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The Heart of the Managerial Process

Directing as a Function of Management

5 Functions of Management by Koontz & O Donell






Management is an art of DIRECTING human efforts to achieve stipulated objectives.

Directing as a Function of Management

The Principles of Directing: supervision guidance goals written or verbal complete & logical encourage cooperation follow-up

Elements of Directing

Elements of Directing :
1. Leadership

True leadership is about taking people to a place that they would not go to by themselves.

Elements of Directing :

Elements of Directing :
2. Communication
Superior to subordinate From subordinates Between peers From caregivers to patients, etc. Not on the same level of hierarchy Rumor

Transmission Receiving


Elements of Directing :
3. Delegation
-to assign specific tasks to workers

Assess Plan Intervene Evaluate

Right Person Task Time

Elements of Directing :
4. Decision Making & Problem Solving
(value-based) (scientific process)

Decision Making Models: Normative Decision Tree Descriptive

Elements of Directing :
5. Policies & Procedures
Policies = guidelines, tools
for orienting, used as reference, basis for developing procedures

Procedures = specific
directions for implementing policies, used for standardization, for teaching & evaluating, for updating employees

Sample Employee Handbook

Table of Contents

Elements of Directing :
6. Supervision
Supervising means overseeing the activities of others. It is inspecting, guiding, evaluating, and improving the work performance of employees.

Elements of Directing :
7. Coordination
-synchronization of activities

Whom do we coordinate with? - Medical, administrative, radiology, laboratory,

pharmacy, dietary, social service, community agencies, and other institutions

Elements of Directing :

Elements of Directing :
8. Motivation
-To arouse, excite, or influence behavior

Elements of Directing :
9. Staff Development
Employees who are educated and supported are more likely to be empowered, forward thinking and motivated.

Programs include seminars, case conferences, shadowing or buddy system, formal schooling, professional publications, inservice training, & certification classes

Elements of Directing :
10. Conflict Management
Conflict is a differing of ideas.

Types of conflict: Overt Vertical Covert Horizontal How do we resolve these conflicts? avoidance, accomodation, compromise, collaboration, competition

Directing that encourages leadership, motivation, and communication techniques and emphasizes the human aspects of managing individuals is most desirable. Personal and motivational goals are met as the nurse is motivated to be ambitious and responsible, to show initiative, to be proud of fellow nurses and the employing institution, to welcome change, and to demonstrate individual abilities. Effective directing will result in greater harmony in the actions of supervisors and employees & in the achievement of the objectives of personnel as well as of the enterprise. Directing will be most effective when employees have leaders who provide direct personal contact.