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-Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham

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A simple and useful tool for illustrating and improving self awareness and mutual understanding between individuals within a group Cognitive psychological tool created by American Psychologists, while researching group dynamics- Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham in 1955 in the US Interestingly, Luft and Ingham called their Johari Window model 'Johari' after combining their first name Behaviour model based on 4 square grids Widely used model for understanding and training- selfawareness, personal development, improving communications, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, team development and inter-group relationships.

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Why use it???

Today the Johari Window model is especially relevant due to- emphasis on, and influence of, 'soft' skills, behaviour, empathy, cooperation, inter-group development, interpersonal development and emotional intelligence. To focus our attention on the need to be more aware of ourselves & the degree to which others know us To help people understand their interpersonal communication and relationships better Primarily used in self help groups and corporate settings as a heuristic exercise Understand the value of self disclosure, encourage people to give and accept feedback- work effectively as a team
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performing the exercise, the subject is given a list of 55 adjectives and picks five or six that they feel describe their own personality. of the subject are then given the same list, and each pick five or six adjectives that describe the subject. adjectives are then mapped onto a



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Able Accepting adaptable Bold Brave calm Caring Cheerful Clever Complex Confident Sensible Warm Spontaneous

dependable dignified energetic extroverted friendly giving happy helpful idealistic independent indigenous sentimental wise tense

intelligent introverted kind shy logical loving mature modest nervous observant organised witty trustworthy knowledgeable

patient powerful proud quiet reflective relaxed religious responsive searching self-assertive self-conscious sympathetic silly

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2 key ideas behind the tool: 1. Individuals can build trust between themselves by disclosing information about themselves. 2. Can learn about themselves with the help of feedback from others.

There are games, online tests, questionnaires available. Nohari window is the inversion of Johari windownegative personality traits.

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Nohari Window

A Nohari Window is the inversion of the Johari window, and is a collection of negative personality traits instead of positive. The Nohari Window was tinted by Kevan Davis on the 12th of February 2006 The Adjectives: blas distant
boastful brash callous chaotic childish cold cowardly creepy cruel cynical inane dispassionate inattentive dull incompetent embarrassed inflexible foolish insecure glum insensitive hostile intolerant humourless irrational ignorant irresponsible impatient lethargic imperceptive loud needy overdramatic panicky passive predictable rash selfish self-satisfied simple smug stupid timid unethical unhappy unhelpful unimaginative unreliable vacuous violent vulgar weak withdrawn

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Quadrant 1 - Open Self/Area or The Area of Free Activity / This is Arena the information about the person behaviour, attitude, feelings, emotion, knowledge, experience, skills, views, etc known by the person ('the self') and known by the group ('others').

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team members logically tend to have larger open areas than new team members. New team members start with relatively small open areas because relatively little knowledge about the new team member is shared.

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size of the open area can be expanded horizontally into the blind space, by seeking and actively listening to feedback from other group members Feedback solicitation. size of the open area can be expanded vertically by the person's disclosure of information, feelings, etc about him/herself to the group and group members.
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Quadrant 2 - Blind area or Blindspot


is known about a person by others in the group, but is unknown by the person him/herself. Aim should be to reduce this area and thereby to increase the open area, i.e., to increase self awareness.

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an effective or productive space for individuals or groups. The blind area could also include issues that others are deliberately withholding from a person. Managers should promote a climate of non-judgemental feedback, and group response to individual disclosure, which reduces fear and therefore encourages both processes to happen.
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Quadrant 3 Hidden self or Facade


is known to ourselves but kept hidden from, and therefore unknown, to others. This area could include sensitivities, fears, hidden agendas, manipulative intentions, secrets - anything that a person knows but does not reveal, for whatever reason.

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this area enables better understanding, cooperation, trust, teamworking effectiveness and productivity. Reduces the potential for confusion, misunderstanding, poor communication, etc, which all distract from and undermine team effectiveness. Organizational culture and working atmosphere has a major influence on group members' preparedness to disclose their hidden selves.
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Quadrant 4 Unknown Self or Area of Unknown Activity


information, feelings, latent abilities, aptitudes, experiences etc, that are unknown to the person him/herself and unknown to others in the group. They can be feelings, behaviours, attitudes, capabilities, aptitudes, which can be quite close to the surface, and which can be positive and useful, or they can be deeper aspects of a person's personality, influencing his/her behaviour to various degrees. Large unknown areas would typically be expected in younger people, and people who lack experience or self-belief.
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Information and knowledge can be uncovered by:

Prompting through self-discovery or observation by others. Through collective or mutual discovery. Counseling.

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Points to Consider

When we work in Open area with others we are at our most effective and productive, and the group is at its most productive too. Established team members logically tend to have larger open areas than new team members. New team members start with relatively small open areas because relatively little knowledge about the new team member is shared Reduce the Blind Area by Using Solicit Feedback from others, this will expand the open area Relevant hidden information and feelings, etc, should be moved into the open area through the process of 'disclosure thereby increasing the open area Reducing hidden areas also reduces the potential for confusion, misunderstanding, poor communication, etc, which all distract from and undermine team effectiveness Managers and leaders can help by creating an environment that encourages self-discovery, OB 2 19 constructive observation and feedback among team

Increasing the Open Area

Feedback develops the open area by reducing the blind area. The open area can also be developed through the process of disclosure, which reduces the hidden area.

Reduce the Hidden Area The unknown area can be reduced by

1. 2. 3. 4.

Observation Self Discovery Mutual Enlightenment Group Discussion

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Team with Large open area has strong mutual understanding compared to the ones having large Hidden, Blind , and/or Unknown Areas Team Leaders should always strive to increase the open Area The individual should disclose more information about his/her feelings , experiences , views, etc. to reduce the size of Hidden area. Seeking feedbacks will reduce the Blind area and will overall increase the team performance Sensitive communications, active listening and experience will transfer the unknown area blind or hidden or open areas. OB 2 21

Johari Model for the New team Member

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Johari Model for the Established Team Member

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Johari Window also relate to Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

A new way to understand and assess people's behaviours, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potential An important consideration in human resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and customer service, and more

Embraces two aspects of intelligence: 1. Understanding yourself, your goals, intentions, responses, and behaviour 2. Understanding others, and their feelings

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Four domains of EQ
Self Awareness Social Awareness

Self Management

Relationship Management

By developing EQ, we can be more productive and successful at what we do, and help others to be more productive and successful. EQ can reduce stress for individuals and organizations, by decreasing conflict, improving relationships and understanding, and increasing stability, continuity and harmony
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