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NS101 Deck Equipment

Enabling Objectives
Know the difference between rope and line Know the composition of fiber, wire, and composite rope Know common terms associated with line work Know the various ladders found on a ship Know the purpose of the six standard mooring lines used on naval vessels Demonstrate the ability to draw and label the six standard mooring lines Know and be able to identify various devices and fittings used to secure lines Know the purpose of the line technique dip the eye Know the components of a ships anchoring system Know the components of the standard navy stockless anchor Know the length of a standard navy shot and how to count them

Required Reading: Bluejackets Manual, 24th edition, chapter 19

Mooring Lines
Used to secure the ship to a wharf, pier or another ship. Breast lines - Run at right angles from the ship, control distance of ship from pier. Aft spring lines - Tend aft from ship, control forward movement. Forward spring lines - Tend forward from the ship, control aft movement.

Mooring Line Equipment

Rat guards - Shields secured around mooring lines to prevent rats from coming aboard ships. Chafing gear - Canvas or other material placed around mooring lines to prevent wear.

#1 - Bow line #2 - Aft bow spring line #3 - Forward bow spring line #4 - Aft quarter spring line #5 - Forward quarter spring line #6 - Stern line

Line Fittings and Holders

Cleat - Consists of a double-ended pair of horns, used for securing a line or wire. Bitts - Pairs of heavy vertical cylinders, used for making fast lines led through chocks. Bollard - Strong cylindrical upright on a pier, about which a mooring line is placed. Chock - Heavy fitting with smooth surfaces through which mooring lines are led. Padeye - A metal plate with an eye, attached to the deck to distribute a load over a large area. Capstan - Separate vertical machinery units or part of the anchor windlass around which lines are passed, commonly used in mooring and anchoring evolutions.

Dip the Eye

When two mooring lines are placed on the same bollard, the second one is led up through the first before being put over the bollard. This allows either to be cast off without moving the other.

Common Line Terms

Small stuff - Line or rope less than 1 inches in circumference Tattletale - Small, natural line spaced into a synthetic fiber mooring line to provide an indication of the working load placed on the line Hawser - Heavy line over five inches in circumference. Used for towing or mooring Bight - A loop of line or chain Bitter End - Free end of a length of line, wire chain or cable Eye - Closed loop in the end of a line

Marlinspike - Tapered steel tool used in splicing wire Fid - Tapered wood tool used in splicing lines
Coil - Lay down a line in circular turns on top of one another. Flemish - Coil a line flat on deck

Fake down - Lay out a line in long, flat bights

Heaving line - Light weighted line thrown across to a pier or ship Monkey fist - Knot at the end of a heaving line to provide weight Shot line - Light nylon line used in a line gun

Shipboard Ladders
Jacobs ladder - Rope ladder w/rungs rigged over the side for temporary use. Pilots ladder - Flexible portable ladder, usually constructed of metal, sturdier than a Jacobs ladder. Sea ladder - Rigid, portable ladder that maybe rigged to the side of the ship. Accommodation ladder - Rigid, inclined ladder rigged to the side of the ship to allow boarding of a moored or anchored ship.

Rope and Line

Rope - general term that refers to both fiber and wire. It is manufactured from fiber, wire, or a combination of the two. Line Rope that has been purposely sized, cut, spliced, or simply assigned a function. Nautical term for all rope used aboard a ship.

Fiber Rope
Fashioned from natural or synthetic fibers. It is measured by circumference. Natural: - manila - cotton - hemp Synthetic: - nylon - polyester - polypropylene Aramid: - 4 strands kevlar

Methods of creation Twisted Braided Plaited

Natural vs. Synthetic

Synthetic line has higher breaking strength. Synthetic line lasts longer. Natural line will decay. Synthetic fiber lines slip more easily. Disadvantage: Poor grip when working fittings and holding knots Synthetic lines stretch under load. Allows for elasticity under heavy load: WILL PART AND SNAPBACK UNDER TOO MUCH LOAD.

Wire Rope
Basic unit of construction is the metal wire. Individual wires are laid together to form strands, and strands are laid together to form the wire rope. Measured by diameter.

Designated by: - number of strands per rope, and - number of wires per strand.

Combination Rope
Six main strands of fiber and wire rope laid around a fiber core. Measured by diameter


Anchoring Equipment

Ground Tackle
Collective name for anchoring equipment

Anchor Windlass
Machinery below the forecastle that controls the capstan, gypsy head, and wildcat

Chain Locker Compartment below the anchor windlass where the chain is stored

Capstan and Wildcat

Together the capstan and wildcat pull the anchor chain up from the chain locker. The wildcat teeth are also designed to hold the chain in place when the brake is applied.

Chain Stopper
Holds anchor chain in place

Housing Stopper: Closest to Hawsepipe

Riding Stopper: Additional stopper

Types of Anchors

Parts of the Anchor

Detachable Link
Joins each shot of chain together

Anchor Chain
1 shot = 15 fathoms = 90 feet (1 fathom = 6 feet) The chain is what keeps a ship in place due to its weight, not the anchor
Detachable link

The length of chain you use will always be 5-7 times the depth of the water

Anchor Chain Markings

Shot # Color of Detachable Link # of White Adjacent Links Turns of Wire

1 (15 fathoms) 2 (30 fathoms) 3 (45 fathoms) 4 (60 fathoms) 5 (75 fathoms) 6 (90 fathoms)

red white blue red white blue

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

Detachable link: Red, White, Blue, Red . . .

Adjacent links: # white links on either side = # of shot # of wire wraps are on outboard white links

3rd shot: W/W/W/B/W/W/W Second to last shot: entirely yellow Last shot: entirely red