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Data Communications Overview

Computer Science 204 Digital Network Technology

NEWS

Change to tutorial schedule (from that provided on Monday):

Tutorial sign up sheets are on the notice board. The schedule has changed slightly:

Wednesday is now at 11-12 (NOT 10-11)

The COMP204 requirements document has been updated.

Laboratory 2 if you try to cd ~comp204 it wont work yet

The programmers will action the creation of the directory shortly

Terms Test still awaiting confirmation of day/time/place We need to ask for a class representative to be elected. This is university policy, but you should not feel pressured to have one if there are no volunteers.

Volunteers? Please make yourselves known. We will vote for acceptance of the class representative on Thursday if there are any volunteers
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3 March 2004

Lecture 2/3 Outline

Today we will concentrate on chapter 1 from the text book (and some review of topics from TECH 102)

Discuss signals => types of networks Discuss types of data networks Learn about some problems of networks

What is our data? and Encoding our Data

Introduce protocols and protocol architectures Discuss the importance of standards


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Where not otherwise stated the figures come from Data Communications and Networking, B. Ferouzan or made up 3 March 2004

Analog and Digital Signals

Analog - voice

Digital computer oriented data

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Analog to Digital? How's it done?

Forouzan Chapter 4.3 (around lecture 16)

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A Network Model
Source Transmitter Destination Receiver

Carrier

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Transmission Modes
Simplex

Half Duplex

Full Duplex

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Encoding Data: The Telegraph Network


hello world

H EL L O WO R L D . . .-.. .-.. --- .-- --- .-. .-.. -..

Point to point Relayed (switched) by operator Protocol


The DOT is the Basic UNIT of Length (sometimes called a DIT). The DASH (DAH) is equal in length to three DOTS. The space between the DOTS and DASHS within a character (letter) is equal to one DOT. The space between characters (letters) in a word is equal to three DOTS. The space between words is equal to seven DOTS.
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3 March 2004

Encoding Data: Character Sets - ASCII

See appendix A of the text book:


Most common encoding scheme for text data 128 most common characters used 7 bits (2^7 = 128) Split up into the following:

Text and numerals ( A,a, Z,z, 1,..0 ) Punctuation ( .,;:!? etc. ) Symbols ( @#$%&*(){}[]/|\ etc.) Formatting/editing characters (tab, space, CR, LF, BS etc.) Control characters ( ESC, SOH, STX, ETX, BEL, BS, DLE, NAK, ACK, DEL, etc. ) http://www.mcs.vuw.ac.nz/courses/COMP204/2003T1/Hando uts/ascii.shtml
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Networks

How do we categorise?

Topology, geography Technology


Wide area networks Metropolitan networks Local area networks Personal networks Circuit switched Packet switched
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Geographic

Technologies

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What's a network? Consider the physical topology


Topology Types:

Topology = The map or plan of the network.


The physical topology describes how the wires or cables are laid out, and the logical topology describes how the information flows.
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What's a network? Consider the physical topology


Point-to-Point Connections:

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What's a network? Consider the physical topology


Point-to-Multipoint Connections:

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Mesh Networks
A

Partial Mesh
B C A

Full Mesh

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Star Topology

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Bus Topology

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Ring Topology

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Classification of Networks by Size and Community

A company or home

A city wide network


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A country wide network


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Single to Multiple LANs

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Metropolitan Area Network

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Wide Area Network

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The Telephone Network


home

EO
GMSC cellular network EO

EO

EO
IGE EO

EO
IGE EO

EO

PSTN
EO

PSTN

EO
Leased Line

GMSC = Gateway Mobile Switching Centre

PBX

EO = End Office (= local Telephone Exchange)

Private Network e.g. IBM


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IGE = International Gateway Exchange (or National GE)


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Example Network
modem end office
Digital Signal Inside the PSTN Network

Telephone Exchange

end office

modem
Copper Cable Analog Signal (voice band) Asynchronous RS-232C Digital COM port
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Modem = Modulator - Demodulator


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The Internet
Hierarchical Infrastructure International/National ISPs Connected by NAP Network Access Points (also called peering points Or Internet eXchanges) Regional ISP (Local) ISP
ISP = Internet Service Provider
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Internet Connections
LAN
Private Backbone GW

LAN

Large/ Medium Enterprise


Access via Leased Lines (high speed)

ISP

GW

Global Backbone

GW

Campus LAN
Access via PSTN, ADSL or cable
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University
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Whats a Protocol?

Initiate transmission (State)


Identify destination (Address) Agreement with the destination (Syntax)


Data representation (Protocol or Data?) Error management (Protocol or Data?) Flow control (Timing)

Transmit data (State and Semantics)


Terminate transmission (State) How is going to decide what are the characteristics of the protocol?

Committees, Industry consortia, standards bodies


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An Architecture

From Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 4ed., Prentice-Hall, 2003.


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You can create complex protocols based on ASCII

They were used before other types of data were widely used

Used to control peripherals e.g. modems, printers, etc


E.g. to control dialing of a modem (Hayes command set) E.g. to tell the printer when the end of a line was reached (CR), or to go down a line (LF)

Used to communicate between an old fashioned terminal (which is dumb) and a mainframe computer

Protocol called BSC or Bisync Lets think up a protocol based on ASCII .. You will need pen and paper and the ASCII character set Lets do it!
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3 March 2004

Roundup

Introduced the concepts of wire line networks (rather than wireless networks) Data encoding overview Network Architectures Protocol Basics Based on B. Forouzan Chapter 1 and other material Next: Network Models in more detail B. Forouzan Chapter 2 Question: Consider the humble PC see the final slide what is the Transmission Mode of the different components of the PC?
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What is the mode of transmission for components of a computer?


Internal view / External View? Lets use an external view: Keyboard, mouse, monitor?

Printer port (LPT#)?


Serial port (COM#), modem, USB, LAN (Ethernet)? Firewire, SCSI, etc? Sound cards?
From https://secure.linuxports.com/howto/intro_to_networking/a8607.htm

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The Computer (dont learn this diagram ): The Internal View?


From http://www.vaughns-1-pagers.com/c-5.pc_block.6.2.pdf

Buses: Local Bus Hard disk: EISA IDE SCSI PCI bus

Network
USB bus (see COMP203)
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Backup Slides

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