish:river (B) volleyball:net (C) field:fun (D) stadium:game (D) stadium:game

Start with the second word instead of the first. See example below. "Soccer is a kind of sport." Lets do the same for the other word pairs.
1.

Hence the answer is. E.

SPRING:RAIN::
(A) suitor:gifts

Defining the Relationship


2. Nouns or Verbs? Identifying what part of speech the words are help in defining the relationship of the stem words. See left. Choice (A) is the right answer. Spring, the season, brings rain, in the same way that a suitor brings gifts.

(B) pollen:bee

(C) farm:tractor

(D) automobile:traffic

(E) requirement:limitation

The following are the eleven most common analogy relationships.

It is to your advantage to memorize them so you can approach the analogy questions on the with confidence.

Common Relationships

Type 1: Type Of
SOCCER:SPORT:: You saw one like this before, remember? Soccer is a type of sport.

Here's another example: JAYWALK:MISDEMEANOR:: Jaywalk is a type of misdemeanor, or minor crime.

Type 2: Definition
PROCRASTINATOR:DELAY:: A procrastinator is someone who delays. Or you could say, delay is what a procrastinator does. Whatever order you use for the stem words is the order you must use for each of the choices.

Type 3: Opposites
STARVATION:BINGEING:: Starvation is the opposite of bingeing.

Common Relationships

Type 4: Lack Of
PAUPER:MONEY:: A pauper lacks money. The first word lacks the second word.

Type 5: Same
PERSUASIVE:CONVINCING:: Someone who is persuasive is also convincing; the two words are synonyms.

Type 6: Extremes
HOT:SCALDING:: The second word is the extreme of the first word.

Common Relationships

Type 7: Part to Whole


PLATOON:SOLDIER:: The second word is part of the first word.

Type 8: Use
GILLS:BREATHING:: Gills are used for breathing. The first word is used for the purpose of the second word.

Type 9: Place
DESERT:OASIS:: The second word is located in the first word.

Common Relationships

Type 10: Sign Of


SNARL:ANGER:: The first word is a sign of the second word.

Type 11: Job-Related Pairs


SURGERY:INCISION:: An incision is performed in surgery. The second word is something that is done during the first word. SCALPEL:SURGERY:: A scalpel which is a doctor's cutting tool is used in surgery. The first word is a tool used for doing the second word. CONSTRUCTION:CARPENTER:: The second word is someone who performs the first word.

Common Relationships

1. ANGLE : DEGREE
A. area : square inch B. milk : quart C. society : classes D.letter : alphabet E. time : minutes

2. BIRD : NEST ::
(A) dog : doghouse (B) squirrel : tree (C) beaver : dam (D) cat : litter box (E) book : library

3. DALMATIAN : DOG ::
(A) oriole: bird (B) horse : pony (C) shark : great white (D) ant : insect (E) stock : savings

4. DOCTOR : HOSPITAL ::
(A) sports fan : stadium (B) cow : farm (C) professor : college (C) professor : college (E) food : grocery store

5. CUB : BEAR ::
(A) piano : orchestra (B) puppy : dog C) cat : kitten (D) eagle : predator (E) fork : utensil

Exercises : Each of the questions below consists of two words that have a certain relationship to each other, followed by five lettered pairs of related words. Select the lettered pair of words.

6. TENET : THEOLOGIAN ::
(A) predecessor : heir (B) hypothesis : biologist (C) recluse : rivalry

7. CONFIRMED : INVETERATE

8. DORY : VAN

9. PARENTHESIS : EXPLANATION
A. ellipsis : omission

A. knowledge : supposed

A. dairy : cow

B. financial : bankrupt

B. fish : vehicle

B. asterisk : exaggeration

C. immature : callow

C. freighter : caisson

C. synopsis : affectation

(D) arrogance : persecution

D. credible : incredible

D. runners : wheels

D. apostrophe : annotation

(E) guitarist : rock band

E. careful: punishing

E. danish : Dutch

E. synthesis : interpolation

Exercises : Each of the questions below consists of two words that have a certain relationship to each other, followed by five lettered pairs of related words. Select the lettered pair of words.

Numerical Reasoning
For numerical reasoning tests, unlike those for personality and psychological assessment, one can learn and improve the skills necessary for success by completing practice tests with similar questions.

Whats a Numerical Reasoning Test?


A numerical reasoning test is a power test rather than a speed test because the questions require you to interpret the information provided and then apply the appropriate logic to answer them. In other words, you need to work out how to get the answer, rather than just doing the necessary calculations.

Definition

The tests are based mainly on financial, statistical and economic topics and they specifically include:
percentages, proportions, indices, charts and tables, means, comparisons, costs, sales data, trends, currency conversions and more

What are to be expected in the exam? Arithmetic Questions includes: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division number sequences simple mathematics (percentages, powers, fractions, etc) Number Sequences find missing numbers in a sequence. Alphabet letters as numbers is another variation to this type of questioning.

Data Interpretation information is provided and requires the test-taker to exert the right logic to answer the question. Eg. Table and graph interpretation

Numerical Reasoning

1. 139 + 235 = A) 372 B) 374 C) 376 D) 437

2. 139 235 = A) -69 B) 96 C) 98 D) -96

3. 5 x 16 = A) 80 B) 86 C) 88 D) 78

4. 45 / 9 = A) 4.5 B) 4 C) 5 D) 6

5. 15% of 300 = A)20 B) 45 C) 40 D) 35

6. + x 3/4 = A)3/8 B) 13/8 C) 9/16 D) 3/4

Exercises on Arithmetic Questions

Number Sequences
Numerical Reasoning
These questions require you to find the missing number in a sequence of numbers. This missing number may be at the beginning or middle but is usually at the end.

7) 481632____

8) 481220____

9) 5449____...3934

A) 48

A) 32

A) 47

B) 64
C) 40 D) 46

B) 34
C) 36 D) 38

B) 44
C) 45 D) 46

Number Sequences: Find the next number in the series

Find the next letter in the series


11) AZBY--12) TVXZ---

Number Sequences A variant of number sequences is the use of Alphabet as Numbers. Be very extra careful while keeping a good pace when doing these items.

10) BEHK---

i) L ii) M

i) C ii) X

i) Y ii) B

iii) N
iv) O

iii) D
iv) Y

iii) A
iv) W

Data Interpretation
Numerical Reasoning
"the application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study". Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/3452410

13) Below are the sales figures for 3 different types of network server over 3 months.

13a) In which month was the sales value highest?

13b) What is the unit cost of server type ZXC53?

13c) How many ZXC43 units could be expected to sell in April?

A) January B) February C) March

A) 12

A) 56

B) 13
C) 14

B) 58
C) 60

Data Interpretation

percentages, proportions, indices, charts and tables, means, comparisons,

costs, sales data,


trends, currency conversions and more

Numerical Reasoning Topics

Percentage
a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fraction of 100 (per cent meaning "per hundred" in Latin).

Percentages are used to express how large/small one quantity is, relative to another quantity.

The first quantity usually represents a part of, or a change in, the second quantity, which should be greater than zero.

For example, an increase of $ 0.15 on a price of $ 2.50 is an increase by a fraction of 0.15/2.50 = 0.06. Expressed as a percentage, this is therefore a 6% increase.

Percentage

Convert Decimals to Fractions


Convert Fractions to Percents Convert Percents to Decimals

Percentage

Convert Decimals to Fractions


Step 1: Write down the decimal divided by 1, like this: decimal/1

How do I Simplify a Fraction ?

Step 2: Multiply both top and bottom by 10 for every number after the decimal point.

Step 3: Simplify (or reduce) the fraction

Method 1. Try dividing both the top and bottom of the fraction until you can't go any further (try dividing by 2,3,5,7,... etc).

Method 2. Divide both the top and bottom of the fraction by the Greatest Common Factor.

Percentage

Convert Fraction to Decimals and Percents

Lets Try! Convert 3/8 to decimal and percent. Convert Percent to Decimals
Just move the decimal point 2 places to the left and remove the "%" sign!

Step 1: Find a number you can multiply by the bottom of the fraction to make it 10, or 100, or 1000, or any 1 followed by 0s.

Step 2: Multiply both top and bottom by that number.

Step 3. Then write down just the top number, putting the decimal point in the correct spot.

Percentage

1) Convert 2/5 decimal.

2) Convert 69% to decimals.

3) Express 17.5% as a fraction.

4) Express 260% as a fraction.

5) Convert 1.05 to percent. A) 0.00105 % B) 0.0105% C) 105%

A) 0.25
B) 0.20 C) 0.15 D) 0.13 E) 0.35

A) 6.9
B) 0.069 C) 0.69 D) 69 E) 0.0069

A) 17/100 B) 1/5 C) 9/40 D) 7/9 E) 7/40

A) 2 3/5
B) 1 3/5
C) 13/50

D) 5/13

D) 10.5%

E) 6/7

E) 1%

Percentage Exercises

percentages, proportions, indices,

charts and tables,


means, comparisons, costs, sales data, trends, currency conversions and more

Numerical Reasoning Topics

Proportions
A proportion is a name we give to a statement that two ratios are equal.

It can be written in two ways: two equal fractions,


or, using a colon, a:b = c:d There are three kinds of proportion. They are direct, indirect and partitive.

Direct Proportion is defined as increase in one quantity causes increase in other quantity or decrease in one quantity causes decrease in other quantity. E.g. Twice the soup costs twice he money Indirect/ Inverse Proportion this is when one quantity decreases as another increases by the same factor. Partitive Proportion Partitive proportion involves identifying parts of a whole based on a given ratio of these parts. Eg. A father wants to leave $4675 to his four children in the ratio of 1:3:3:4. How much will each of the four children receive?

Proportions

1) John plans to donate his collection of 3042 books to three libraries in the ratio of 1:3:5. How many books will each library get?

2) If two pencils cost $1.50, how many pencils can you buy with $9.00?

3) Four pipes can fill a tank in 70 minutes. How long will it take to fill the tank by 7 pipes?

4) Imran brought 40 toys each cost Rs.14. How many toys Imran can buy at Rs.8 each from the same amount?

5) Jane ran 100 meters in 15 seconds. How long did she take to run 1 meter?

A) Direct A) Direct A) Direct A) Direct

A) Direct B) Indirect B) Indirect B) Indirect C) Partitive C) Partitive C) Partitive C) Partitive C) Partitive B) Indirect

B) Indirect

Identify what kind of proportion is given.

Proportions

How to solve direct proportion?

1. Put the #s with the same quantities together on the left, the smaller # on top.

2. The remaining number is kept together with one of the first two numbers.

Proportions

1) For every 3 students, we need a computer. The class has 42 students.

2) The recipe says 6 cups cereal for every 5 cups of marshmallows. But we only have 3 cups of cereals.

16

15
25 27 33

2.15
2.50 3 3.25

Proportions

How to solve Inverse Proportion?

1. Put the #s with the same quantities together on the left, the smaller # on top.

2. The remaining # is not kept together with one fof the first two numbers.

Proportions

1. It took 175 mins. To reach the cottage at 80 km/hr. If we drive 100 km/hr, how long will the trip be?

2. 6 people cleaned the stadium in 3 hours. How long will it take 4 people?

100mins.

4 hrs.

45mins.

5.5 hrs.

140mins.

3.75 hrs.

120mins.

6 hrs.

115mins.

4.5 hrs.

Proportions

How to solve partitive proportion?

To get the answer, divide the number representing the total, by the sum of the terms in the ratio then, multiply the quotient by each of the term in the ratio.

Proportions

1. Divide 1035 in the ratio of 2:3:4.

2. A father wants to leave $4675 to his four children in the ratio of 1:3:3:4. How much will each of the four children receive?

3. John plans to donate his collection of 3042 books to three libraries in the ratio of 1:3:5. How many books will each library get?

Proportions

percentages, proportions, indices, charts and tables, means, comparisons,

costs, sales data,


trends, currency conversions and more

Numerical Reasoning Topics

Indices
The index of a number shows you how many times to use the number in a multiplication.

It is written as a small number to the right and above the base number.
In this example: 82 = 8 8 = 64 The plural of index is indices. (Another name for index is exponent or power)

1o = 1 181 = 18 22=4 32=9 4 2 = 16 5 2 = 25 6 2 = 36 7 2 = 49 8 2 = 64 9 2 = 81

10 2 = 100 11 2 = 121 12 2 = 144 13 2 = 169 14 2 = 196 15 2 = 225 23=8 3 3 = 27

4 3 = 64 5 3 = 125 6 3 = 216 7 3 = 343 8 3 = 512 9 3 = 729

Indices

percentages, proportions,

indices,
charts and tables, means, comparisons, costs, sales data,

trends,
currency conversions and more

Indices

Mean, Median, Mode, and Range


Mean, median, and mode are three kinds of "averages.

Mean, Median, Mode, and Range


The "median" is the "middle" value The "mean" is the in the list of The "mode" is the "average" you're numbers. To find value that occurs used to, where you the median, your most often. If no add up all the numbers have to number is numbers and then be listed in repeated, then divide by the numerical order, so there is no mode number of you may have to for the list. numbers. rewrite your list first.

The "range" is just the difference between the largest and smallest values.

Example: Find the mean, median, mode, and range for the following list of values: 13, 18, 13, 14, 13, 16, 14, 21, 13

percentages, proportions, indices, charts and tables, means, comparisons, costs, sales data,

trends, currency conversions and more

comparisons

comparisons

Math Shortcuts

A. Adding Even Numbers from 2 to another 2-Digit Even Number


1. Choose a 2-Digit Even # 2. Divide it by 2 3. Multiply the result by the next number Eg. Add all even numbers from 2 to 44 1.44/2 = 22 2. 22 x 23 = 506 ans. B. Adding a Sequence of Consecutive Odd Numbers 1. Choose a 2-digit odd number then add one to the number 2. Divide the result by 2 3. Square this number Eg. Add all odd numbers from 1 to 81. 81 + 1 = 82 1. 82/2 = 41 2. 41 x 41 = 1681

Shorcuts for Addition

C. Adding a Sequence from 1 to a selected 2-Digit Number 1. Choose a 2-digit number. 2. Multiply the 2-digit number by half of the next number, or multiply half of the 2-digit number by the next number.

Eg. The number to add is from 1 to 34. 1. The next number is 35. 2. 34/2 = 17; then multiply 17 x 35. D . Adding a Sequence from 1 to a Selected 1-Digit Number and Back. 1. Choose a 1-digit number 2. Square it. Eg. Suppose you are to add numbers from 1 to six and back. 1+2+3+4+5+6+5+4+3+2+1 = 36 Shortcut: (6)2 = 36

Shorcuts for Addition

A. Multiplying 1-Digit Number with 2-Digit Number, and 2-Digit Number Multiplied.
-Use the Distributive Property of Multiplication over Addition A (B+C)=(A.B)+(A.C) Eg. 7 ( 43) = 7 ( 40 + 3 ) = ( 7 . 40 ) + ( 7 . 3 ) = 360 + 21 = 381 Eg. 57 (815) = ( 50 + 7 ) ( 800 + 10 + 5 ) = ?

Shorcuts for Multiplication

Let's try another one. This time, suppose you work in a lab. You need a 15% acid solution for a certain test, but your supplier only ships a 10% solution and a 30% solution. Rather than pay the hefty surcharge to have the supplier make a 15% solution, you decide to mix 10% solution with 30%solution, to make your own 15% solution. You need 10 liters of the 15% acid solution. How many liters of 10% solution and 30% solution should you use?

"Mixture" Word Problems