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Training Material

Project Human Resources


Management

© Tata Consultancy Services ltd. October 15, 2008 1


Change log
Update date - Updated by - Log of changes

Devi - Created the PPT


11-Dec-02 Gajendri Jayakumar – Updated the Document
02-Feb-03 - Rakesh Gupta - Updated as per PMBOK 2000 version.
Modified the organization and presentation of topics.
17-Feb-03 - Alexander Jesumarian - Reviewed the material
18-Feb-03 - Prasad Raghavulu - Reviewed the contents and
inserted diagrams as appropriate.
21-Feb-03- Rama Ramesh- Reviewed and made some cosmetic
changes in the document.
03-Mar-03 – Vijay
14-Aug-05 –Ramcharan Arya – Updated PMBOK2004 new content
16-Sep-05 –Mohammad Nashimuddin – Reviewed and made some
changes in the document

TCS Confidential HR Management Ver 1.0. 2


Project Human Resources Management
Project Human Resource Management
includes the
processes that
organize
and
manage
the project team

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roject Human Resources Management
Enterprise
Environment Organization culture
Factor Project management
Human Resource
text Planning Develop Project Management Plan
Plan

Template/Checklists
Organizational
Roles and Responsibilities
Process Assets
Project Organization Charts
Staffing Management plan

Process
Flow
Activity Resource Activity Resource
text
Estimating Requirement
Acquire project team Approved Change Request
Approved Corrective actions

Diagram
Approved preventive actions

Project
Project staff assignments
Resource availability
Staffing management plan ( updates)

Human
Resource
Performance Performan
Reporting ce Report
Develop Project
text Team

Work
Team Performance Assesment
Managem
ent
Performan
Direct and Manage
text ce
Project Execution
Informatio
n Project Management
Plan (updates)
Requested Changes
Recommended correction
actions
Recommended Preventive
Manage Project
text Team actions Integrated Change
text Control
Close Project Organizational process Assets

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Project Human Resource
Management
Human Resource Planning – Identifying and
documenting project roles,
responsibilities, and reporting relationships, as well as
creating the staffing
management plan.

Acquire Project Team – Obtaining the human


resources needed to complete
the project.

Develop Project Team – Improving the competencies


and interaction of team
members to enhance project performance.

Manage Project Team – Tracking team member


performance, providing
feedback, resolving
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HR Management Ver 1.0. 5
and coordinating changes to
Project Human Resource
Management
Human Resource Planning

Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs

.1 Enterprise Environmental Factors .1 Organization Charts and Position .1 Roles and Responsibilities
.2 Organizational Process Assets Descriptions .2 Project Organization Charts
.3 Project Management Plan .2 Networking .3 Staffing Management Plan
.3 Organizational Theory

Human Resource Planning : Inputs, Tools & Techniques , and Outputs

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Project Human Resource
Management
Human Resource Planning

•Human Resource Planning determines project roles,


responsibilities, and reporting relationships, and
creates the staffing management plan.

•The staffing management plan can include


•How and when project team members will be
acquired
•Criteria for releasing them from the project,
•Identification of training needs,
•Plans for recognition and rewards,
•Compliance considerations, safety issues,
•Impact ofHRthe
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staffing7 management plan on the
Management Ver 1.0.
Project Human Resource
Management
Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Planning: Inputs
Enterprise Environmental Factors : Define the project roles
and responsibilities as per existing organizations & how the
technical disciplines and people currently interact with one
another.
• Organizational
• Technical
• Interpersonal
• Logistical
• Political

Constraints that can limit flexibility in the Human Resource


Planning process are:
• Organizational structure.
• Collective bargaining
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HR Management Ver 1.0. 8
Project Human Resource
Management
Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Planning: Inputs

Organizational Process Assets: lessons learned from


past Human Resource Planning experiences are available
as organizational process assets to help plan the current
project.
• Templates
• Checklists

Project Management Plan : Includes the activity


resource requirements, plus descriptions of project
management activities.
• Activity Resource Requirements : determine the human
resource needsHR for
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Management 1.0. 9
Project Human Resource
Management
Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Planning: Tools &
Techniques

• Organization Charts and Position Descriptions


•Hierarchical-type charts
•Matrix-based charts
•Text-oriented formats
•Other sections of the project management plan

•Networking
•Organizational Theory
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Project Human Resource
HumanManagement
Resource Planning
Human Resource Planning: Outputs
Roles and Responsibilities
• Roles
• Authority
• Responsibility
• Competency

•Project Organization Charts


•Staffing Management Plan
•Staff acquisition.
•Timetable.
•Release criteria.
•Training needs.
•Recognition and rewards.
•Compliance.
•Safety.
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Project Human Resource
Management
Acquire Project Team

Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs

.1 Enterprise .1 Pre-Assignment .1 Project Staff


Environmental Factors .2 Negotiation Assignments
.2 Organizational Process .3 Acquisition .2 Resource Availability
Assets .4 Virtual Teams .3 Staffing Management
.3 Roles and Plan (Updates)
Responsibilities
.4 Project Organization
Charts
.5 Staffing Management
Plan

Acquire Project Team: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

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Project Human Resource
Management
Acquire Project Team: Inputs

• Enterprise Environmental Factors : Project team


members are drawn from all available sources, both
internal and external .

• Organizational Process Assets: organizations


involved in the project may have policies, guidelines, or
procedures governing staff assignments
• Roles and Responsibilities : define the positions,
skills, and competencies that the project demands
• Project Organization Charts : provide an overview
regarding the number of people needed for the project
• Staffing Management Plan : identifies the time
periods each project team member will be needed and
other information important to acquiring the project team
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Project Human Resource
Management
Acquire Project Team: Tools and
Techniques

• Pre-Assignment: Project team members both internal


and external .

• Negotiation
• Acquisition : organization lacks the in-house staff
needed to complete the
project, the required services can be acquired from outside
sources. Hiring individual consultants or subcontracting
• Virtual Teams: Virtual teams can be defined as groups
of people with a shared goal, who fulfill their roles with
little or no time spent meeting face to face .

The virtual team format makes it possible to:


• Form teams of people from the same company who live in widespread
geographic areas HR Management Ver 1.0.
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Project Human Resource
Management
Acquire Project Team: Outputs

• Project Staff Assignments: Project team members


both internal and external .

• Resource Availability
• Staffing Management Plan (Updates) : Changes in the
staffing
management plan needed because people seldom fit the
exact staffing requirements that are planned. Other
reasons for changing the
staffing management plan include promotions,
retirements, illnesses, performance
issues, and changing workloads.

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Project Human Resource
Management
Develop Project Team

Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs

.1 Project Staff .1 General Management .1 Team Performance


Assignments Skills Assessment
.2 Staffing Management .2 Training
Plan .3 Team-Building Activities
.3 Resource Availability .4 Ground Rules
.5 Co-Location
.6 Recognition and
Rewards

Develop Project Team: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

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Project Human Resource
Management
Develop Project Team

Develop Project Team improves the


competencies and interaction of team
members to enhance project performance.
Objectives include:
•Improve skills of team members in order to increase their
ability to complete project activities
•Improve feelings of trust and cohesiveness among team
members in order to raise productivity through greater
teamwork.

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Project Human Resource
Management
Project Team: Inputs
Project Staff Assignments : Project staff assignment
documents identify the people who are on the team.

Staffing Management Plan : Identifies training


strategies and
plans for developing the project team.

Resource Availability : Identifies times that project team


members can participate in team development activities.

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Project Human Resource
Management
Develop Project Team: Tools and
Techniques
General Management Skills: known as “soft skills,” are
particularly important to team development. Skills such as
empathy, influence, creativity, and group facilitation are
valuable assets when managing the project team.

Training : includes all activities designed to enhance the


competencies of the project team members. Training can be
formal or informal.

Team-Building Activities :Team-building strategies are


particularly valuable when team members operate virtually from
remote locations, without the benefit of face-to-face contact.

Ground Rules : Establish clear expectations regarding


acceptable behavior by project team members.

Co-Location : placing
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many or all of the most active project
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19
Project Human Resource
Management
Develop Project Team: Outputs
Team Performance Assessment: Effective team development
strategies and
activities are expected to increase the team’s performance,
which increases the
likelihood of meeting project objectives. The evaluation of a
team’s effectiveness
can include indicators such as:

•Improvements in skills that allow a person to perform assigned


activities more effectively

•Improvements in competencies and sentiments that help the


team perform better as a group

•Reduced staff turnover rate.


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Project Human Resource
Management
Manage Project Team

Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs


.1 Organizational Process
Assets .1 Observation and .1 Requested Changes
.2 Project Staff Assignments Conversation .2 Recommended
.3 Roles and Responsibilities .2 Project Performance Corrective Actions
.4 Project Organization Appraisals .3 Recommended
Charts .3 Conflict Management Preventive Actions
.5 Staffing Management Plan .4 Issue Log .4 Organizational Process
.6 Team Performance Assets (Updates)
Assessment .5 Project Management
.7 Work Performance Plan (Updates)
Information
.8 Performance Reports

Manage Project Team: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

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Project Human Resource
Management
Manage Project Team
Involves tracking team member performance,
providing feedback, resolving issues, and
coordinating changes to enhance project
performance. The project management team
observes team behavior, manages conflict,
resolves issues, and appraises team member
performance.

Management of the project team is


complicated when team members are
accountable to both a functional manager and
the project manager within a matrix
TCS Confidential HR Management Ver 1.0. 22
Project Human Resource
Management
Manage Project Team: Inputs
• Organizational Process Assets
• Project Staff Assignments
• Roles and Responsibilities
• Project Organization Charts
• Staffing Management Plan
• Team Performance Assessment
• Work Performance Information
• Performance Reports

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Project Human Resource
Management
Manage Project Team: Tools and
Techniques
Observation and Conversation :Observation and
conversation are used to stay in touch with the work and
attitudes of project team members.

Project Performance Appraisals : Objectives for conducting


performance appraisals during the course of a project can
ensure team members receive positive feedback. Evaluation
information also can be gathered using 360-degree feedback
principles.

Conflict Management : Successful conflict management


results in greater productivity and positive working relationships.
Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a
direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues,
increasingly formal procedures will need to be used, including
the possible useHRof
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Management Ver 1.0. 24 actions.
Project Human Resource
Management
Manage Project Team: Outputs
•Requested Changes :.
•Recommended Corrective Actions:
•Recommended Preventive Actions:
•Organizational Process Assets ( Updates)
 Input to organizational performance appraisals.
 Lessons learned documentation.
Lessons learned in the area of human resources can
include:
Project organization charts, position descriptions,
and staffing management plans
Ground rules, conflict management techniques, and
recognition events
Procedures for virtual teams, co-location,
negotiation, training, and team building that proved to
be successful
Special skills or competencies by team members
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HR Management Ver 1.0. 25
during the project
Other Important Topics
Theories of Motivation
Maslow’s Theory
People do not work for money/security alone but to
realize their full potential and to become the best they
are capable of becoming

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Project Human Resources Management
Theories of Motivation

McGregor’s Theory
All of the work force could be put into one of the
two groups - either ‘X’ or ‘Y’
Group X:
People dislike work and avoid responsibility so
they need to be controlled and threatened
before they work hard enough.
Group Y:
People are willing to work on their own and can
direct their own work.

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roject Human Resources Management
Theories of Motivation
Herzberg’s Theory
Deals with Hygiene factors and motivating agents.

Hygiene factors: Lack of Hygienic factors destroy


motivation but improving them will not improve
motivation.

Motivation agents: What motivates people is the


work itself.

Expectancy Theory
Individuals expect to be rewarded based on their
performance and stay productive as long as
rewards meet
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HR Management expectations.
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Project Human Resources Management
Responsibility Assignment Matrix
Member
Work
Item Allen Bradley Cummins Diesel Notes
GetSensor Prime Backup
Data
AssembleControl Prime Backup
Board
HW Backup Prime
Architecture
SW Backup Prime
Architecture
SoftwareDevelopment Y Y Y Y
Integration Prime Backup
Test
Documentation& Backup Prime
Report

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Project Human Resources Management
Resource Histograms
300

250

200
Designers
Resource Usage

150
Programmers
100 Testers

50

0
Jan Feb Mar Apr
Resource Usage Staff Hours

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Project Human Resources Management
Organizational Chart
An organization chart is a graphic
display of project reporting relationships

M r./M s . A B C
E x e c u t iv e V ic e P r e s id e n t
C h ie f I n f o r m a t io n O f f ic e r

M r/M s . D E F M r/M s . G H I M r/M s . J K L


L E C S o f t w a r e D e v e lo p m e n t E -C o m m e rc e C o m m u n ic a t io n s & I n f o r m a t io n
S e r v ic e s

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roject Human Resources Management
Leadership

There are numerous Definitions for Leadership.


As per PMI, leadership involves
 Establishing Direction
 Aligning people
 Motivating and Inspiring

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roject Human Resources Management
Leadership Styles

Authoritarian (autocratic)
The leader dominates the team member, tells
them what he/she wants to be done and how,
without seeking their advice.

Participative (democratic)
The leader makes decision by consulting with his
team, while maintaining the final decision
making authority.

Delegative (Laissez-Faire)
The leader allows the team members to make the
decisions, while still being responsible for the
decision
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roject Human Resources Management
Powers of Project Managers

Expert: Expertise in the project related work

Formal : Based on the position

Penalty: Authority to penalize within the


project framework

Referent: Referring to senior management

Reward: Giving out rewards


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Project Human Resources Management
Seven Sources of conflict
In order of frequency
 Project Schedule
 Project Priorities
 Project Resources
 Technical Opinion of the team members
 Project/Organizational Administrative
Procedures
 Project Cost
 Team Member’s Personality

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Project Human Resources Management
Conflict Resolution Techniques

 Compromising

 Forcing

 Problem Solving

 Smoothing

 Withdrawal

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Project Human Resources Management
Some important terms
Perquisites (Perks)
Parking Spaces, Corner offices, executive dining
Fringe Benefits
Education, benefits, insurance, profit sharing
Halo Effect
Using one factor as the deterministic factor for
other qualities as well to judge individuals
War Room
Co-locating the entire project team in a room.

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Q&A
An organization chart which shows the
organizational units responsible for specific work
packages is also called :
1 Organizational breakdown structure

2 Staffing plan

3 Responsibilities Assignment Matrix

4 Organization Plan

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Q&A
All the following tools and techniques can be used
for staff acquisition except:
1 Negotiations

2 Contractual agreements with unions or


other employee groups

3 Preassignment of staff through a


competitive proposal

4 Staff assignment as defined in the project


charter

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Q&A
According to Herzbergs theory, the absence of
hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction,
but their presence does not motivate or create
satisfaction. Which of the following can be
categorized as a hygiene factor?
1 Recognition

2 Responsibility

3 Advancement in career

4 Interpersonal relations

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Q&A
In your previous project, the project manager gave
a lot of autonomy to the team members to do as
they deemed fit. At times, this lead to anarchy
because the team members were not very sure
of what needed to be done. The manager
however followed a management style, which
was:
1 Directing
2 Laissez Faire
3 Delegating
4 Democratic

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Q&A
In your project, you have designated a "war room"
where your team congregates and posts
schedules, updates etc. This is an example of:
1 Collocation

2 Team-building activity

3 Training

4 Solving critical problems

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Q&A
Management has requested that you create a
chart depicting all of the project resource needs
and the associated activities. Management is
looking for which type of chart?

3 A roles chart

5 A roles matrix

7 A roles and responsibilities matrix

9 A Gantt chart

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Q&A
You are the project manager for the GBK Project.
This project effects a line of business and the
customer is anxious about the success of the
project. Which of the following is likely not a top
concern for the customer?
1 Project priorities

1 Schedule

1 Cost

3 Personality conflicts

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Key Terms
Coercive power Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation Referent power
Collective Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Resource histogram
bargaining
Agreements McGregor’s Theory of X and Y Responsibility
Compromising Ouchi’s Theory Z Reward power
Expectancy Problemsolving Role
Theory
Expert power Project interfaces Wmoothing
Forcing Staffing
management plan
Formal power War room
Withdrawal

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