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Capability Maturity M

What is CMMI?
CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) is a proven industry framework to improve product quality and development efficiency for both hardware and software.

There are currently several internationally recognized quality and improvement models and standards. Among them, CMMI and ISO can be remarked.

CMMI has two representations, i.e. staged and continuous The staged representation uses a maturity levels and is a systematic and structured way to approach process improvement one step at a time. The continuous representation uses capability levels to measure process improvement. The continuous representation is a flexible way to improve process performance as organisations are allowed to improve any single process areas or group of process areas.

CMMI Staged Representation - 5 Maturity Levels

Level 5 Optimizing Process performance continually improved through incremental and innovative technological improvements. Processes are controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques. Processes are well characterized and understood. Processes, standards, procedures, tools, etc. are defined at the organizational (Organization X ) level. Proactive. Processes are planned, documented, performed, monitored, and controlled at the project level. Often reactive. Processes are unpredictable, poorly controlled, reactive.

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ity ce ss M Pr o
Level 3 Defined Level 2 Managed Level 1 Initial

Level 4 Quantitatively Managed

Level 1 - Initial
Each developer uses his or her own tools and methods. Processes are usually ad hoc and the organization usually does not provide a stable environment. Success in these organizations depends on the competence and heroics of the people in the organization and not on the use of proven processes. In spite of this ad hoc, chaotic environment, maturity level 1 organizations often produce products and services that work; however, they frequently exceed the budget and schedule of their projects.

Level 2 - Repeatable
At this level the organization sort of wakes up and instead of blaming its people it starts looking at its current processes as the main cause behind its inefficiencies. The organization starts making realistic project commitments and key projects elements like cost, schedule and scope is tracked. The organization defines a clear policy for project management and begins to plan the projects formally Relationships with both internal and external suppliers are formally managed

Level 3 - Defined
The software process for both management and

engineering activities is documented and standardized for all software projects. Success is achieved by the process (heros are expected). Quality Management System or QMS document is generated which contains documentation regarding all processes. A critical distinction between level 2 and level 3 is the scope of standards, process descriptions, and procedures Creates a group within the organization responsible for software process activities, called Software Engineering Process Group

Level 4 - Quantitatively Managed

Detailed measures of the standard system development process and product quality are routinely collected and stored in a database At Level 4 or Quantitatively Managed level, the organization focuses on managing the projects and processes through the usage of statistical tools. Sub-processes are selected that significantly contribute to overall process performance. These selected sub-processes are controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques. A critical distinction between maturity level 3 and maturity level 4 is the predictability of process performance.

Level 5 - Optimizing
Focusing on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative technological improvements. The standardized system development process (methodology) is continuously monitored and improved based on measures and data analysis established in Level 4 A critical distinction between maturity level 4 and maturity level 5 is the type of process variation addressed. At maturity level 4, processes are concerned with addressing special causes of process variation and providing statistical predictability of the results. At maturity level 5, processes are concerned with addressing common causes of process variation and changing the process (that is, shifting the mean of the process performance) to improve process performance (while maintaining statistical probability) to achieve the established quantitative processimprovement objectives.

CMMI Practices
The CMMI is a model of industry best-practices for engineering products When an organization decides to adopt CMMI, they commit to performing these best-practices Different than a customer-driven process, where you simply do what the customer asks you to do You are performing practices in what you understand to be the best way known in industry Bestimplies predictably producing products of acceptable quality at the lowest possible cost and schedule

Each practice provides value in 3 possible ways: Performance the practice directly reduces cost and or schedule through either increased efficiency, increased effectiveness, or lowered rework Quality the practice produces higher quality products, by either preventing or uncovering defects Communications the practice helps everyone understand expected behavior, or provides insight leading to better decisions

CMMI principals
1.Process discipline leads to predictable project performance Say what you do Document the plans/processes Communicate them to the performers and stakeholders Audit to ensure we are following them 2.Conscious choices lead to better processes E.g., identify relevant stakeholders and their involvement; identify work products to be controlled and the control method; define validation procedures and criteria, 3.Organizational learning improves project performance Capture what works, and what doesnt Make rules (policies) to guide projects Define expected processes, and let projects tailor them to fit Capture work products and measures, and learn from them

Some CMMI Areas Where the Value Isnt Obvious to Many Practitioners
Planning Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) Stakeholder Identification and Management Manage Configurations Risk Management Decision Analysis & Resolution

Steps to Earn your Certification

The candidate's sponsoring organization is an SEI Partner for the CMMI-DEV Level 3 for Practitioners course with a signed agreement. The candidate must be an SEI-Certified CMMI-DEV Level 2 for Practitioners Instructor in good standing. The candidate must have three years of experience as a CMMIDEV Instructor or SCAMPI LA for Development with at least one ML/CL2 or higher appraisal reported to the SEI or equivalent experience as approved by the SEI. SEI Partner submits instructor candidate sponsorship form SEI Partners must apply for the CMMI-DEV Level 3 for Practitioners licensing opportunity. Before an instructor can attend any SEI-sponsored activities described in step 4, a signed agreement must be in place. In addition, your sponsor will also submit a sponsorship recommendation form to the SEI.

Submit Instructor application Submit application to the SEI. When your application is received, it will be reviewed for completeness, and you will receive a confirmation of receipt message.

Application Review Each application will be reviewed by the SEI. Documentation must show that applicants fulfill all the instructor selection criteria in the prerequisites listed above. You will receive a determination of status via email within 30 days of submission. When approved, you will be considered a candidate.

Choose qualification track Candidates have two qualification track options. Once approved by the application review committee, you are then designated as a candidate. Each candidate must choose a qualification track. The SEI must receive notification from the candidate of the decision via email or fax for coordination and scheduling. If you later decide to change to the other qualification track, candidates must notify the SEI.


Regardless of companys profile, these CMMI models can help to diagnose problems and improve performance. There are three CMMI models. Part of each model shares nearly identical practices with the other two models because these practices apply to any business. However, each model also has practices that are unique because each model has a different focus. CMMI for Acquisition : is designed for businesses that focus on working with suppliers to assemble a product or deliver a service. This model delves in to creating effective solicitations and supplier agreements, effectively gathering and communicating requirements to suppliers, monitoring supplier activities and arti-facts, and ensuring the results of supplier work meet the needs of end users.

CMMI for Development : is designed for businesses that focus on developing products and services. This model delves into detail about converting customer requirements into requirements used by developers, effectively integrating product components into the final product or service, performing the technical analysis and development work to design the product or service, and ensuring that development work meets the needs of the end users and the specifications formulated during design.

CMMI for Services : is designed for businesses that focus on establishing, managing, and delivering services. This model delves into detail about planning and managing service capacity and availability, handling complaints and problems, planning for service interruptions, and deciding which services to provide, and ensuring everything is in place to deliver a service, including people, processes, consumables, and equipment.

CMMI Model Foundation (16 Core Process Areas)

Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) Configuration Management (CM) Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) Integrated Project Management (IPM)* Measurement and Analysis (MA) Organizational Process Definition (OPD) Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Organizational Performance Management (OPM) Organizational Process Performance (OPP) Organizational Training (OT) Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)** Project Planning (PP)*** Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) Quantitative Project Management (QPM)**** Requirements Management (REQM) Risk Management (RSKM)

Process areas found only in CMMI for Acquisition

Acquisition Requirements Development (ARD) Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development (SSAD) Agreement Management (AM) Acquisition Technical Management (ATM) Acquisition Verification (AVER) Acquisition Validation (AVAL)

Process found only in CMMI for Development

Product Integration (PI) Requirements Development (RD) Requirements Management (REQM) Supplier Agreement Management (SAM)***** Technical Solution (TS) Validation (VAL) Verification (VER)

Process areas found only in CMMI for Services

Capacity and Availability Management (CAM) Incident Resolution and Prevention (IRP) Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) Service Continuity (SCON) Service Delivery (SD) Service System Development (SSD) Service System Transition (SST) Strategic Service Management (STSM)