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Industrial

Biotechnology
Study Of Processes

Shrirang
Introduct
ion
• Oenology(Greek:Oenos-Wine;logy-Study)-
Science that deals with all aspects of wine &
winemaking
• Discovery Of Oenology-rotten fruits consumed
had an intoxicating effect which was viewed
pleasant
• Vinification-process of wine production from
selection of grapes to bottling of finished wine
• Wine-end product of alcoholic fermentation of
grape juice
• Grape variety used-Vitis vinifera

‘The secret of good winemaking is


good ingredients
Steps in Wine Production
• Harvesting & Selection of Grapes
• De-stemming and Crushing (must)
• Primary Fermentation
• Pressing
• Clarification/Racking of Wine
• Bulk Aging in Oak Barrels
• Stabilization/Filtration
• Pasteurization (optional)
• Bottling or Storage(cellaring)
• Wine is produced by Batch Process
• Raw Material (Grapes) available in
particular season (period of 6-10
weeks)
• Equipments used for Continuous
Process are expensive and remain
unutilized during off-season
• The grape juice obtained from must
is concentrated under vacuum,
stored and diluted before use
Harvesting And Sorting
• Picking and selection of grapes mechanically
or by hand.
• Parameters in harvesting
1.Level of sugar-Saccharometer ,ºBrix or ºBalling(21-23)
2.pH of grapes
3.Titrable acidity(TA)-tartaric acid equivalents
• Mechanical Harvesters
• Manual Harvesting
Quick Brix
Saccharometer
De-stemming
• De-Stemming-the process of separation
of stem from grapes
• Prevents development of crude tannins
and unpalatable vegetal aroma to the wine
(due to extraction of 2-methoxy-3-
isopropylpyrazine which has an aroma
reminiscent of green bell peppers i.e
Capsicum)

Destemme
Crushing
• Removing grapes from rachis and breaking
skin of grapes
• Preparation of ‘Must’-juice obtained on
crushing or pressing grapes
• Constituents of Grape juice-water,
carbs,minerals,tannins,vitamins,pigments,
enzymes,aroma compounds
• Carbonic Maceration or maceration
carbonique
• Addition of SO2 & Potassium metabisulfite
to prevent growth of contaminating
bacteria
Crushing/Stom
ping
Primary Fermentation – Turning Grape Juice
into Alcohol

Wine Varieties
Burgundy
Motrachet
Steinberg
Champagne
Saccharomyces cerevisiae var
ellipsoideus
Factors Affecting
Fermentation
• Sugar Concentration
• Nutrients in Medium
• Nitrogen
• pH
• Temperature
• CO2
• SO2
• O2 Requirement
• Strain of Yeast Steel Fermentation
• Tanks
Malo-Lactic Fermentation
• Use Of Cooling Coils
(Factors Discussed in Detail in Prescott and Dunn)
Draining and Pressing of
‘Must’
• Applying pressure to grapes to separate
juice from grapes/grape skins.
• Must not be done in excess to prevent
increased tannin content in grape
juice(tannic or harsh wine)
• A fruit press (see picture) is a device
used to separate fruit solids - stems, skins,
seeds, pulp, leaves, and detritus - from
fruit juice.
Traditional Fruit
Press Modern Basket wine pre
Adding Grape Must
in Wine Press

Close-up view of wine


being separated from
Must
Clarification/Racking of
Wine
• The process of removal of cloudiness or haze in
wine by filtration or precipitation using a chemical
agent
• This involves the wine to stand still until most
yeast cells and fine suspended solids settle out.
• Clarifiers and their action
1.Sparkalloid
2.Polyclar(Polyvinylpyrrolidone)
3.Pectic Enzyme Powder
4.Bentonite slurry
5.Gelatin Crystals
6.K-Caesinate
7.Kieselsol(Liquid SiO2)
• Stabilization & Filtration of Wine
• Pasteurization (optional)
Different
Stages of
Clarificati
on and
filtration
Racking Of Wine
• “Racking” wine is the process of
separating wine from its sediment, or lees,
and transferring the wine into another
container using a siphon.
• It’s a process of siphoning wine from one
carboy or secondary fermenter to another
(under gravity)
• The Stand Still assembly cause dead
yeast & lees settling down at the bottom
of carboy to provide a clearer wine.
• It’s a vital step in wine making as dead
yeast (Yeast Autolysis) can impart
bad/meaty taste to the resultant wine and
White
Wine
Lees(Sedim
ents)

carboy

Siphon
Red
Sediments (dead
yeast et al)
Sediments in a Carboy/Settling Vats after
Racking the wine
Racking of Wine…contd

Wine Racks
Aging of Wine in Oak
Barrels
• A resting period occurring after the
fermentation period of the wine making
process.
• It allows time for the wine to improve its
qualities through and endless series of
natural changes
• Aging can be done in neutral containers
such as stainless steel, cement lined
vats, old large casks
• Wines are stored in barrels to affect their
taste, aroma, complexity et al
• The barrels cause slow O2 diffusion and
Aging of wine….contd..
• Flavors imparted in Oak Barrel Aging Process-
vanilla, butter, spice et al
• Use of charred wood or wood toasted with fire
• Extent of Charring depends on style & taste of
wine desired
• Barrels available of different size, shapes, and of
variety of woods as per the flavor of wine
required
• New barrels impart more flavor than old barrels
(one can be used for 5 yrs)
• Economics of Oak Barrel Aging
• Standard wine barrels come in two sizes, 200
liters (52 gals) and 225 liters (59 gals)[1
gallon=3.8L~]
• Aromatic wines do not need
oak barrel aging
Oak Barrels-Impart Oak Flavor to wine in
Aging in Oak Barrels
Advantages Disadvantages
• Results in • The barrels need to be
decreased changed after one
astringency and batch of aging
increased color and • The selection of wood
stability is crucial as it results
in flavor of the
• Provides resultant aged wine
oxygen,fruity • The wood barrels
aromas,improved (Oak, Redwood) are
texture, taste expensive
• Difficult to handle and
hard to clean
• Prone to wood Borers
A short list of wines that typically
benefit from prolonged aging (five
years or more)
• Barolo
• Barbaresco
• Bordeaux
• Brunello di Montalcino
• Burgundy (Red and White)
• Cabernet Sauvignon from Napa
Valley, California
• Hermitage (Rhone Valley, France)
• Meritage from California
• Shiraz from Australia
• Spatlese from Germany Tokay Pinot Gris
from Alsace, France
Storage (Cellaring) and
Bottling
• Cellar-A cool, dark location in which wine is
stored, often for the purpose of ageing
• An underground place for wine to grow to
maturity without distraction and disturbance.
• Wine bottles/barrels, carboys, amphorae (long
ceramic vessels with long neck) used for cellaring
• Cellaring-also known as extended aging process

Amphora
Underground Storage Place-
CELLAR
Clarificat
ion

Oak/Redwoo
d

optional

Stora
Winemaking-A quick
Glance!!
About Botrytis cinerea
• Fungus that attacks grape berries and introduces
oxidative enzymes laccases
• Laccases(oxidative damage-Red Wines)
• Diseases in plants & humans
Winegrowers Lung (Animals)
• Wine Spoilage Organisms
• Sterilization and pasteurization of wine to
rid other acetogenic bacteria

Grapes infected with B.


cinerea
Classification of Wines
• Red Wine
• White Wine
• Sparkling Wine
• Fortified Wine (Port)
• Dry Wine
• Still Wine
• Dessert Wine
• Appetizer Wine
Red and White Wine
Production
Preparation
of ROSE
WINE

Cap of the
Grape Skin

• Pumping Over
Red Wine
• Punching Down Production
Sherry-Solera Process
• A solera is a series of barrels or
other containers used for aging
liquids such as Sherry, Madeira,
Marsala, Mavrodafni (a dark-red
fortified dessert wine from Greece),
and
Sherry Vinegars
Barrels placed one above
the other to Transfer
wine

“Traditionally Jugs and Funnels are used


to transfer Sherry From Barrel To Barrel”
Sherry-Port Wine/Solera
Wine
• Sherry is aged in the solera system where
new wine is put into wine barrels at the
beginning of a series of 3 to 9 barrels.
Periodically, a portion of the wine in a barrel
is moved into the next barrel down, using
tools called the canoa (canoe) and
rociador (sprinkler) to move the wine
gently and avoid damaging the layer of flor
in each barrel. At the end of the series only
a portion of the final barrel is bottled and
sold. Depending on the type of wine, the
portion moved may be between 5 and 30
percent of each barrel. This process is
called "running the scales," because
each barrel in the series is called a
scale.
Do’s for a
Winemaker
• Monitoring the maturity of grapes to
ensure their quality and to determine the
correct time for harvest
• Crushing and pressing grapes
• Monitoring the settling of juice and the
fermentation of grape material
• Filtering the wine to remove remaining
solids
• Testing the quality of wine by tasting
(Wine Taster)
• Placing filtered wine in casks or tanks for
storage and maturation
• Preparing plans for bottling wine once it
Professions in wine
production
• Cooper (wine barrels’ manufacturing)
• Negociant (Wine Merchant)
• Vintner/Wine-maker
• Garagista (amateur winemaker ,home scale)
• Sommelier (Restaurant personnel)
• Wine Taster (Tasting wine Quality)
• Consultant Oenologist (Detailed study of
chemistry of wine)
• Viticulturist (Manages vineyard, deals with pruning
grapes and trained in science of grapevines
References
• www.wikipedia.org
• www.calwineries.com
• www.winecellartech.com
• www.fosters.com.au/enjoy/wine/wine_glossary
• www.wineracks.com
• www.geocities.com/lumeisenman/contents.htm
• Industrial Microbiology-Prescott And Dunn,4th
Edi.
• Industrial Biotechnology-BD Singh
• Microbial & Fermentation Technology-Pepler
& Perlman
Lets have a Wine
Party!!!!

THANK YOU