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Tire Pressure Gauge

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Instrumentation and Metrology By: Mohit Maheshwari Roll no.49


Pressure (SI unit pascal)

It is the force acted on a unit area A force in the nature of thrust which

is distributed over the surface

A force acting against within a

surface in a closed container

Measured in bar, torr, psi,

atmosphere etc.
Classified into
Static- is uniform in all directions, so 4/28/12

Terms related to Pressure

Absolute pressure is zero

referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure.
Gauge pressure is zero referenced

against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually omitted.
Differential pressure is the 4/28/12

Pressure sensors
It acts as a transducer ; it generates a

signal as a function of the pressure imposed.

These are manufactured from

piezoelectric substance like quartz.

Two types:
Force Collector type-(such a

diaphragm, piston, bourdon tube, or bellows) to measure strain (or deflection) due to applied force

Pressure sensing Altitude sensing Flow sensing Level / Depth sensing Leak Testing Pitot tube Sphygmomanometer

Instruments classified
Low pressure (below 1 mm of Hg)-

manometers and low pressure gauges

Pressure (above 1 mm of Hg to 1000

atmosphere)- Bourdon tube and Diaphragm gauges

Low vacuum and ultra high

vacuum(760 torr-10-4 torr)-Mcleod, thermal conductivity.

Varying pressure- Engine Indicator
4/28/12 and cathode ray oscilloscope.

Tire pressure gauge

A tire-pressure gauge is a pressure

gauge used to measure the pressure of tires on a vehicle

Environmental conditions can

introduce a 13% to 15% variability in pressure due to temperature (0C to 40C), and additional changes can result due to altitude.
Built-in tire pressure sensors-

Used to fill tire will low pressure 4/28/12 automatically. The problem with this

Types of tire pressure gauges

Stick Gauges- small but not very

Analog Gauges- Dial gauges are

easy to use from a distance, such as while inflating the tire.

Digital Pressure Gauge- fast and

easy to use
Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems4/28/12 Some vehicles have automated

Working principle
Tire pressure are mostly calculated

either using
Bourdon Pressure Tube(Membrane type

Diaphragm or Bellows


Bourdon Pressure Tube (membrane type)

Bourdon uses the

principle that a flattened tube tends to change to a more circular crosssection when pressurized
A flattened thin-wall,

closed-end tube is connected at the hollow end to a fixed pipe containing the fluid pressure to be measured


Stationary parts:

Mechanical Side of Bourdon

the fixed end of the Bourdon tube (1) and secures the chassis plate (B). The two holes receive screws that secure the case.

A: Receiver block. This joins the inlet pipe to

B: Chassis plate. The face card is attached to

this. It contains bearing holes for the axles. outer ends of the axles.

C: Secondary chassis plate. It supports the


A pile of pressure capsules

with corrugated diaphragms in an aneroid barograph.

A second type of aneroid

gauge uses the deflection of a flexible membrane that separates regions of different pressure. The amount of deflection is repeatable for known pressures so the pressure can be determined4/28/12

In gauges intended to sense small

pressures or pressure differences, or require that an absolute pressure be measured, the gear train and needle may be driven by an enclosed and sealed bellows chamber, called an aneroid, which means "without liquid".
This bellows configuration is used in

aneroid barometers (barometers with 4/28/12 an indicating needle and dial card),

The parts of a typical pressure gauge

Whats Inside
look like this:
Spring Calibrated rod Piston

Polished inner surface of valve Rubber seals and a pin


How it works

The inside of the tube is polished smooth. The piston is made of soft rubber so it seals nicely against the tube, and the inside of the tube is lubricated with a light oil to improve the seal. In the picture below, you can see that the piston is at one end of the tube and the stop is 4/28/12

. If you look in the opening, you will

be able to see a rubber seal and a small fixed pin. The rubber seal presses against the lip of the valve stem to prevent air from leaking during the measurement, and the pin depresses the valve pin in the valve stem to let air flow into the gauge.
The distance the piston travels is

relative to the pressure in the tire.


There is a calibrated rod inside the

The calibrated rod rides on top of the

piston, but the rod and the piston are not connected and there is a fairly tight fit between the rod and the stop.
When the pressure is released, the

piston moves back to the left but the rod stays in its maximum position to 4/28/12

Thank you