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# How can particles so small be studied?

Particle accelerators
How can mass and charge be
observed in detectors?
Notice in the following picture, some
particles spin clockwise others spin
counterclockwise. These are opposite
charge. Recall R.H. Rule #3 !!
Notice Some particles follow a path with a
smaller radius, these are particles with
lower mass. Remember centripetal force
formula
Hadrons consist of matter which is
composed of Quarks
baryons- Contain three quarks
Protons ( u,u,d)
(+ 2/3, +2/3, -1/3 ) equal +1
Neutrons (u,d,d)
( + 2/3, - 1/3, -1/3 ) equal 0
mesons- Contain a
quark and an anti-quark
www.cerncourier.com/.../42/9/ 19/1/cernparticles1_11-02

## Variety of particles +,- and neutral relative mass?

Quarks in proton,
neutron
For each particle there is a
corresponding anti-particle with a
charge opposite that of its associated
particle.

zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/ 203/may6/may6.html

## Pair of electrons (green) positrons (red)

Leptons Similar to electrons
( charge of negative 1)

## Other Types are more massive than

electrons.
zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/ 203/may6/may6.html

## Pair of electrons (green) positrons (red)

What forces hold matter together?

1. Strong
2. Weak
3. Electromagnetic
4. Gravitational