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The Balance Sheet & Its Analysis

(Chapter 5)

Objectives
1. Discuss the purpose of the balance sheet. 2. Illustrate the format and structure of the balance sheet. 3. Outline some issues related to valuing assets. 4. Show the difference between a cost-basis and a market-basis balance sheet. 5. Define owner equity or net worth. 6. Analyze a firms solvency and liquidity. 7. Introduce the statement of owner equity.

The Balance Sheet


Summarizes the financial condition of the business at a point in time:
Remember - the snapshot idea!

Estimates net worth or owner equity. Most transactions affect the balance sheet, so it may change daily.

Purpose of a Balance Sheet


Everything owned and owed by a business or individual at a given point in time. Asset anything of value owned. Liability any debt or other financial obligation owed to someone else. Owner Equity/Net worth the amount the owner has invested in the business. Balance idea: Owner Equity = Assets Liabilities

Preparing a Balance Sheet


Can be completed at anytime. Most are prepared at the end of the accounting period
Represents both end-of-the-year and beginning-ofthe-year.
That is, end of year 1 = beginning of year 2!

For comparison purposes and analysis.

Should follow guidelines of some recognized accounting entity:


FFSC = Farm Financial Standards Council used for farm-based businesses.

General Format of a Balance Sheet


Assets
Current assets Noncurrent assets Total assets $XXX XXX $XXX

Liabilities
Current liabilities $XXX Noncurrent liabilities XXX Total liabilities $XXX

Owners equity
Total liabilities and owners equity

XXX $XXX

Assets
An asset can be sold to generate additional cash. Used to produce other goods.

Current Assets
Goods that have already been produced and can be sold quickly without disrupting future production activities:
Grain. Feeder livestock. Other inventories.

Goods that will ordinarily be used up or sold within the next year:
Cash. Checking and savings account balances. Marketable investments. Accounts and notes receivable. Inventories of feed, farm supplies, etc..

Noncurrent Assets
Any asset that is not a current asset. Assets that are owned primarily to produce the output that will be sold to produce revenue. Selling noncurrent assets to generate revenue would affect the firms ability to produce future income. More difficult to sell quickly and easily at their full market value:
Machinery and equipment. Breeding livestock. Buildings. Land.

Liabilities
An obligation or debt owed to someone else. An outsiders claim against one or more assets of the business.

Current Liabilities
Financial obligations that will become due and payable within 1 year
Accounts payable. Principal and accumulated interest on short-term loans or notes payable (operating loans). Principal payments on long-term loans due within the next year: Machinery, land. Accrued expenses:
Accumulated interest, accrued property taxes, etc.

Noncurrent Liabilities
All obligations that dont have to be paid in full within the next year.
The remaining balance on long-term debt.

Owner Equity
The amount of money left for the owner if the assets were sold and all liabilities paid. Also called Net Worth. The owners current investment in the business. Equity = Total assets - Total liabilities

Changes in Owner Equity


Using assets to produce income:
Profit is then used to purchase additional assets or to reduce liabilities.

If there is a change in an assets value. If an inheritance is received. Cash or property is contributed to the business or withdrawn from the business. An asset is sold for more or less than its balance sheet value. Important to recognize that only certain things bring about a change in owner equity.

Changes in Owner Equity


Composition of assets and liabilities may not cause a change in owner equity:
If $10,000 cash is used to purchase a new machine? If $10,000 is borrowed to purchase a new machine? Until depreciation, no impact! Using $10,000 from cash to make an early principal payment on a loan?

Owner equity changes only when:


The owner invests personal capital from outside the business. The owner withdraws personal capital. The business shows a profit or loss. Changes in asset values because of changes in market prices.

Intermediate Assets
Dividing noncurrent assets into two categories (allowed by FFSC):
1. Intermediate assets have a life greater than 1 year but less than 10 years: Machinery, equipment, perennial crops, breeding livestock 2. Fixed assets have a life greater than 10 years: Land, buildings

Intermediate Liabilities
Dividing noncurrent liabilities into two categories.
1. Intermediate liabilities debt obligations where repayment of principal occurs over a period of more than 1 year and as long as 10 years: Loans used to purchase machinery, breeding livestock, and other intermediate assets. 2. Fixed liabilities debt obligations where the repayment period is longer than 10 years: Farm mortgages, land purchases.

This additional division is recognized by FFSC, but not encouraged.

Asset Valuation
Cost-basis:
Values all assets using the cost, cost less depreciation, or farm production cost method. Inventories of grain and market livestock can be valued at market value less selling costs.

Market-basis:
Values all assets at market value less selling cost: Inflation and fast depreciation methods can cause market values to be higher than book values. Market-basis usually has higher asset values implying higher equity.

Advantages of Cost-basis or Market-basis Balance Sheets


Cost-basis:
Conforms to GAAP. Conservative. Comparable with balance sheets from other types of businesses. Changes in equity come only from net income that has been earned and retained.

Market-basis:
More accurate indication of the current financial condition. Shows the current value of available collateral.**

Use Cost or Market Basis for Balance Sheet?


Both are important and have value. Recommended by FFSC:
Market-based with full documentation. Two column format with both.

Recommend following specified procedure for valuing assets:

Valuation Methods for Cost-basis & Market-basis Balance Sheets


Asset
Marketable securities Inventories of grain & market livestock Accounts receivable Prepaid expenses Investment in growing crops Purchased breeding livestock Raised breeding livestock Machinery & equipment Buildings & Improvements Land

Cost Basis Cost Market Cost Cost Cost Cost Cost or base value Cost Cost Cost

Market Basis Market Market Cost current Cost assets Cost Market Market Market noncurrent Market assets Market

Balance Sheet Analysis


Used to measure the financial condition of the business (management tool):
Compare to other, but similar businesses. Compare to the same business over time.

Lenders use balance sheet analysis to make lending decisions and to monitor the financial progress of their customers. To deal with relative size issue, use what?

Balance Sheet Analysis


A. Measures of Liquidity: 1. Current Ratio 2. Working Capital:
- not a ratio (in $), so size must be considered.

B. Measures of Solvency: 1. Debt/Asset Ratio 2. Equity/Asset Ratio 3. Debt/Equity Ratio

Are others, but these recommended by FFSC


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The Concept of Liquidity


Short-term measure.
Measures the ability to meet financial obligations:
As they come due. Without disturbing normal revenue generating activities.

Ability of the firm to generate cash for running the business.

Measures of Liquidity
Current Ratio:
Total current farm assets Total current farm liabilities or CA/CL:

Example from text: 112,500 88,860 = 1.27


Write the Current Ratio as 1.27:1 Current assets compared to current liabilities. Values > 1 are preferred (safety margin). Larger ratios imply more liquidity.

Measures of Liquidity
Working Capital:
Total current farm assets - Total current farm liabilities:
Example: $112,500 - $88,860 = $23,640 Write the Working Capital as $23,640 $ left after selling all current assets and paying off all current liabilities. Margin of safety in a $ value. Compare to similar sized operations.

The Concept of Solvency


Measures the degree to which liabilities are backed up by assets.
Measures liabilities relative to owner equity. Ability to pay off all liabilities if all assets were sold.

Measures of Solvency
Debt/Asset Ratio:
Total farm liabilities Total farm assets

Example: $368,860 $741,500 = 0.4975 Multiply by 100


Write the Debt/Asset Ratio as 49.75% % (share) of total assets owed to lenders. Lower values are preferred.

Measures of Solvency
Equity/Asset Ratio:
Total farm equity Total farm assets Example: $372,640 $741,500 = 0.5025 Multiply by 100 Write the Equity/Asset Ratio as 50.25% % of total assets financed by owners equity capital. Higher values are preferred.

Measures of Solvency
Debt/Equity Ratio (leverage ratio):
Total farm liabilities Total farm equity Example: $368,860 $372,640 = 0.99 Write the Debt to Equity Ratio as 0.99:1 Lender financing compared to owner financing. Smaller values are preferred.

Balance Sheet Analysis


A. Concept of Liquidity: 1. Ability of the firm to generate cash for running the business. B. Concept of Solvency: 1. Ability to pay off all liabilities if assets are sold.

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Solvency and Liquidity based on valuation method


Our examples used market basis: 1. Liquidity differences if used cost-basis? - look at how relevant assets are valued.
- likely no (or small) difference.

2. Solvency differences if used cost-basis? - lower values for assets = less desirable solvency
measures.

Valuation Methods for Cost-basis & Market-basis Balance Sheets


Asset
Marketable securities Inventories of grain & market livestock Accounts receivable Prepaid expenses Investment in growing crops Purchased breeding livestock Raised breeding livestock Machinery & equipment Buildings & Improvements Land

Cost Basis Cost Market Cost Cost Cost Cost Cost or base value Cost Cost Cost

Market Basis Market Market Cost current Cost assets Cost Market Market Market noncurrent Market assets Market

Statement of Owner Equity


Shows the source of changes in owner equity and the amount that came from each source. Where growth (or lack of growth) is coming from:
Reconciles beginning and ending owner equity.

See example from book (handout).


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Summary
A balance sheet shows the financial position of a business at a point in time. Assets can be valued using cost methods or current market valuations. Liquidity measures the ability of the business to meet financial obligations as they come due and without disturbing normal production. Solvency measures the degree to which the liabilities of the business are backed up by its assets.
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