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Service Management, Bangalore

ITIL Foundations
Certification Course

Kashif Baig

ITIL ® is a Registered Trade Mark, and a Registered Community Trade Mark of the
Office of Government Commerce, and is Registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark
Office.
IT Infrastructure Library® is a Registered Trade Mark of the Central Computer and
Telecommunications Agency which is now part of the Office of Government Commerce.
ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Introduction
 ITIL History
 What is ITIL?
 The ITIL Framework
 ITIL Certifications
 Benefits of ITIL
 Remember about ITIL

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

ITIL History
 In the late 1980’s, the British govt. asked the Central Computer and
Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) to structure the IT organisations
of the British government agencies.

 This resulted in the IT Infrastructure Library, a library of books


describing best practices in IT management, and a detailed approach
for the implementation of these best practices.

 The aims of the CCTA in developing the IT Infrastructure Library were:


– to facilitate the quality management of IT services.
– increase the efficiency with which the corporate objectives are met.
– to improve efficiency, increase effectiveness, and reduce risks.
– to provide codes of practice in support of total quality.

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

What is ITIL?
 ITIL is a compilation of best practices in IT Service Management, developed by
the OGC (Office of Govt. Commerce) and supported by publications,
qualifications and an international user group.

 ITIL defines the organisational structure and skill requirements of an information


technology organisation and a set of standard operational management
procedures to allow the organisation to manage an IT operation and associated IT
infrastructure.

 ITIL does not set in stone every action you should do on a day-to-day basis as
that is something which differs from organisation to organisation. Instead, it allows
the IT Infrastructure Library to be utilised within organisations with existing
methods and activities in Service Management.

 IT Service Management is concerned with delivering and supporting IT services


that are appropriate to the business requirements of the organisation.
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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

The ITIL Framework

 ITIL comprises of seven distinct books:


– Service Support
• describes the processes associated with the day-to day support and
maintenance activities associated with the provision of IT services

– Service Delivery
• covers the processes required for the planning and delivery of quality IT
services and looks at the longer term processes associate with improving the
quality of IT services delivered

– ICT (Information & Communications Technology) Infrastructure


Management
• covers all aspects of ICT Infrastructure Management from identification of
business requirements through the tendering process, to the testing,
installation, deployment, and ongoing operation and optimisation of the ICT
components and IT services

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

The ITIL Framework

– Planning to implement Service Management


• examines the issues and tasks involved in planning, implementing and
improving Service Management processes within an organisation. It also
addresses the issues associated with addressing Cultural and
Organisational Change, the development of a vision and strategy and the
most appropriate method of approach

– Application Management
• describes how to manage applications from the initial business need,
through all stages in the application lifecycle, up to and including retirement.
It places emphasis on ensuring that IT projects and strategies are tightly
aligned with those of the business throughout the application lifecycle, to
ensure that the business obtains best value from its investment

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

The ITIL Framework

– The Business Perspective


• provides advice and guidance to help IT personnel to understand how they
can contribute to the business objectives and how their roles and services
can be better aligned and exploited to maximise that contribution

– Security Management
• details the process of planning and managing a defined level of security for
information and IT services, including all aspects associated with reaction to
security Incidents. It also includes the assessment and management of risks
and vulnerabilities, and the implementation of cost justifiable
countermeasures

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

ITIL Framework
• Service Desk
• Service Level Management
• Configuration Management
• Availability Management
• Incident Management
• Capacity Management
• Problem Management
• Financial Management for IT Services
• Change Management
• IT Services Continuity Management
• Release Management

Planning to implement service management


• Guidance on
integrating the • Design and Plan
business Service management • Deployment

The technology
perspective into Operations
The business

every aspect of The ICT • Technical Support


Service support
service business Infrastructure
management perspective management
Service delivery • IT Infrastructure Security
Security Management
management • Security setup from the IT
manager's point of view
Application management

• Manage the Business Value


• What is the vision?
• Align Service Delivery with Business Strategy
• Where are we now?
• Drivers and Organizational Capability
• Where do we want to be?
• Application Lifecycle Management
• How do we check our milestones?
• Organization Roles and Functions
• How do we keep momentum?
• Control Methods and Techniques
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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

The ITIL Framework ( contd… )


 The two most commonly used disciplines are Service Support and Service
Delivery
 Service Support comprises of :
– Service Desk
– Incident Management
– Problem Management
– Configuration Management
– Change Management
– Release Management

 Service Delivery comprises of :


– Service Level Management
– Financial Management for IT Services
– Capacity Management
– Availability Management
– IT Service Continuity Management

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Resolve
incidents as
they occur
Service Management Identify root
Service Delivery Service Support causes of incidents
and submit RFCs
Incident to remove them
Availability

Service Desk
Single Point of
Problem Contact for
SLM

Capacity users of IT
Change Services
Ensure standard
ITSCM Release methods and
Define what procedures are
services and FMITS Config used from the
service levels RFCs to the PIR
will be
supported and Manage major
delivered Ensure agreed-to services can hardware and
recover after a disruption as a software releases as
part of business continuity part of effective
management change management
Ensure the agreed
services are Manage technical
available at agreed information regarding the
levels version, status,
Budget, account and optionally
charge for IT services ownership and
relationships among IT
Ensure agreed services assets.
have the required and
agreed to capacity

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

ITIL Certifications

 ITIL accreditation demonstrates that an individual has met the standards in


Service Management as set by an examination certification board comprising
representatives of OGC, itSMF and the Examination Institutes

 Official qualifications based on ITIL are currently offered by the following


Examination Institutes :
– ISEB (The Information Systems Examination Board), a wholly owned subsidiary
of the British Computer Society
– EXIN (the European Examination Institute for Information Science) in the
Netherlands

 ITIL qualifications are recognised world-wide. Whether you passed your exam via
ISEB or EXIN, the qualification is recognised by the industry

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

ITIL Certifications (contd..)

– Foundations Certificate
This is designed to provide a foundation level of knowledge in IT Service
Management and is aimed at all personnel who wish to become familiar with
the best practices for IT Service Management

– Practitioners Certificate
This is aimed at those who are responsible within their organisation for
designing specific processes within the IT Service Management discipline, and
performing the activities that belong to those processes

– Managers Certificate
This is aimed at those who need to demonstrate a capability for managing
ITIL-based solutions across the breadth of the Service Management subjects.

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

ITIL Certifications Practitioners (9 certificates)


Change Manager (5 days)
Foundations

Essential (2 days) Service Level Manager (5 days)

1 hour Multiple choice 1 hour Multiple choice

(Know list of Basic Concepts)

Prerequisites form assessed by Examination Board

Service Support (5 days)In course assessment


3 hour examination (essay form)
Service Delivery (5 days)
3 hour examination (essay form)
Service Manager
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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Benefits of ITIL
 Adopting ITIL guidance can provide such benefits as:
– Continuous improvement in the delivery of quality IT services
– Reduced long term costs through improved Return On Investment through
process improvement
– Demonstrable Value For Money to the business, the board and stakeholders,
through greater efficiency
– Reduced risk of not meeting business objectives, through the delivery of rapidly
recoverable, consistent services
– Improved communication and better working relationships between IT and the
business
– The ability to absorb a higher rate of Change with an improved, measurable
rate of success
– Processes and procedures that can be audited for compliance to “best
practice” guidelines

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Remember about ITIL ..


 Remember :
– ITIL describes what needs to be done but NOT how it should be done

– ITIL does NOT define:


• Every role, job or organisation design
• Every tool, every other equipment, every required customisation
• Every process, procedure and task required to be implemented

– ITIL does NOT claim to be a comprehensive description of everything within IT,


but it instead contains “best practices” that have observed and accepted in the
industry

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Support
 Service Desk
 Incident Management
 Problem Management
 Change Management
 Release Management
 Configuration Management

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Support

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

The Service Support set

 Service Desk
– Single point of contact between service providers and Users, on a day-to-day
basis
– Focal point for reporting Incidents and making service requests
– Keeps Users informed of service events, actions and opportunities that are
likely to impact their ability to pursue their day-to-day activities

 Incident Management
– Restore normal service operations as quickly as possible
– Should interface closely with Problem Management, Change management and
the Service Desk
– Incident priorities and escalation procedures need to be agreed as part of the
Service Level Management process and documented in the SLAs

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

The Service Support set

 Problem Management
– Prevent and minimize the adverse effect on the business of errors in the IT
Infrastructure
– Performs RCAs to establish the root causes of Problems
– Requires the accurate and comprehensive recording of Incidents in order to
identify effectively and efficiently the cause of the Incidents and trends
– Liaises closely with Availability Management process to identify these trends
and instigate remedial action

 Change Management
– Ensure standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient, prompt
and authorized handling of all changes in the IT Infrastructure
– Close relationship with Configuration Management and Release Management

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

The Service Support set

 Release Management
– Ensure that all technical and non-technical aspects of a release are dealt with
in a coordinated approach
– Actual implementers of Changes
– Responsible for secure and managed rollout of Changes

 Configuration Management
– Provide a logical model of the IT Infrastructure by identifying, controlling,
maintaining and verifying the versions of all Configuration Items (CIs)
– Stores information in the CMDB of what CIs available, where are they available
and how are they inter-connected

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Support
 Service Desk
 Incident Management
 Problem Management
 Change Management
 Release Management
 Configuration Management

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Desk

 Service Desk acts as the Single Point of Contact (SPOC) between the users and
the IT Services Organization

 ITIL defines customers and users :


– Customers : People (generally senior managers) who commission, pay for and
own the IT Services, sometimes referred to as "the business"
– Users : People who use the services on a day-to-day basis

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Desk (contd..)

 The primary functions of the Service Desk are :


– Incident Control : life cycle management of all Service Requests
– Communication : keeping the customer informed of progress and advising on
workarounds

 It handles all incoming calls and only directs them through to the second or third
tier support when necessary :
– for the customer, the advantage is that they don’t have to ring around
searching for the right person to solve their problem
– for IT personnel, it means that they only have to deal with issues that are
related to their skills or area of responsibility

Note:- The Service Desk is not a process - it is a FUNCTION

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Desk - Types

 The Service Desk function is known under various names :

– Call Centre
• main emphasis on professionally handling large call volumes of telephone-
based transactions

– HelpDesk
• manage, co-ordinate and resolve incidents as quickly as possible

– Service Desk
• not only handles incidents, problems and questions but also provides an
interface for other activities such as change requests, maintenance
contracts, software licenses, Service Level Management, Configuration
Management, Availability Management, Financial Management and IT
Services Continuity Management

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Service Desk - Types

 Many Call Centres and HelpDesks naturally evolve into Service Desks to improve
and extend overall service to the Customers and the Business

 All three functions share common characteristics :


– they represent the service provider to the Customer and the User (internal or
external)
– they operate on the principle that customer satisfaction and perception is
critical
– they depend on blending people, processes and technology to deliver a service

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Desk - Structures


 The three types of structure that can be considered are :

– Local Service Desk


• to meet local business needs - is practical only until multiple locations
requiring support services are involved

– Central Service Desk


• for organisations having multiple locations - reduces operational costs and
improves usage of available resources

– Virtual Service Desk


• for organisations having multi-country locations - can be situated and
accessed from anywhere in the world due to advances in network
performance and telecommunications
• reduces operational costs and improves usage of available resources

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Desk - Local

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Desk - Central

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Desk - Virtual

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Desk - Functions

 The common Service Desk functions include :


– receiving calls and first-line customer liaison
– recording and tracking incidents and complaints
– keeping customers informed on request status and progress
– making an initial assessment of requests, attempting to resolve them or refer
them to someone who can, based on agreed service levels
– managing the request life-cycle, including closure and verification
– communicating planned and short-term changes of service levels to customers
– coordinating second-line and third party support groups
– providing management information and suggestions for service improvement
– identifying or contributing to problem identification
– highlighting Customer training and education needs
– closing incidents after confirmation with the Customer

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Service Desk - Staff Profile

 A Service Desk staff member should be :


– Customer-focused
– articulate and methodical
– trained in interpersonal skills
– multilingual (if required)
– able to understand the business’s objectives
– able to understand and accept that:
• the Customer’s Problem affects the business
• without the Customer there is no support department
• the Customer is an expert in their own field
– genuinely wanting to deliver a first-class service

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Service Desk - Benefits

 A Service Desk benefits an organisation by :


– improved customer service, perception and satisfaction
– increased accessibility through a single point of contact, communication, and
information.
– better quality and speedier turnaround of customer requests
– improved teamwork and communication
– enhanced focus and a proactive approach to service provision
– reduced negative business impact
– better managed infrastructure and improved control
– improved usage of IT support resources and increased productivity of business
personnel
– more meaningful management information for decision support

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Desk - Critical Success Factors

 To introduce and maintain a successful Service Desk, it is essential that:


– business needs and requirements are understood
– Customer requirements are understood
– investment is made in training for customers, support teams and Service Desk
staff
– service objectives, goals and deliverables are clearly defined
– service levels are practical, agreed and regularly reviewed

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Support
 Service Desk
 Incident Management
 Problem Management
 Change Management
 Release Management
 Configuration Management

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management

 An Incident is defined as “ any event which is not part of the standard


operation of a service and which causes or may cause, an interruption to, or
a reduction in, the quality of that service “

 The primary goal of Incident Management is to restore normal service operations


as quickly as possible with the least possible impact on business operations, at a
cost-effective price, thus ensuring that the optimum levels of service quality and
availability are maintained

 In lay-man terms, Incident Management is similar to “fire-fighting”

 Inputs for Incident Management mostly come from users (through the Service
Desk), but can have other sources as well like Automatic Detection Systems or
Release Management

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management – Functions

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Functions

 The primary functions of Incident Management are :


– Incident detection and recording
– Classification and initial support
– Investigation and diagnosis
– Resolution and recovery
– Incident closure
– Incident ownership, monitoring, tracking and communication

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Functions

 Incident detection and recording


– Inputs
• Incident details from Service Desk or event management systems
– Actions
• record basic details of the Incident
• alert specialist support group(s) as necessary
• start procedures for handling the service request
– Outputs
• updated details of Incidents
• the recognition of any errors on the CMDB
• notice to Customers when an Incident has been resolved

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Functions


 Classification and initial support
– Inputs
• recorded Incident details
• configuration details from the CMDB
• response from Incident matching against Problems and Known Errors
– Actions
• matching against Known Errors and Problems
• informing Problem Management of the existence of new Problems and of
unmatched or multiple Incidents
• assigning impact and urgency, and thereby defining priority
• providing initial support (assess Incident details, find quick resolution)
• closing the Incident/routing to a specialist support group, and informing User(s).
– Outputs
• RFC for Incident resolution
• updated Incident details, and
• Work-arounds for Incidents, or Incident routed to second- or third-line support

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Incident Management - Incident Classification

 Incident Classification is used to :


– Specify the service with which the incident is related
– Associate with an SLA where appropriate
– Select/define the best specialist/group to handle the incident
– Identify the priority based upon the business impact & urgency
– Define what questions should be asked or information checked
– Identify a relationship to match against Known Errors or solutions

 Typically classification consists of three parts:


– Categorisation
– Prioritising
– Matching

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Incident Classification

 Categorisation
– Application
• Service not available
• Application bug/query

– Hardware
• Automatic alert
• Printer not printing

– Service Request
• Password forgotten

– Security Incident
• Virus

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Example coding system for Incident


classification

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Incident Classification

 Prioritising
The priority with which Incidents need to be resolved and therefore the
amount of effort put into the resolution of and recovery from Incidents, will depend
upon :
– The impact on the business
– The urgency with which a resolution/work-around is needed
– The size, scope and complexity of the Incident
– The resources available for coping in the meantime and for correcting the fault

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Incident Classification


 All incidents are categorised in order to establish appropriate priorities and
resolution lead times

 To facilitate lead-times of incident resolution, accurate classification and sufficient


registration is imperative

 The criteria to consider when assigning priority are:


– Impact : To what extent an incident results in a deviation from the normal
service level; aspects are the number of users and the service concerned
– Urgency : To what extent the solution of an incident can be postponed

Priority = Impact x Urgency

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Example of a priority coding system

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Incident Classification

 Matching
Matching is the process whereby the Incident details are compared to
knowledge that is already present in the organisation. Successful matching could
give access to proven resolution actions, which should require no further
investigation effort.

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Incident Management - Functions

 Investigation and diagnosis


– Inputs
• updated Incident details
• configuration details from the CMDB
– Actions
• assessment of the Incident details,
• collection and analysis of all related information, and resolution
• (including any Work-around) or a route to n-line support
– Outputs
• Incident details yet further updated, and a specification of the selection or
required Work-around

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Incident Management - Functions

 Resolution and recovery


– Inputs
• updated Incident details
• any response on an RFC to effect resolution for the Incident(s)
• any derived Work-around or solution
– Actions
• resolve the Incident using the solution/Work-around or, alternatively, to raise
an RFC (including a check for resolution)
• take recovery actions
– Outputs
• RFC for future Incident resolution
• resolved Incident, including recovery details,
• updated Incident details

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Incident Management - Functions

 Incident closure
– Inputs
• updated Incident details
• resolved Incident
– Actions
• the confirmation of the resolution with the Customer or originator
• ‘close’ category
• Incident
– Outputs
• updated Incident detail
• closed Incident record

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Incident Management - Functions

 Ownership, monitoring, tracking and communication


– Inputs
• Incident records
– Actions
• monitor Incidents
• escalate Incidents
• inform User
– Outputs
• management reports about Incident progress
• escalated Incident details; and
• Customer reports and communication

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Incident Management - Escalation


 There are two levels of escalation possible:
– Transferring an Incident from first-line to second-line support groups or further is called
“Functional Escalation” and primarily takes places because of lack of knowledge or
expertise
– “Hierarchical Escalation” can take place at any moment during the resolution process
when it is likely that resolution of an Incident will not be in time or satisfactory

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Incident Management - Tasks

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Incident Management - Benefits


 The benefits to be gained by implementing an Incident Management process are:
– For the business as a whole:
• reduced business impact of Incidents by timely resolution, thereby increasing
effectiveness
• the proactive identification of beneficial system enhancements and
amendments
• the availability of business-focused management information related to the
SLA.

– For the IT organisation in particular:


• improved monitoring, allowing performance against SLAs to be accurately
measured
• improved management information on aspects of service quality
• better staff utilisation, leading to greater efficiency
• elimination of lost or incorrect Incidents and service requests
• improved User and Customer satisfaction.

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Incident Management - Critical Success Factors

 The critical success factors for Incident Management are :


– A sound up-to-date CMDB really helps
– Create knowledge databases (KEDB) and make them ‘easily’ accessible
– Use tools whenever appropriate
– Establish interfaces with other processes

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Service Support
 Service Desk
 Incident Management
 Problem Management
 Change Management
 Release Management
 Configuration Management

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ITIL Foundations Certification Course

Problem Management

 A problem is a “condition identified from multiple incidents exhibiting


common symptoms, or from a single significant incident, indicative of a
single error, for which the cause is unknown.”

 The goal of Problem Management is to minimize the adverse impact of incidents


and problems on the business caused by errors within the IT Infrastructure, and
to prevent reoccurrence of incidents related to these errors.

 While Incident Management focuses on quick resolution of incidents, Problem


Management analyses the root cause of the incidents.

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Problem Management (contd..)

 Problem Definition
Many criteria can be used to define a Problem including :
– A number of related incidents
– Incident closed via work-around (temporary fix)
– Major incident
– Information from third parties

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Problem Management (contd..)

Problem Management Terminology


– Problem
• The unknown root cause of one or more incidents (not necessarily – or
often – solved at the time the incident is closed)

– Error
• A condition that exists after the successful diagnosis of the root cause
of a Problem

– Known Error
• Error + solution and/or workaround has been found

– Known Error DataBase (KEDB)


• Repository of known errors for the benefit and utilisation of Incident
Management

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Problem Management (contd..)

 Problems can be identified from incidents. When a problem is defined, diagnosis


takes place to find the root cause of the problem, and then a change request is
entered to correct the problem

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Problem Management (contd..)

 The "Funnel Effect" is shown below - multiple incidents are usually, after
investigation, re-classified as a smaller number of problems, which are also re-
analyzed and (usually) reclassified as yet a smaller number of known errors,
which usually, after further investigation, end up resulting in a smaller number of
RFCs

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Problem Management (contd..)


 The primary functions of Problem Management are :
– Problem Control: identifying the real underlying causes of incidents in
order to prevent future reoccurrences

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Problem Management (contd..)


– Error Control : the processes involved in successful correction of Known
Errors. The objective is to change IT components to remove Known Errors
affecting the IT infrastructure and thus to prevent any recurrences of
incidents

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Problem Management (contd..)

Investigation and Diagnosis of Problems


The various methods include :
– Ishikawa diagrams
– Kepner and Tregoe
– Brainstorming sessions
– Voting
– Flowcharts
– Common sense
– Deduction

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Problem Management (contd..)

 Proactive Problem Management comprises of :


– Trend Analysis
• Identifying ‘fragile’ components of an IT Infrastructure and investigate
the reasons for this ‘fragility’

– Targeting preventive actions


• Trend analysis can lead to the identification of faults in the IT
Infrastructure which can then be analysed and corrected via Problem
and Error Control

– Improving procedures

– Research other sources of knowledge about known errors

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Problem Management (contd..)

Known Error DataBase (KEDB) :

Problem Management reduces a Problem into an Error after it has


successfully identified the root cause of the Problem. When a solution or a
work-around is identified for this Error, it is transformed into a Known Error
The Known Error DataBase is a repository containing all these Known
Errors. The KEDB is essentially for the utilisation of the Incident Management
process and to prevent Incidents from becoming Problems

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Known Error DataBase (KEDB) :

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Problem Management (contd..)

Incident v/s Problem Management :


While Incident Management focuses on quick resolution of incidents,
Problem Management analyses the root cause of the incidents

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Problem Management (contd..)

Incident v/s Problem Management :

 Incident Management is the basis for defining Problems and information from
Problem Management is made available for Incident Matching.

 The differences between Incident & Problem Management are :


– Objectives are different
– Different skills/expertise required
– Time is less of an issue within Problem Management
– Activities carried out are different

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Problem Management - Tasks

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Problem Management - Benefits

 The benefits of Problem Management are :


– improved IT Service quality (by removing structural errors pro-actively)
– reduction in the number of incidents
– providing permanent solutions thereby resolved problems stay resolved
– improving the organisation’s knowledge by contributing known error data to the
service desk / incident management / configuration management, etc.

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Problem Management (contd..)

 The critical success factors for Problem Management are :


– Keep Incident Management and Problem Management separate
– Start with re-active Problem Management and then progress towards
developing pro-active Problem Management
– Makes use of tools to detect possible trends
– Interface with Incident Management and Change Management

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Service Support
 Service Desk
 Incident Management
 Problem Management
 Change Management
 Release Management
 Configuration Management

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Change Management

 A change is “an event that results in a new status of one or more


configuration items (CI's)”

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Change Management

 The goal of Change Management is to ensure that standardised methods and


procedures are used for efficient handling of all Changes, in order to minimise
the impact of Change-related incidents and to improve day-to-day operations.

 The main aims of Change Management are :


– Minimal disruption of services
– Reduction in back-out activities
– Economic utilisation of resources involved in the change

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Change Management

Change Management Terminology

 Change
– the addition, modification or removal of CIs

 Request for Change (RFC)


– form used to record details of a request for a change and is sent as an input
to Change Management by the Change Requestor

 Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC)


– schedule that contains details of all the forthcoming Changes

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Change Management (contd..)

 Change Categories
– Category 0 : Is executed without prior contact. Used for workarounds/
temporary fixes
– Category 1 : Little or no impact. Change Manager authorises this RFC
– Category 2 : Significant impact. CAB discussion needed. Change Manager
requests advice on authorisation and planning
– Category 3 : Major impact. Considerable resources required. Senior
Management need to be a part of the CAB.

 Change Priorities
– Urgent: change is required now, in order to achieve the service levels
– High: as soon as possible, otherwise risk to current or future production
– Normal: change solves serious mistakes or a lack in functionality
– Low: change yields improvements that are not required by contract

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Request for Change ( RFC) - Contents

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Change Management (contd..)

 Request for Change ( RFC)


– It is a formal document sent to Change Management by the Change
Requestor requesting for a change.
– Every RFC runs through a number of stages before the change can be
implemented

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Change Management (contd..)

 Change Review
– All implemented changes must be reviewed to establish whether:
• The change has had the desired effect and met its objectives
• There have been no unexpected or undesirable side-effects
• The resources used to implement the change were as planned

 Change Advisory Board (CAB)


– The CAB is an advisory board that reviews RFCs and determines and
provides detail of likely impact
– CAB participants include :
• Customers/users affected by the change
• Representatives of Service Management areas
• Application development teams

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Change Management (contd..)

 Change Advisory Board/ Executive Committee (CAB/EC)


– The CAB/EC is responsible for authorising urgent changes
– The members vary depending on their involvement with the urgent change,
and their availability at the time

 What the CAB discusses :


– Failed or backed-out Changes
– Changes applied without reference to the CAB by Incident Management
– RFCs to be assessed by CAB
– Change reviews
– Change management process

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Change Management - CAB attendees

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Change Management (contd..)

 Change Approval Process

– Financial approval
• Indicates costs are within budgetary limits or cost-benefit criteria are
met

– Technical approval
• Assurance that the Change is feasible, sensible and can be performed
without serious interruptions to the business

– Customer approval
• To ensure that business managers are satisfied with the proposals and
accept any impact to their requirements

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Change Management - Tasks

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Change Management - Benefits

 The benefits of Change Management are :


– increased visibility and better communication of changes
– improved risk assessment of changes
– fewer backed-out or failed changes
– better productivity of Users (fewer disruptions) and IT Staff (duties clearly
planned)
– ability to absorb large number of changes
– reduction in the number of incidents and problems caused by changes

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Change Management (contd..)

 The critical success factors for Change Management are :


– Be prepared for dealing with Urgent Changes
– Integrate with Configuration and Release Management
– Ensure management commitment is present and let them set the example
– Choose appropriate Project Management methodologies

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Service Support
 Service Desk
 Incident Management
 Problem Management
 Change Management
 Release Management
 Configuration Management

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Release Management

 Release Management undertakes the planning, design, build, configuration and


testing of hardware and software to create a set of Release components for a
live environment

 Release Management takes a holistic view of a Change to an IT service and


ensures that all aspects of a Release, both technical and non-technical, are
considered

 The input to the Release Management process comes from the Change
Management process

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Release Management (contd..)

Release Categories
 A Release consists of the new or changed software and/or hardware required to
implement approved Changes

 Releases are categorised as :


– Major software Releases and hardware upgrades, normally containing large
areas of new functionality, some of which may make intervening fixes to
Problems redundant. A major upgrade or Release usually supersedes all
preceding minor upgrades, Releases and emergency fixes
– Minor software Releases and hardware upgrades, normally containing
small enhancements and fixes, some of which may have already been
issued as emergency fixes. A minor upgrade or Release usually supersedes
all preceding emergency fixes
– Emergency software and hardware fixes, normally containing the
corrections to a small number of known Problems

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Release Management (contd..)

 Releases can be divided based on the release unit into :


– Delta Release : is a release of only that part of the software which has been
changed. For ex: Security patches to plug bugs in a software
– Full Release : means that the entire software program will be release
again. For ex : an entire version of an application
– Packaged Release : is a combination of many changes . For ex : an
Operating System image containing the applications as well

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Release Management (contd..)

Release Policy
A Release policy should include :
– Release naming and numbering conventions
– A definition of major and minor Releases, plus a policy on issuing
emergency fixes
– Frequency of Releases
– Expected deliverables for Releases (e.g. installation instructions and
Release notes)
– Guidance as to how and where Releases should be documented (e.g. which
tool to use and how)
– A policy on the production of back-out plans

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Release Management (contd..)

 One of the main activities of Release Management is managing the Definitive


Software Library (DSL) and the Definite Hardware Storage (DHS)

 Definitive Software Library (DSL)


– Secure compound in which the authorised versions of all software CIs are
stored and protected. Includes copies of purchased software (along with the
license documents) as well as the software developed on site

 Definite Hardware Storage (DHS)


– An area set aside for secure storage of hardware spares

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Release Management - Tasks

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Release Management - Benefits

 The benefits of Release Management are :


– greater success rate of changes
– consistency in the release process
– less disruptions to services by synchronizing releases
– assurance that all CIs in use are of known quality and satisfy legal obligations
– controlling & safeguarding of CIs
– lower probability of illegal CIs
– easier detection of wrong & unauthorized versions

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Release Management (contd..)

 The critical success factors for Release Management are :


– Align with Change and Configuration Management
– Create test environments that represent the live hardware and software
environments as closely as possible

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Service Support
 Service Desk
 Incident Management
 Problem Management
 Change Management
 Release Management
 Configuration Management

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Configuration Management

 Almost every Service Management process depends upon accurate IT


infrastructure information. Configuration Management :
– Provides accurate information on configurations and their documentation to
support all the other Service Management processes
– Accounts for all the IT assets and configurations within the organisation
– Verifies the configuration records against the infrastructure and corrects any
exceptions

 Configuration Management v/s Asset Management


Configuration Management revolves around the lifecycles of CI’s and their
relationships, whereas Asset Management is primarily concerned with the
financial value of assets

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Configuration Management (contd..)


 A configuration item (CI) is a component of, or directly related, to the IT-
infrastructure. CI's include: hardware, software, documentation, processes and
procedures

 Examples of CIs :
– Personal computers, Network components, Service Level Agreements,
Manuals, Applications, etc.

 Examples of the relationships between CIs :


– Hierarchically subjected to (parent-child relation)
– Is part of (a processor is part of a PC)
– Interfaced with (a system is connected to a printer)
– Uses (a program uses a subroutine)
– Is a copy of (program is a copy of...)
– Is related to (attribute) (serial number, location, status)
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Configuration Management DataBase (CMDB)

– Details about CIs are stored in the Configuration Management DataBase


(CMDB) from which queries about the IT Infrastructure can be answered

– The details of a CI that are mentioned in a CMDB include :


• Unique Identifier (service tag)
• Attributes (supplier, price)
• Status (ordered, testing, production, archived)
• History (past incidents, applied changes)
• Category (hardware, software)
• Relationship (is connected to, is a part of)

– The scope of the Configuration Management database is defined by the


area of responsibility of the IT organization

– The level of detail is defined by the need for information of the IT


management processes, the control of the information and the costs and
benefits of a CMDB

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Configuration Management DataBase (CMDB)

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Configuration Management (contd..)

 Configuration Management Database (CMDB)


– Change Management interfaces with Configuration Management to obtain
information about a CI and then provides input on what the status of the
CI’s will be after a change
– Configuration Management will then update the CMDB to reflect the
changed status of the CI

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Configuration Management - Process

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Configuration Management (contd..)

 Planning
During the planning, define :
– Purpose, scope and objectives
– Related policies and standards
– Roles and responsibilities
– CI naming conventions
– CMDB design, including scope and key interfaces

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Configuration Management (contd..)

 Identification
The Identification activity addresses :
– Configuration, structures and the selection of CIs
– CI types and life-cycles
– CI relationships
– Identification of software and document libraries
– Identification of configuration baselines
– Naming conventions
– Labelling CIs

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Configuration Management (contd..)

 Control
The Control activity organises :
– Registration of new CIs and versions
– Updating of CI records
– Archiving of CIs and their associated records
– Protection of the integrity of configurations
– Updating of the CMDB after periodic checking

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Configuration Management (contd..)

 Status Accounting
Status reports should be produced on a regular basis listing, for all CIs
under Control, their current version and history.
Status Accounting reports can be used to establish baselines and enable
Changes between baselines and Releases to be traceable.

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Configuration Management (contd..)

 Verification and Audit


Before acceptance into the environment, new Releases, builds,
equipment and standards should be verified against the contracted or specified
requirements.
Physical configuration audits should be carried out to verify that the “as-
built” configuration of a CI confirms to it’s “as-planned” configuration and it’s
associated documents.

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Configuration Management (contd..)

Configuration BaseLines
A BaseLine is the configuration of a product or system established at a
specific point in time, which captures both the structure and the details of that
product or system and enables that product or system to be re-built at a later
date.
Configuration BaseLines and approved Changes to those BaseLines
together constitute the “Currently Approved Configuration”.

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Interaction with other processes

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Change Management - Benefits

 The benefits of Configuration Management are :


– helps to minimize the impact of changes
– provides accurate information on CIs
– improves security by controlling the versions of CIs in use
– facilitates adherence to legal obligations
– helps in financial & expenditure planning

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Configuration Management (contd..)

 The critical success factors for Configuration Management are :


– Select the appropriate tool at the start of the process
– Ensure no one bypasses Change Management
– Make use of Inventory Systems

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Service
Support

Configuration Incident Problem Change Release


Management Management Management Management Management

Detection Accept & Release


Identification Problem Control
& Recording Classify Changes Planning

Classification & Design, Build,


Control Error Control Evaluate
Initial Support Configure

Proactive
Status Investigation Authorize &
Prevention Test, Accept
Accounting and Diagnosis Schedule Changes
of Problems

Verification Resolution Coordinate


& Recovery Implementation Plan Roll Out
& Audit

Closure Monitor & Report Communicate,


Prepare, Train

Review & Close Distribute


& Install

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Service Delivery
 Capacity Management
 Availability Management
 Service Level Management
 IT Service Continuity Management
 Financial Management for IT Services

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Service Delivery

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The Service Delivery set

 Capacity Management
– Ensure that capacity and performance aspects of the business requirements
are provided timely and cost effectively

 Availability Management
– Optimize the capability of the IT Infrastructure and supporting organization to
deliver a cost effective and sustained level of availability to satisfy business
objectives

 Service Level Management


– Maintain and improve IT service quality through a constant cycle of agreeing,
monitoring, reporting and reviewing IT service achievements

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The Service Delivery set (contd..)

 IT Service Continuity Management


– Ensuring that the required IT technical and service facilities can be recovered
within the time scales required by Business Continuity Management

 Financial Management for IT Services


– Provide cost effective stewardship of IT assets and resources used in providing
IT services

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Service Delivery
 Capacity Management
 Availability Management
 Service Level Management
 IT Service Continuity Management
 Financial Management for IT Services

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Capacity Management

 The objective of Capacity Management is to ensure the optimum use of IT


resources for the performance agreed upon with the client

 Capacity Management is needed to support the optimum and cost-effective


provision of IT services by helping organizations to match their IT resources to
the current and future demands of their business

 The main tasks of Capacity Management are :


– Match capacity and demand by increasing or managing available capacity
– Ensure that existing capacity is used in an optimum manner

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Capacity Management (contd..)

 The main types of Capacity Management are :


– Business Capacity Management
• Trend, forecast, model, prototype and document future business
requirements

– Service Capacity Management


• Monitor, analyse, tune and report on service performance, establish
baselines and profiles of use service, manage demand for services

– Resource Capacity Management


• Monitor, analyse, tune and report on utilisation of components,
establish baselines and profiles of use of components

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Capacity Management (contd..)

 Capacity Management activities can be subdivided into planning and monitoring


activities

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Capacity Management (contd..)


 Demand Management (covers the management of users' demands for IT
resources)
– Short-term: optimization
– Long-term: have an insight into future projects

 Workload Management (concerned with identifying and understanding the


applications, their work patterns and peaks, and their use of hardware
resources)

 Resource Management (storage management, assessment of new HW


technology)

 Performance Management (measure, control and tuning of performance of


components of the IT infrastructure)

 Application Sizing (forecast for HW resources for new and changed


applications)

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Capacity Management (contd..)


 Modelling (trend analysis, estimation, simulation, analytic modeling)

 Capacity Planning (Capacity plan which details the current levels of resource
utilisation and service performance, and forecasts the future requirements for
resources)

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Capacity Management (contd..)

Capacity Management DataBase (CDB)


Capacity Management collects data from a variety of hardware platforms
and software applications that could be widely distributed and stores the data in
a CDB.
The components of a CDB include :
• service data from SLAs
• business data from the business plans and strategy
• technical data from the manufacturers’ specification of the hardware and
software components
• financial data

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Capacity Management - Tasks

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Capacity Management - Benefits

 The benefits of Capacity Management are :


– Reduced risk of performance problems and failure
– Cost savings
– Both achievable through:
• Planned buying
• Deferring expenditure until really needed (but in a controlled way)
• Matching capacity to business need
– Ensures that systems have sufficient capacity to run the applications required
by the business for the foreseeable future
– Provides information on current and planned resource utilization of individual
components allowing decisions on which components to upgrade, when to do
so, and how much it will cost.

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Capacity Management (contd..)

 The critical success factors for Capacity Management are :


– Interface with Availability and Financial Management
– Ensure business expertise is available, especially for Business Capacity
Management

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Service Delivery
 Capacity Management
 Availability Management
 Service Level Management
 IT Service Continuity Management
 Financial Management for IT Services

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Availability Management

 A service is available when the service has been provided for an agreed number
of direct users, within a maximum response time, maintaining the agreed
functionality

 Availability Management is concerned with the planning, and ongoing


management activities, needed to ensure that the reliability and availability
levels, as specified in the SLAs, are achieved and maintained

 The goal of Availability Management is to optimise the capability of the IT


Infrastructure, services and the supporting organisation to deliver effective and
sustained levels of availability that enable the business to satisfy the business
objectives

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Availability Management (contd..)

Availability Management Terminology

 Availability
The extent that a CI or an IT service is able to perform the expected
functionality of the CI or IT service over a specified time period

 Reliability
Refers to the extent that an IT service is able to perform the expected
functionality, over a certain period of time, under prescribed circumstances OR
freedom from operational failure.

 Maintainability
This indicates the ease of the maintenance of the IT service (preventative,
inspective, corrective)

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Availability Management (contd..)

 Serviceability
All relevant contractual conditions of external suppliers and third-party
suppliers to maintain CI’s

 Resilience
The ability of an IT service to function correctly in spite of the incorrect
operation of one or more subsystems

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Availability = Host * Network * Server * Workstation


= 0.98 * 0.98 * 0.98 * 0.975 * 0.96
= 0.8809
Total Infrastructure Availability = 88.09%.

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Availability Management (contd..)

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Availability Management (contd..)

Un-Availability Costs

 Tangible costs
Lost user and IT staff productivity, lost revenue, overtime payments,
wasted goods and material, fines and penalties

 Intangible costs
Loss of goodwill (customer dissatisfaction), loss of customers, loss of
business opportunity (to sell, gain customers), damage to business reputation,
loss of confidence, damage to staff morale

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Availability Management (contd..)

Calculating Un-Availability Costs

 Determine the Vital Business Function (VBF)


 Carry out CRAMM (Computer Risk Assessment Management Methodology)

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Availability Management - Tasks

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Availability Management - Benefits

 The benefits of Availability Management are :


– IT services with an availability requirement are designed, implemented, and
managed to consistently meet that target
– Improvement of capability of the IT infrastructure to attain the required levels of
availability to support the critical business processes
– Improvement of customer satisfaction and recognition that availability is the
prime IT deliverable
– Reduction in frequency and duration of incidents that impact IT availability
– Single point for availability is established within the IT organization (process
owner)
– Levels of IT availability provided are cost-justified and support SLAs fully
– Shortcomings in provision of availability are recognized and coped with in a
formal way
– Mindset moves from error correction to service enhancement: from reactive to
proactive attitude

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Availability Management (contd..)

 The critical success factors for Availability Management are :


– Integrate with IT Service Continuity Management
– Understand the un-availability costs (both tangible and intangible costs)

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Service Delivery
 Capacity Management
 Availability Management
 Service Level Management
 IT Service Continuity Management
 Financial Management for IT Services

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Service Level Management

 A Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a two-sided written agreement between an


IT Service Provider and the IT Customer(s), defining the key service targets and
responsibilities of both parties

 Service Level Management is the process of negotiating, defining, contracting,


monitoring and reviewing the levels of customer service, that are both required
and cost effective

 Service Level Management helps to develop a better relationship between the IT


Organisation and it’s customers

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Service Level Management (contd..)

 Service Level Management aims to :


– Strike a balance between customer requirements and service costs
– Identify customer requirements in terms of what customers want and what
can be delivered
– Measurable service standards
– What you don't measure, you can't agree upon
– Enhance quality by implementing quality improvement programs
– What can be measured can be improved!
– Business relationship between customer and supplier

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Service Level Management (contd..)

Service Level Management Contracts


 The IT organization has several contracts: An SLA with customers, an OLA with
an internal supplier and underpinning contracts with external suppliers

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Service Level Management (contd..)

Functions of Service Level Management


 As well as setting up and monitoring SLAs, maintaining underpinning contracts
with suppliers and managing relationships with customers are also functions of
SLM

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Service Level Management (contd..)

 Service Level Management consists of activities that are needed to set up a


SLA, but also activities needed to see if the Service Levels are met

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Service Level Management (contd..)

Balancing IT Service Supply & Demand


 Important within a SLA is the balance between the demand for IT services and
the supply of IT services

 Demand and Supply for IT Services can be balanced by :


– Being aware of the business requirements
– Being aware of the IT possibilities (technical and economical)
– Alignment of expectations

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Service Level Management (contd..)

 Service Level Agreements consist of elements of the other Service Management


processes
 Input from those processes is required for agreeing and monitoring Service
Levels

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Service Level Management - SLA Details

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Service Level Management (contd..)

Elements of an SLA

 General
– Introduction : Parties, Signatures, Service Description
– Reporting & Reviewing : Content, Frequency
– Incentives & Penalties

 Support
Service Hours, Support, Change Procedures, Escalation

 Delivery
Availability, Reliability, Throughput, Transaction Response Time, Batch
Turn-around Times, Contingency & Security, Charging

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Service Level Management (contd..)

Service Level Reports (SLR)

 Measured from the customer’s perspective


 Data like reaction times, escalation times and support should be made
measurable
 Reports should be produced regularly
 Reports contain measuring values concerning the up-to-date supporting levels
and the trend developments

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Service Level Management (contd..)

Service Catalog
 A Service Catalogue can be used to list the "normal" services provided by the IT
organization whereas Service Level Agreements can be set up for "special"
services

 The Service Catalogue contains :


– Relevant characteristics of services
– Relevant information of the use of the services

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Service Level Management - Tasks

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Service Level Management - Benefits

 The benefits of Service Level Management are :


– Improvement in IT service quality and reduction of service outages can lead to
significant financial savings
– Satisfied customers and better customer relationship
– Clearer view between both parties on roles and responsibilities
– Specific targets that have to be achieved and that can be measured and
reported
– Focusing of IT effort on what the business thinks is key
– IT and customers have consistent expectations on the level of service required
– Identification of weak areas that can be remedied subsequently
– SLM underpins supplier management and vice-versa
– IT services are designed to meet Service Level Requirements
– SLAs can be the basis for charging, and are the demonstration of what
customers receive for their money.

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Service Level Management (contd..)

 The critical success factors for Service Level Management are :


– Service Level Management should not just be limited to SLAs
– Ensure buy-in from all other Service Management processes
– Create a definition of Service

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Service Delivery
 Capacity Management
 Availability Management
 Service Level Management
 IT Service Continuity Management
 Financial Management for IT Services

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IT Service Continuity Management

 The objective of IT Service Continuity Planning is to restore IT services as


quickly and as completely as possible after a disaster has taken place

 IT Service Continuity Management ensures that the required IT technical and


services facilities (including computer systems, networks, applications,
telecommunications, technical support and service desk) can be recovered
within required, and agreed, business schedules.

 The reasons an organization should implement IT Service Continuity


Management are :
– Avoid financial risks (insurance)
– Increased dependence on IT services; business protection
– Provides a competitive edge
– Legal requirements
– Customers’ demands

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IT Service Continuity Management (contd..)

Business Continuity Management and IT Service Continuity Management

 Business Continuity Management (BCM) is concerned with managing


risks to ensure that at all times an organization can continue operating to, at
least, a predetermined minimum level. The BCM process involves reducing the
risk to an acceptable level and planning for the recovery of business processes
should a risk materialize and a disruption to the business occur.

 IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) must be a part of the overall


BCM (Business Continuity Management) process and is dependent upon
information derived through this process. ITSCM is focused on the continuity of
IT Services to the business. BCM is concerned with the management of
Business Continuity that incorporates all services upon which the business
depends, one of which is IT.

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IT Service Continuity Management (contd..)

 IT Service Continuity Management activities include :


– Risk Analysis
– Risk Management
– Continuity Plan
– Creation
– Testing
– Improving
– Maintenance
– Reporting

 These activities are all engineered to provide IT Service continuity

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IT Service Continuity Management (contd..)

 The recovery options that can be used are :


– Do nothing !!!
– Insure for damage
– Manual back-up procedures (on paper until IT is restored)
– Take-over by other organization with similar equipment (reciprocal)
– Fortress approach; disaster-proof
– Gradual recovery {cold standby} 72-48 hours
– Intermediate recovery {warm standby} 24-1 hours
– Immediate recovery {hot standby} seconds
– Using internal / external / fixed / portable / mobile centres

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IT Service Continuity Management (contd..)

Risk Assessment

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IT Service Continuity Management (contd..)

Contingency Plan
 Contents
– Administration
– IT infrastructure
– IT infrastructure management and procedures for operation
– Staff
– Security
– Continuity site
– Return to original situation

 Scope
– Hardware, Software, Networks, Terminals/PCs, Accommodation (for IT and
users), Building facilities and Staff

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IT Service Continuity Management - Tasks

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IT Service Continuity Management - Benefits

 The benefits of IT Service Continuity Management are :


– Potential lower insurance premiums
– Business relationship with the rest of the enterprise is fostered because IT
organization is forced to get a better
– understanding of the business
– Positive marketing of contingency capabilities. Effective ITSCM allows
organization to provide high service levels and thus win business
– Organizational credibility is increased towards customers, business partners,
and stakeholders
– Competitive advantage over organizations without it

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IT Service Continuity Management (contd..)

 The critical success factors for IT Service Continuity Management are :


– Ensure alignment to BCM
– If it’s not worth protecting, it’s not worth doing
– Test under realistic circumstances

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Service Delivery
 Capacity Management
 Availability Management
 Service Level Management
 IT Service Continuity Management
 Financial Management for IT Services

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Financial Management for IT Services

 Financial Management gives insight into the costs of the IT organization and
options to charge the costs - making it possible to run IT as a business

 The reasons why an organization should implement Financial Management for


IT Services are :
– Cost/profits awareness (make users aware of what services actually cost)
– Decision-making support
– Cost recovery
– Cost control (know the full cost of the provided IT services)
– Planning
– Efficiency
– Influence on use (for instance providing incentives for using off-peak times

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Financial Management for IT Services

 The goals of Financial Management for IT Services are to :


– Provide cost-effective stewardship of the IT assets and resources used in
providing IT Services
– Be able to account fully for the spendings on IT Services and to attribute
these costs to the services delivered to customers
– Assist management decisions on investments by providing detailed
business cases for Changes to IT Services

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Financial Management for IT Services (contd..)

 Financial Management for IT Services activities include :


– Budgeting
– IT Accounting
– Charging

 Budgeting
The process of predicting and controlling the spending of money within the
enterprise and consists of a periodic negotiation cycle (usually annual) to set
limits on budgets and the day-to-day monitoring of the current budgets.
Budgeting enables an organisation to :
– Predict the money required for a given period
– Ensure that actual spending can be compared with predicted spending
– Reduce the risk of over-spending
– Ensure that revenues are available to cover predicted spending

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Financial Management for IT Services (contd..)

 IT Accounting
The set of processes that enable the IT organization to fully account for
the way its money is spent (particularly the ability to identify costs by customer,
by service, by activity). It usually involves ledgers and should be overseen by
someone trained in Accountancy. IT Accounting enables an organisation by :
– Account for the money spent
– Calculate the cost of providing IT Services to both internal & external
services
– Perform cost-benefit or return-on-investment analyses
– Identify the cost of Changes

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Financial Management for IT Services (contd..)

 Charging
The set of processes required to bill a customer for the services supplied
to them. To achieve this requires sound Accounting, to a level of detail
determined by the requirements of the analysis, billing & reporting processes.
Charging enables an organisation to :
– Recover the costs of the IT Services from the Customers of the service
– Operate the IT Organisation as a business unit, if required
– Influence User and Customer behaviour

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Financial Management for IT Services - Costs

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Financial Management for IT Services - Tasks

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Financial Management for IT Services - Benefits

 The benefits of Financial Management for IT Services are :


– IT accounting supports the IT Service Manager
– Statements about profitability of the individual IT services
– Essential decisions about IT services and the required investments
– Data for justifying IT expenditures
– Essential planning and budgeting
– Overview of costs, created by service failures, as a basis for expenditure
justification in strategy planning
– Users can track costs of the services they have used

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Financial Management for IT Services (contd..)

 The critical success factors for Financial Management for IT Services are :
– Involve financial / accounting experts
– Interface with the other Service Management processes
– Use customer-based charging units

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Service
Delivery

Financial IT Services
Service Level Availability Capacity
Management Continuity
Management Management Management
for IT Services Management

Identify Service Determine Business Capacity


Budget Initiation
Level Requirements Requirements Management

Requirements
Verification of Perform BIA and Service Capacity
Account Analysis
Feasibility assess design criteria Management
& Strategy Definition

Negotiate Define Targets Resource Capacity Charge


Implementation
(Agreeing) & Measures Management (Optional)

Establishment Monitoring Operational


of Agreements & Trend Analysis Management

Monitor Service Levels Investigate

Produce & Maintain


Report & Review
the Availability Plan

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Security Management

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Security Management

 Security Management is the process of “managing a defined level of


security on information and IT services, including managing the responses
to security incidents”

 The goal of Security Management is to counter risks of threats to one of the most
important assets for business: information

 Information is threatened in three main ways:


– Confidentiality
– Integrity (accuracy)
– Availability (accessibility)

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Security Management - CIA

 Confidentiality
Protecting sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure or intelligible
interception

 Integrity
Safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of information and software

 Availability
Ensuring that information and vital IT services are available and
accessible when required

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Security Management - Why Security Management?

 Information is the most important production factor of the world

 Threat to information = threat to the organization‘s productivity

 Security Management gets increasingly important, because...


– Public networks (Internet) are increasingly used
– Internal networks are opened to customers and business partners
– Internet usability is increasingly extended (e-commerce, online banking)
– Processes are controlled via networks

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Security Management - Security Measures

 Security organization
– With clear responsibilities and tasks
– Policies, codes of conduct

 Physical security measures


– Physical separation of the computer room

 Technical security measures


– Security in a computer system or network

 Procedural security measures


– How the staff are required to act in particular cases
– Work instructions

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Defines its • Collect experiences, lessons learned
security • Improvement will be considered for the next The section
requirements round of planning & implementation security in SLA
based on its
is negotiated
business
between
requirements
customer and
service
provider

• Show
conformity
with SLA
• Management
without
information is
impossible
• SLA
• Underpinning contracts
• Define • OLA
processes, • Policy statement
functions, roles,
responsibilities
• Organization
structure
between • Maintaining awareness
sub-processes - Security works only if disciplined and
• Reporting • Internal audits motivated
structure/line of • External audits • Security incident handling responsiveness
command • Self-assessments • Security incident registration
• Security incident - measurement
evaluation - classification
- and reporting
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Security Management - Tasks

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Security Management - Benefits

 Can only be qualified with difficulty


 The costs are nevertheless clear if security is not sufficient

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Thank you for your


participation

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