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Chapter 4

The Medium Access Control Sublayer

Figure 12-2

Project 802

Figure 12-2 Project 802 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet

Xerox started the Project to Connect 2.94 Mbps CSMA/CD systems to connect over 100 PC’s on a 1Km cable called Ethernet

   
IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet Xerox started the Project to Connect 2.94 Mbps CSMA/CD systems to connect
Later joined by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel corporation And made a standard for 10Mbps Ethernet
Later joined by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel corporation
And made a standard for 10Mbps Ethernet
IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet Xerox started the Project to Connect 2.94 Mbps CSMA/CD systems to connect
IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet Xerox started the Project to Connect 2.94 Mbps CSMA/CD systems to connect
 

802.3 was backed by Xerox, 802.4 by General Motors and 802.5 by IBM.

a)

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet LANs

 

The MAC layer uses CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple

Access with Collision Detection) technology. When a computer wants to transmit a frame it:

Listens for a frame on the cable, if busy, the computer waits for a random time and attempts transmission again. This is known as Carrier Sense.

If the cable is quiet, the computer begins to transmit.

Two computers could transmit at the same time. To prevent this happening, the transmitting computer listens to what it is sending.

If what it hears is different to what it is sending, then a collision has occurred. This is known as Collision Detection.

  • a) IEEE 802.3 Ethernet LANs

When a computer wants to receive a frame it:

Listens to all frames traveling on the cable.

If the frame address is the same as the computer’s address or the same as the group address of the computers of which it is a member, it copies the frame from the cable.

Otherwise it just ignores the frame.

Note: Ethernet LAN is a broadcast network. It is possible to

Unicast a frame from one computer to any other computer connected to the same cable.

Broadcast a frame from one computer to all other computers connected to the same cable.

Multicast a frame from one computer to a subset of the computers connected to the same cable.

10 F
10
F

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  • a) IEEE 802.3 Frame Format

Bytes

0 – 1500 1 7 2 4 Pad Data 2 or 6 0 – 46 Frame
0 – 1500
1
7
2
4
Pad
Data
2 or 6
0 – 46
Frame
Start of
2 or 6
7 bytes
Preamble
Checksum
10101010 Delimiter
Data Field
Address
Address
Length of
Source
Destination

Used to synchronise sender with receiver

Tell receiver how many data bytes are being sent.

Packets have to be at least 64 bytes long, this makes it easier to distinguish between valid frames and garbage frames. If the payload is less than this then we need to pad it with extra dummy bytes.

Preamble is used to synchronise the sender with the receiver.

Start of Frame Delimiter follows the Preamble and consists of the bit sequence 10101011. It denotes the start of the Ethernet frame.

  • a) IEEE 802.3 Frame Format

Each manufacturer of Ethernet Network cards assigns each card it manufactures a unique 48 bit Ethernet Address

Destination Address:

 

If all the bits are 1 in the destination address, the message is received by all computers connected to the cable (i.e. Broadcast).

If the first bit is 1, then the rest of the bits indicate a multicast group address that can target more than one computer.

If the first bit is 0, the rest of the bits make up a normal address, which is unique to a single computer connected to the LAN.

Source Address is the Ethernet address of the sending computer.

  • a) IEEE 802.3 Frame Format

Length field tells how many bytes are present in the data

field from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 1500. A data field of 0 bytes is legal, it causes a problem.

When a computer detects a collision, it stops transmitting

its frame which means that corrupted frames appear on the cable. To make it easier to distinguish valid frames from corrupted frames (due to collisions), 802.3 requires valid frames to be at least 64 bytes long from destination to checksum.

If the data portion is less than 46 bytes, the pad field is used to check out the frame to the minimum size of 64 bytes.

The Checksum is used to detect if any data bits have been corrupted during transmission.

Figure 12-9

Figure 12-9 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Figure 12-9-continued

10BASE5

Figure 12-9-continued 10BASE5 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Figure 12-10

Transceiver

Figure 12-10 Transceiver WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Figure 12-11

Figure 12-11 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Figure 12-11-continued

10BASE2

Figure 12-11-continued 10BASE2 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Comparison (Thick/Thin Ethernet)

Advantages of Thinnet

  • b) Cheap

  • c) Easy to install
    d) Flexible

  • e) Light weight

Disadvantages

  • i) Shorter range (185 meters)

  • j) Smaller capacity (few stations/Segments)

Figure 12-12

Figure 12-12 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Figure 12-12-continued

10BASET

Figure 12-12-continued 10BASET WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Advantages

10 Base T

  • c) Easy to add and remove the station

  • d) Easy to configure and maintain

  • e) Cable breaks can be detected easily

Disadvantages

  • j) Shorter range (100 meters)
    k) Extra cost of Hub

Ethernet Cabling

Ethernet Cabling The most common kinds of Ethernet cabling.

The most common kinds of Ethernet cabling.

Ethernet Cabling (3)

Ethernet Cabling (3) Cable topologies. (a) Linear, (b) Spine, (c ) Tree, (d) Segmented.

Cable topologies. (a) Linear, (b) Spine, (c) Tree, (d) Segmented.

Figure 12-14

Figure 12-14 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Fast Ethernet

Fast Ethernet T4 - b) 4 pairs of Cat-3 (2-pairs bidirectional, 2 unidirectional) c) 33.66 Mbps

T4-

  • b) 4 pairs of Cat-3 (2-pairs bidirectional, 2 unidirectional)

  • c) 33.66 Mbps on each

  • d) Encoding 8B/6T

  • e) Length <100ms

TX-

  • g) 2 pairs of Cat 5 (1- S to H

  • h) Encoding 4B/5B

  • i) Signaling NRZ-I

  • j) Length <100ms

FX-

  • l) 2 fibers are used

  • m) Encoding 4B/5B

  • n) Signaling NRZ-I

  • o) Length <2000ms

2 -H to S)

Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet (a) A two-station Ethernet. (b) A multistation Ethernet.

(a) A two-station Ethernet. (b) A multistation Ethernet.

Gigabit Ethernet (2)

Gigabit Ethernet (2) Gigabit Ethernet cabling.

Gigabit Ethernet cabling.

IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control

IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control (a) Position of LLC. (b) Protocol formats.

(a) Position of LLC. (b) Protocol formats.

IEEE 802.4 Token Bus

IEEE 802.4

IEEE 802.4

IEEE 802.4

  • a) Physical Bus and logical ring

  • b) Application in factory automation * Real time (no collision) * Minimum delay

    • 5. Each station knowing the address of station on left and right

    • 6. When initialized, the highest no station may send first frame and after sending, it passes the special frame called token to neighbor

    • 7. No collisions

    • 8. Physical order/location of the station does not matter

    • 9. All stations will receive frame and if does not belong to them, discard it

      • 10. Four priority classes are maintained internally (0,2,4,6)

      • 11. MAC protocol is more complex (more timers and internal state variables need to be maintained)

Physical layer

1. 75 ohm broadband coaxial cable

  • 2. Modulation used: Phase continuous FSK Phase Coherent FSK Multilevel duobinary AM-PSK

  • 3. Speed: 1,5 and 10 Mbps

MAC Sub Layer No control in 802.3 Five times than 802.3
MAC Sub Layer
No control
in 802.3
Five times
than 802.3

IEEE 802.4

Frame control

To distinguish between data and control frames

For data frames it carries:

Frame priority and Indicator (telling the receiver to ACK correct or incorrect receipt)

For control frames it carries:

Frame Type:

Token passing

Various Ring Maintenance Frame

Mechanisms for letting new stations to enter/leave the ring

IEEE 802.5 Token Ring

  • a) 802.5 Token Ring LANs

A Token Ring LAN consists of a collection of ring interfaces connected by point-to-point lines.

Unidirectional Computers Ring – One Way Ring interface
Unidirectional
Computers
Ring – One Way
Ring
interface
  • a) IEEE 802.5 Token Ring LANs

The MAC sub layer uses Token Ring Technology.

In a Token Ring LAN, a special bit pattern called the token circulates around the ring whenever all computers are idle.

When a computer wants to transmit:

It waits for the token to arrive.

When it arrives, it removes the token from the ring. There is only one token so only one computer can transmit at any one time.

The computer can now transmit its frame on its output link for token holding time.

This frame will now propagate around the ring until it arrives back at the sender who removes the frame from the ring.

The sender then regenerates the token and passes it to the next computer (restarting the above steps).

  • a) IEEE 802.5 Token Ring LANs

A computer removing the token, eliminates the possibility of collisions.

Removal of the token is done by inverting a bit in the 3 byte token. Inverting this bit converts the token into the first 3 bytes of a normal data frame.

  • b) Interface power From ring From external source
    c) Priorities are maintained

  • d) Monitor station will manage the ring

Wire Centre (star shaped ring)

Wire Centre (star shaped ring)

Figure 12-16

Physical Layer:

Token Ring Frame

Encoding: Differential Manchester Encoding Data rate: 1,4 and 16 Mbps Addressing : 6 byte NIC

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Figure 12-16 Physical Layer: Token Ring Frame Encoding : Differential Manchester Encoding Data rate : 1,4

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Access Control

Priority

Token

Monitor

Reservation bit

Frame Control

Claim_token: To become monitor when ring initialized Orphan frame: If monitor bit is set Beacon: To check if neighbor is dead Purge: Reinitialize the ring

ED: 1 bit is used to mark last frame in logical sequence

Frame status: A and C bits are used

Comparison of 802.x

802.3 Ethernet – Advantages

Widely used at present. People are experienced in using this technology.

Simple Protocol. New computers can be added with having to bring the network down.

Almost zero delay at low load, there is no need to wait for a token, you can transmit when ready.

802.3 Ethernet – Disadvantages

The electronics is more complicated for carrier sense and collision detection.

The smallest frame must hold 64 bytes, this means there is a substantial overhead if you are only transmitting a single character from your machine.

Ethernet is non-deterministic system (possibility of repeated collisions). This means that Ethernet is not suitable for network applications that require guaranteed delivery times.

Poor performance at high loads as there can be lots of collisions reducing the number of messages that are successfully transmitted

No provision for priorities

802.4 Token Bus – Advantages

More reliable

Deterministic Short frames are allowed

Priorities are allowed

Excellent throughput and efficiency

802.4 Token Bus – Disadvantages

Analog circuitry (Modem and Amplifiers)

Complex protocols

Poorly suited for fiber optics

802.5 Token Ring – Advantages

Token Ring uses point-to-point connections between ring interfaces so that the electronic hardware can be fully digital and simple. There is no need for collision detection.

Can use any medium twisted pair is cheap and easy to install but could equally use fiber optic if available.

Throughput excellent at high loads since there is no possibility of collisions unlike 802.3.

Priorities are possible

Wire center can detect and eliminate breaks

802.5 Token Ring – Disadvantages

Computers must wait for the token to arrive, therefore at load, a computer is delayed before sending.

Each token ring has a monitor computer, to look after the ring (i.e. remove damaged frames, handle lost frames and lost tokens). This introduces a critical point of failure. If the monitor computer failed, the remaining computers would have to wait until it is replaced before being able to continue.

Figure 13-1

DQDB Buses and Nodes

Figure 13-1 DQDB Buses and Nodes WCB/McGraw-Hill Upstream for A The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Transmission

  • a) A station must choose a bus for which a destination station is considered downstream

  • b) An empty slot is generated by head and filled up with data by the station

  • c) To send data on the bus , a station must make the reservation on other bus

Figure 13-2

DQDB Data Transmission

Figure 13-2 DQDB Data Transmission WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Figure 13-3

Queues

Figure 13-3 Queues WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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Figure 13-4

Distributed Queues

Figure 13-4 Distributed Queues Add a token when a slot with reservation bit set passes For

Add a token when a slot with reservation bit set passes

Figure 13-4 Distributed Queues Add a token when a slot with reservation bit set passes For
Figure 13-4 Distributed Queues Add a token when a slot with reservation bit set passes For

For each empty slot it removes a token from the rear

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Figure 13-5

Reservation Token

Figure 13-5 Reservation Token WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Service)

  • a) Using telephone system for connecting LANs is expensive because subscriber must lease the line all of the time or not at all

  • b) SMDS is a packet switched datagram service for high speed MAN traffic

  • c) Work as a backbone

  • d) Pay only when used

  • e) Data rate 1.544 to 155 Mbps

  • f) Telephone numbers are used as addresses

  • g) Multicasting is also possible

Figure 13-9

Switched Multimegabit Data Services

Figure 13-9 Switched Multimegabit Data Services WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

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