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Kinematics of Robot

Manipulator
Manipulators
Robot arms, industrial robot
Rigid bodies (links) connected
by joints
Joints: revolute or prismatic
Drive: electric or hydraulic
End-effector (tool) mounted
on a flange or plate secured
to the wrist joint of robot
Forward Kinematics:
to determine where the robots hand is?
(If all joint variables are known)

+Inverse Kinematics:
to calculate what each joint variable is?
(If we desire that the hand be
located at a particular point)


Manipulators
Robot Configuration:
Cartesian: PPP Cylindrical: RPP Spherical: RRP
SCARA: RRP
(Selective Compliance
Assembly Robot Arm)
Articulated: RRR
Hand coordinate:
n: normal vector; s: sliding vector;
a: approach vector, normal to the
tool mounting plate
What is Kinematics
Forward kinematics

Given joint variables




End-effector position and orientation, -Formula?
) , , , , , , (
6 5 4 3 2 1 n
q q q q q q q q =
) , , , , , ( T A O z y x Y =
x
y
z
What is Kinematics
Inverse kinematics
End effector position
and orientation




Joint variables -Formula?
) , , , , , , (
6 5 4 3 2 1 n
q q q q q q q q =
) , , , , , ( T A O z y x
x
y
z
0
x
0
y
1
x
1
y
) / ( cos
kinematics Inverse
sin
cos
kinematics Forward
0
1
0
0
l x
l y
l x

=
=
=
u
u
u
u
l
Robot Reference Frames
World frame
Joint frame
Tool frame
x
y
z
x
z
y
W
R
P
T
Coordinate Transformation
Reference coordinate frame
OXYZ
Body-attached frame Ouvw
w v u
k j i
w v u uvw
p p p P + + =

z y x
k j i
z y x xyz
p p p P + + =

x
y
z
P
u
v
w
O, O
Point represented in OXYZ:
z w y v x u
p p p p p p = = =
Point represented in Ouvw:
Two frames coincide ==>
Mutually perpendicular

Unit vectors
Properties of orthonormal coordinate frame
0
0
0
=
=
=
j k
k i
j i


1 | |
1 | |
1 | |
=
=
=
k
j
i

Properties: Dot Product


Let and be arbitrary vectors in and be
the angle from to , then



3
R
u
u cos y x y x =
x
y
x
y
Translation
Coordinate Transformation
Rotation only
w v u
k j i
w v u uvw
p p p P + + =

x
y
z
P
z y x
k j i
z y x xyz
p p p P + + =

uvw xyz
RP P =
u
v
w
How to relate the coordinate in these two frames?
Basic Rotation
, , and represent the projections of
onto OX, OY, OZ axes, respectively

Since

x
p
P
y
p
z
p
w v u x
p p p P p
w x v x u x x
k i j i i i i + + = =
w v u y
p p p P p
w y v y u y y
k j j j i j j + + = =
w v u z
p p p P p
w z v z u z z
k k j k i k k + + = =
w v u
k j i
w v u
p p p P + + =
Basic Rotation Matrix



Rotation about x-axis with

(
(
(

(
(
(




=
(
(
(

w
v
u
z
y
x
p
p
p
p
p
p
w z v z u z
w y v y u y
w x v x u x
k k j k i k
k j j j i j
k i j i i i
x
z
y
v
w
P
u
u
(
(
(

=
u u
u u u
C S
S C x Rot
0
0
0 0 1
) , (
u
Is it True?
Rotation about x axis with

u u
u u
u u
u u
cos sin
sin cos
cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1
w v z
w v y
u x
w
v
u
z
y
x
p p p
p p p
p p
p
p
p
p
p
p
+ =
=
=
(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

x
z
y
v
w
P
u
u
u
Basic Rotation Matrices
Rotation about x-axis with


Rotation about y-axis with



Rotation about z-axis with



uvw xyz
RP P =
(
(
(

=
u u
u u u
C S
S C x Rot
0
0
0 0 1
) , (

0
0 1 0
0
) , (
(
(
(

=
u u
u u
u
C S
S C
y Rot
(
(
(


=
1 0 0
0
0
) , ( u u
u u
u C S
S C
z Rot
u
u
u
Basic Rotation Matrix



Obtain the coordinate of from the coordinate
of
uvw xyz
RP P =
(
(
(




=
w z v z u z
w y v y u y
w x v x u x
k k j k i k
k j j j i j
k i j i i i
R
xyz uvw
QP P =
T
R R Q = =
1
3
1
I R R R R QR
T
= = =

uvw
P
xyz
P
<== 3X3 identity matrix
(
(
(

(
(
(




=
(
(
(

z
y
x
w
v
u
p
p
p
p
p
p
z w y w x w
z v y v x v
z u y u x u
k k j k i k
k j j j i j
k i j i i i
Dot products are commutative!
Example
A point is attached to a rotating frame,
the frame rotates 60 degree about the OZ axis of
the reference frame. Find the coordinates of the
point relative to the reference frame after the
rotation.



) 2 , 3 , 4 ( =
uvw
a
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(


=
=
2
964 . 4
598 . 0
2
3
4
1 0 0
0 5 . 0 866 . 0
0 866 . 0 5 . 0
) 60 , (
uvw xyz
a z Rot a
Example
A point is the coordinate w.r.t. the
reference coordinate system, find the
corresponding point w.r.t. the rotated
OU-V-W coordinate system if it has been
rotated 60 degree about OZ axis.
) 2 , 3 , 4 ( =
xyz
a
uvw
a
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(

=
=
2
964 . 1
598 . 4
2
3
4
1 0 0
0 5 . 0 866 . 0
0 866 . 0 5 . 0
) 60 , (
xyz
T
uvw
a z Rot a
Composite Rotation Matrix
A sequence of finite rotations
matrix multiplications do not commute
rules:
if rotating coordinate O-U-V-W is rotating about
principal axis of OXYZ frame, then Pre-multiply
the previous (resultant) rotation matrix with an
appropriate basic rotation matrix
if rotating coordinate OUVW is rotating about its
own principal axes, then post-multiply the
previous (resultant) rotation matrix with an
appropriate basic rotation matrix
Example 4
Find the rotation matrix for the following
operations:


...
axis OU about Rotation
axis OW about Rotation
axis OY about Rotation
Answer
o
u
|
(
(
(

+

+
=
(
(
(

(
(
(


(
(
(

=
=
o u | o | o | o u | u |
o u o u u
o | o u | o u | o | u |
o o
o o u u
u u
| |
| |
o u |
S S S C C S C C S S C S
S C C C S
C S S S C C S C S S C C
C S
S C C S
S C
u Rot w Rot I y Rot R
0
0
0 0 1
1 0 0
0
0
C 0 S -
0 1 0
S 0 C
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
3
Coordinate Transformations
Two Special Cases

1. Translation only
Axes of {B} and {A} are
parallel


2. Rotation only
Origins of {B} and {A}
are coincident


1 =
B
A
R
0
'
=
o A
r
Homogeneous Representation
Homogeneous transformation matrix
(

=
(

1 0
1 0
1 3 3 3
3 1
'
P R
r R
T
o A
B
A
B
A
Position
vector
Rotation
matrix
Scaling
Homogeneous Transformation
Special cases
1. Translation



2. Rotation
(

1 0
0
3 1
1 3 B
A
B
A
R
T
(

1 0
3 1
'
3 3
o A
B
A
r I
T
Example 5
Translation along Z-axis with h:



(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
) , (
h
h z Trans
(
(
(
(

+
=
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

1 1 1 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
1
h p
p
p
p
p
p
h z
y
x
w
v
u
w
v
u
x
y
z
P
u
v
w
O, O
h
x
y
z
P
u
v
w
O, O
Example 6
Rotation about the X-axis by




(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0 1
) , (
u u
u u
u
C S
S C
x Rot
x
z
y
v
w
P
u
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

1 1 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0 1
1
w
v
u
p
p
p
C S
S C
z
y
x
u u
u u
Homogeneous Transformation
Composite Homogeneous Transformation
Matrix
Rules:
Transformation (rotation/translation) w.r.t
(X,Y,Z) (OLD FRAME), using pre-
multiplication
Transformation (rotation/translation) w.r.t
(U,V,W) (NEW FRAME), using post-
multiplication

Example 7
Find the homogeneous transformation matrix
(T) for the following operations:

:
axis OZ about of Rotation
axis OZ along d of n Translatio
axis OX along a of n Translatio
axis OX about Rotation
Answer
u
o
4 4 , , , ,
= I T T T T T
x a x d z z o u
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(


=
1 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0
0 0
o o
o o u u
u u
C S
S C
a
d
C S
S C
Homogeneous Representation
A frame in space (Geometric
Interpretation)

x
y
z
) , , (
z y x
p p p P
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
p a s n
p a s n
p a s n
F
n
s
a
(

=

1 0
1 3 3 3
P R
F
Principal axis n w.r.t. the reference coordinate system
(X)
(y)
(z)
Homogeneous Transformation
Translation
y
z
n
s
a
n
s
a
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
z z z z z
y y y y y
x x x x x
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
z
y
x
new
d p a s n
d p a s n
d p a s n
p a s n
p a s n
p a s n
d
d
d
F
old z y x new
F d d d Trans F = ) , , (
Homogeneous Transformation
2
1
1
0
2
0
A A A =
Composite Homogeneous Transformation Matrix
0
x
0
z
0
y
1
0
A
2
1
A
1
x
1
z
1
y
2
x
2
z
2
y
?
i
i
A
1
Transformation matrix for
adjacent coordinate frames
Chain product of successive
coordinate transformation matrices
Example 8
For the figure shown below, find the 4x4 homogeneous transformation
matrices and for i=1, 2, 3, 4, 5
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
p a s n
p a s n
p a s n
F
i
i
A
1
i
A
0
0
x
0
y
0
z
a
b
c
d
e
1
x
1
y
1
z
2
z
2
x
2
y
3
y
3
x
3
z
4
z
4
y
4
x
5
x
5
y
5
z
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 0 1
1
0
d a
c e
A
(
(
(
(

+

=
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
2
0
c e
b
A
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
2
1
d a
b
A
Can you find the answer by observation
based on the geometric interpretation of
homogeneous transformation matrix?
Orientation Representation
Rotation matrix representation needs 9
elements to completely describe the orientation
of a rotating rigid body.
Any easy way?
(

=

1 0
1 3 3 3
P R
F
Euler Angles Representation
Orientation Representation
Euler Angles Representation ( , , )
Many different types
Description of Euler angle representations


|
u

Euler Angle I Euler Angle II Roll-Pitch-Yaw
Sequence about OZ axis about OZ axis about OX axis
of about OU axis about OV axis about OY axis
Rotations about OW axis about OW axis about OZ axis

| |
|
u u u

x
y
z
u'
v'
|
u
v "
w"
w'=
=u"

v'"

u'"
w'"=

Euler Angle I, Animated
Orientation Representation
Euler Angle I
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
,
cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1
,
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
' '
'


u u
u u | |
| |

u |
w
u z
R
R R
Euler Angle I


|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
u u u
u |
u |
|
u |
|
u
u |
|
u |
|
u |
cos sin cos sin sin
sin cos
cos cos cos
sin sin
cos sin cos
cos sin
sin sin
cos cos sin
sin cos
cos sin sin
cos cos
' ' ' w u z
R R R R
Resultant eulerian rotation matrix:
Euler Angle II, Animated
x
y
z
u'
v'
|
u
=v"
w"
w'=
u"

v"'

u"'
w"'=
Note the opposite
(clockwise) sense of the
third rotation, |.
Orientation Representation
Matrix with Euler Angle II
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

u
u u
u
u |
|
u |
|
u |
u |
|
u |
|
cos
sin sin sin cos
sin sin
cos cos sin
cos cos
cos cos sin
sin cos
sin cos
cos cos sin
cos sin
cos cos cos
sin sin
Quiz: How to get this matrix ?
Orientation Representation
Description of Roll Pitch Yaw
X
Y
Z

u
|
Quiz: How to get rotation matrix ?
Thank you!
x
y
z
x
y
z
x
y
z
x
z
y
Homework 1 is posted on the web.
Due: Sept. 16, 2008, before class
Next class: kinematics II