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What is Research?

Sheena Gaditano Amador SWU MHAM College of Medicine Community Medicine Rotation Argao Community Hospital

I. What is Research?
a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic. an investigation of nding solutions to scientic and social problems through objective and systematic analysis. a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths, which can lead to new contributions to the existing knowledge

Research is ubiquitous.

I. What is Research?
I.a) Objectives of Research a. to discover new facts b. to verify and test important facts c. to analyze an event or process or phenomenon d. to identify the cause and eect relationship

I. What is Research?
I.a) Objectives of Research
e. to develop new scientic tools, concepts and theories to solve and understand scientic and nonscientic problems f. to nd solutions to scientic, nonscientic and social problems and g. to overcome or solve the problems occurring in our every day life

II. Research Methods and Research Methodology


Research methods - various procedures, schemes, algorithms, etc. used in research. - essentially planned, scientic and valueneutral. - include theoretical procedures, experimental studies, numerical schemes, statistical approaches, etc.

II. Research Methods and Research Methodology


Research methodology
- systematic way to solve a problem. - a science of studying how research is to be carried out. - Its aim is to give the work plan of research.

Importance of Research Methodology


Even if the method considered in two problems are same, the methodology may be dierent. It is important for the researcher to know not only the research methods necessary for the research undertaken but also the methodology. A researcher not only needs to know how to calculate mean, variance and distribution function for a set of data, how to nd a solution of a physical system described by mathematical model, how to determine the roots of algebraic equations and how to apply a particular method but also need to know: (i) which is a suitable method for the chosen problem?, (ii) what is the order of accuracy of the result of a method?, (iii) what is the eciency of the method? and so on.

Consideration of these aspects constitute a research methodology.

Importance of Research Methodology


More precisely, research methods help us get a solution to a problem. On the other hand, research methodology is concerned with the explanation of the following: a. Why is a particular research study undertaken? b. How did one formulate a research problem? c. What types of data were collected? d. What particular method has been used? e. Why was a particular technique of analysis of data used?

III. Types of Research


Research is broadly classied into two main classes: A. Fundamental or basic research B. Applied research

A. Basic Research
an investigation on basic principles and reasons for occurrence of a particular event or process or phenomenon. also called theoretical research study or investigation of some natural phenomenon or relating to pure science provides a systematic and deep insight into a problem and facilitates extraction of scientic and logical explanation and conclusion on it.

A. Basic Research
The outcomes of basic research form the basis for many applied research. Attempts to nd answers to the following questions actually form basic research. - Why are materials like that? - How does a crystal melt? - Why is sound produced when water is heated? - Why are birds arranged in > shape when ying in a group?

B. Applied Research
solves certain problems employing well known and accepted theories and principles. most of the experimental research, case studies and interdisciplinary research are essentially applied research. A research, the outcome of which has immediate application is also termed as applied research.

B. Applied Research
concerned with actual life research such as research on increasing eciency of a machine, increasing gain factor of production of a material, pollution control, preparing vaccination for a disease, etc.

C. Quantitative and Qualitative Methods


basic and applied researches can be quantitative or qualitative or even both Quantitative research - based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Qualitative research - concerned with qualitative phenomenon involving quality. It is non-numerical, descriptive, applies reasoning and uses words. Its aim is to get the meaning, feeling and describe the situation.

IV. Research Design


creates the foundation of the entire research work. should indicate the various approaches to be used in solving the research problem, sources and information related to the problem and, time frame and the cost budget.

V. Research Process
step-by-step process of developing a research paper.

1. Turn your idea into a research question

2. Review the literature

3. Design the study and develop your method(s)

4. Writing your research proposal

8. Analyze the data and interpret findings

7. Collect and collate the data

6. Obtain ethical and Trust approval

5 . Issues about funding

9. Impact of your research on clinical practice

10. Reporting and dissemination

VI. Parts of a Research Paper


The essential parts of a research paper are as follows: 1. Title Page- Oftentimes referred to as the cover page, this section is where you indicate the title of your research, your name, institutional information and a few other relevant information prescribed by your instructor.
The Title- should be a concise statement of the report's topic; mentions the dependent and independent variables and may also mention the subject/participant group independent variable is the variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher. dependent variable is not manipulated, instead it is observed or measured for variation as a presumed result of the variation in the IV. Ex. The Effect of Various Concentrations of Magnesium (IV) on the Height of Tomato Plants (DV).

VI. Parts of a Research Paper


2. Abstract- provides a summary of the whole report, that is a summary of the introduction, the method, the results and the discussion. It should be around 150 to 200 words long, not more. 3. Introduction- Provides a brief background of the research. Includes the basic reasons how and why the researcher came up with the problem, and the probable solutions that he can offer. In general, it summarizes the purpose of the research paper. It also provides a coherent argument for the hypothesis.
Hypothesis- proposed explanation for a phenomenon. null hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify. It is denoted by H0. alternative hypothesis is contrary to the null hypothesis. It is the hypothesis which is accepted when the null hypothesis has been rejected. It is denoted by H1 or HA.

VI. Parts of a Research Paper


Ex. H1: Tomato plants exhibit a higher rate of growth when planted in compost rather than in soil. H0: Tomato plants do not exhibit a higher rate of growth when planted in compost rather than in soil.

The null hypothesis is rejected when the pvalue is less than the significance level (Greek alpha), which is often 0.05 or 0.01. When the null hypothesis is rejected, the result is said to be statistically significant.

VI. Parts of a Research Paper


4. Literature Review- where the researcher will be providing all the relevant readings from previous works. The research materials should be from credible sources such as academic books and peer-reviewed journals. Also, the reading materials should be directly relevant to the topic of the research paper. The literature review typically includes the names of the authors, the titles of their works and the year of the publication of these works. 5. Methodology- This section provides the methods that will be used in the research. Typical methodologies include laboratory experiments, statistical or mathematical calculations/computations, and comparison of existing literature.

VI. Parts of a Research Paper


6. Data Analysis- where the researcher will be analyzing the data obtained from the methodological operation chosen. Depending on the type of research paper, data analysis instruments and operations may vary. 7. Results- where the researcher will be presenting the actual results of the analysis that he has made based on his chosen methodology.

VI. Parts of a Research Paper


8. Discussion- where the researcher will be
discussing more of the results of the research, its implications on other fields as well as the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of the research. This is also the section where one needs to present the importance of the study and how it will be able to contribute to the field. 9. Conclusion- provides the conclusion to the research paper. While it is important to restate the general thesis in this section, it is also important to include a brief restatement of the other parts of the research paper such as the methodology, data analysis and results.

VI. Parts of a Research Paper


10. Reference Page- where the researcher lists down all the academic materials used as sources of information in the research paper.

Sources
Shuttleworth, Martyn (2008). Null Hypothesis. Retrieved from Experiment Resources:
http://www.experiment-resources.com/null-hypothesis.html

Rajasekar, S. et. al (January 2006) Research Methodology arXiv:physics/0601009v


http://www.scribd.com/doc/6949151/Research-Methodology

Del Siegle
http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/research/Experimental/TypesRes earch.htm

Thank you!