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neLworklng 8aslcs

W ltotocol ls a seL of rules LhaL govern daLa
W L represenLs an agreemenL beLween Lhe
communlcaLlng devlces
W WlLhouL a proLocol 2 devlces can be
connecLed buL noL communlcaLlng
W key elemenLs
SynLax sLrucLure/formaL of daLa
SemanLlcs meanlng of each secLlon of blLs
1lmlng when how fasL Lo send daLa
W l tetet etvlce ltovlJets
W NAl Netwotk Access lolts
W O ,oJel tetftlofl tfJftJs Otqflzftlo
ppllcaLlon Layer hLLp smLp fLp dns snmp LelneL
1ransporL scLp Lcp udp
neLwork lp
uaLa Llnk
ppllcaLlon Layer
W 8esponslble for provldlng servlces Lo Lhe users
W Lnables user Lo use Lhe lnLerneL
W 9rovldes user lnLerfaces supporL for servlces
unS uomaln name Server
W supporLlng program LhaL ls used by oLher
programs such as emall
W need of a sysLem LhaL can map a name Lo an
address or an address Lo a name
W 1he names are deflned ln an lnverLedLree
sLrucLure wlLh Lhe rooL aL Lhe Lop
W 1ree can have only 128 levels 0 Lo 127
W fel Lach node ln Lree has lL sLrlng wlLh
max of 63 characLers ulfferenL labels
guaranLee unlqueness of domaln name
W omfl Nfme Lach node has lL ls a
sequence of labels separaLed by doLs
W LasL label ls Lhe rooL 8ead from node up Lo
W f a label ls LermlnaLed by a null sLrlng lL ls
called a lly pfllleJ Jomfl fme (lON)
W unS server can only maLch an lCun Lo an
W name musL end wlLh doL ()
W f a label ls noL LermlnaLed by a null sLrlng lL ls
called pfttlflly pfllleJ Jomfl fme
W uoes noL reach Lhe rooL unS cllenL adds sufflx
Lo lL before passlng lL Lo unS server
W Jomfl ls a subLree of domaln name space
1he name of Lhe domaln ls Lhe domaln name
of Lhe node aL Lhe Lop of Lhe subLree
W lsttlteJ N WhaL a server ls responslble
for or has auLhorlLy over ls called a ZCnL
W 1he server makes a daLabase called zoe lle and keeps
all lnformaLlon for every node under LhaL domaln
W koot setvet whose zone conslsLs of Lhe whole Lree
Several rooL servers coverlng whole domaln name
W ltlmfty setvet sLores a flle abouL Lhe zone for whlch lL
ls an auLhorlLy CreaLes malnLalns updaLes Lhe zone
W ecoJfty setvet Lransfers compleLe lnfo abouL zone
from anoLher server sLores Lhe flle
W updaLlng only aL prlmary server
W 8oLh auLhorlLaLlve for Lhe zones Lhey serve
W unS ls a proLocol
Ceetlc omfl deflne reglsLered hosLs
accordlng Lo Lhelr generlc behavlor
cotty omfl uses 2characLer counLry
vetse omfl used Lo map an address Lo a
unS 8esoluLlon
W kesoltlo mapplng a name Lo an address or an
address Lo a name
W kesolvet unS cllenL who does Lhe resoluLlon
W kectslve tesoltlo ln a serlal way
W tetftlve tesoltlo repeaLs same query Lo
mulLlple servers
W cfcblq reduces search Llme SLores query
lnformaLlon ln cache memory
W 1lme to llve 11 lnformaLlon added Lo mapplng
unS Messages
W 2 Lypes Cuery 8esponse
W Oety msq header quesLlon records
W kespose msq header quesLlon records answer
records auLhorlLaLlve records addlLlonal records
W nefJet same formaL for boLh
W Oestlo tecotJ used by cllenL Lo geL lnformaLlon
from a server ConLalns domaln name
W kesotce tecotJ each domaln name ls assoclaLed
wlLh lL 1hey are whaL ls reLurned by Lhe serve Lo
unS 8eglsLrars
W llrsL verlfles LhaL Lhe requesLed domaln name ls
unlque Lhen enLers lL lnLo unS daLabase
W N yfmlc omfl Nfme ystem
lor updaLlng unS masLer flle dynamlcally
uone wlLh uPC9 prlmary and secondary servers are
1o provlde securlLy prevenL unauLhorlzed changes ln
unS records uunS can use an auLhenLlcaLlon
W unS can use 1C9 or uu9 9orL 33
W uu9 when slze of msg 312 byLes oLherwlse
1C9 ls used
8emoLe Logglng
W users who wanL Lo run appllcaLlon programs
aL a remoLe slLe creaLe resulLs LhaL can be
Lransferred Lo Lhelr local slLe
W 1N1 1ermlnal neLwork general purpose
cllenLserver appllcaLlon program
W 1lmesbftlq a large compuLer supporLs
mulLlple users
W 1LLnL1 uses only 1 1C9 connecLlon porL 23
W Dset Aqet (DA) 9rovldes servlce Lo Lhe user Lo make
Lhe process of sendlng n recelvlng a message easler L
ls a sofLware program LhaL composes reads replles Lo
forwards messages lso handles mallboxes
W ,, ,ltlptpose tetet ,fll xteslos
1ransforms nonSC daLa Lo SC daLa
W ,1l lmple ,fll 1tfset ltotocol Message 1ransfer
genL 9ush 9roLocol (push malls from cllenL Lo server)
ueflnes how commands responses musL be senL
back n forLh
W Mall Lransfer occurs ln 3 sLages connecLlon
esLabllshmenL mall Lransfer connecLlon LermlnaLlon
W lOl ,Al ,essfqe Access Aqets needed
Lo provlde 3
parLy access Lo pull malls from
server Lo cllenL
W lOlJ lost Olce ltotocol vJ 1C9 connecLlon
porL 110 2 modes deleLe keep
W ,Al4 tetet ,fll Access ltotocol v4 Pas
more feaLures uownload search arrange
mallboxes eLc feaLures
W n11l also used
llle 1ransfer
W 1ransferrlng flles from one compuLer Lo
W l1l llle 1tfset ltotocol Mechanlsm
provlded by 1C9/9 for copylng a flle from one
hosL Lo anoLher
W LsLabllsh 2 connecLlons 1 for daLa Lransfer
(porL 20) 1 for conLrol lnformaLlon (porL 21)
WWW World Wlde Web
W L ls a reposlLory of lnformaLlon llnked
LogeLher from polnLs all over Lhe world
W Lach slLe holds Je pfqes
W cllet (8towset) ConLalns 3 parLs
CllenL proLocol
nLerpreLers P1ML !ava !avaScrlpL
W etvet Web pages are sLored ln lL
W Dk Dlotm kesotce ocftots P119 uses
locaLors L ls a sLandard for speclfylng any klnd
of lnformaLlon on Lhe lnLerneL ueflnes
ltotocol// nost lott / lftb
W cookles www sLaLeless enLlLy Cookle ls
made by Lhe server n eaLen by Lhe server L ls
lncluded ln Lhe requesL lf found
W JJJ sLaLlc dynamlc acLlve documenLs
W n1, nypet 1ext ,ftkp fqfqe lor creaLlng
web pages Comes ln Lhe caLegory of stftlc
Jocmets LLrlbuLes
8eqllq eJlq tfqs
mfqe tfq
nypetllk tfq
W cC commo Cftewfy tetfce CreaLes n
handles Jyfmlc Jocmets ueflnes a seL of
rules and Lerms LhaL Lhe programmer musL
follow Can be used Lo access oLher resources
W Actlve Jocmet scrlpL ls needed Lo be run
aL Lhe cllenL slLe Ifvf Applets Ifvfctlpt are
used for Lhem
W yfmlc Joc setvetslte Jyfmlc Joc
W Actlve Joc clletslte Jyfmlc Joc
P119 Pyper 1exL 1ransfer 9roLocol
W used Lo access daLa on www
W ComblnaLlon of l19 n SM19
W uses 1 1C9 connecLlon 9orL 80
W SLaLeless proLocol
W ltoxy etvet P119 supporLs lL compuLer whlch
keeps coples of responses Lo recenL requesLs
W P119 sends requesL proxy server checks
cache sends requesL Lo correspondlng server
sLore requesL ln cache
W 8educes load on orlglnal server decreases server
lmproves laLency
SnM9 Slmple neLwork ManagemenL
W framework for managlng devlces ln an
lnLerneL uslng Lhe 1C9/9 proLocol sulLe
W 9rovldes a seL of fundamenLal operaLlons for
monlLorlng malnLalnlng an lnLerneL
W uses concepL of manager and agenL
W Manager (hosL) conLrols n monlLors a seL of
agenLs (rouLers)
W Can be used ln heLerogeneous lnLerneL
W ueflnes formaL of Lhe packeL Lo be senL from a
manager Lo an agenL and vlce versa
W nLerpreLs resulLs and creaLes sLaLlsLlcs
W uses uu9 9orLs 161 (used by server/agenL)
162 (used by cllenL/manager)
W 1hree caLegorles
SLreamlng sLored audlo/vldeo
W uslng a web server
W uslng a web server wlLh a meLaflle
W uslng a medla server
W uslng medla server 81S9
SLreamlng llve audlo/vldeo
nLeracLlve audlo/vldeo
MulLlmedla 81S9
W k1l kefl1lme ttefmlq ltotocol ConLrol
proLocol deslgned Lo add more funcLlonallLles Lo
Lhe sLreamlng process
W CuLofband conLrol proLocol slmllar Lo 2
connecLlon ln l19
W f Lhere ls uneven delay beLween packeLs ln a llve
sLreamlng vldeo lL glves rlse Lo lttet
W SoluLlon Lo [lLLer tlmestfmp and separaLe Lhe
arrlval Llme from Lhe playback Llme
W plfyfck et ls requlred for realLlme Lrafflc
W sepece met on each packeL ls requlred for
realLlme Lrafflc
W 8ealLlme Lrafflc needs Lhe supporL of
W 1tfslftlo changlng Lhe encodlng of a payload
Lo a lower quallLy Lo maLch Lhe bandwldLh of Lhe
recelvlng neLwork
W ,lxlq comblnlng several sLreams of Lrafflc lnLo
one sLream
W 1cl cannoL be used Dl-k1l used for realLlme
MulLlmedla 819
W k1l kefl1lme ptotocol ueslgned Lo handle real
Llme Lrafflc
W no dellvery mechanlsm
W used wlLh uu9
W SLands beLween uu9 appllcaLlon program
W 9rovldes LlmesLamplng sequenclng mlxlng
W llows only 1 Lype of message LhaL carrles daLa
from source Lo desLlnaLlon
W uses a Lemporary evennumbered uu9 porL nexL
number ls used by companlon of 819 81C9
MulLlmedla 81C9
W k1cl kefl1lme cottol ltotocol 9rovldes
messages LhaL conLrol Lhe flow quallLy of daLa
and allow reclplenL Lo send feedback Lo Lhe
W Pas 3 Lypes of messages
Sender reporL
8ecelver reporL
Source descrlpLlon message
8ye message
ppllcaLlonspeclflc message
W uses uu9 porL 819 porL + 1 (odd)
MulLlmedla S9
W esslo ltlftlo ltotocol LsLabllshes manages
n LermlnaLes a mulLlmedla sesslon
W Can be used Lo creaLe 2parLy mulLlparLy or
mulLlcasL sesslons
W Can run on uu9 1C9 or SC19
W 1exLbased proLocol uses messages
W 6 messages deflned nv1L Ck 8?L C91CnS
W Lach one has a header n a body
MulLlmedla S9
W llexlble emall address an 9 address a
Lelephone number eLc can be used Lo ldenLlfy
Lhe sender n recelver
W ddress needs Lo be ln S9 formaL
W sesslon conslsLs of
LsLabllshlng a sesslon 3way handshake
1ermlnaLlng Lhe sesslon
MulLlmedla P323
W 1o allow Lelephones on Lhe publlc Lelephone
neLwork Lo Lalk Lo compuLers called tetmlfls
connecLed Lo Lhe lnLerneL
W A qftewfy connecLs lnLerneL Lo Lhe Lelephone
neLwork 3layer devlce LhaL can LranslaLe a
message from one proLocol sLack Lo anoLher
W uses C71 or C7231 for compresslon
W uses P243 proLocol allows parLles Lo negoLlaLe
Lhe compresslon meLhod
W uses P223 proLocol for reglsLraLlon wlLh
1ransporL Layer
W 8esponslble for ptocesstoptocess Jellvety of Lhe
enLlre message
W ptocess ls an appllcaLlon program runnlng on a
W Lnsures LhaL Lhe whole message arrlves lnLacL
and ln order
W Can be boLh connecLlonorlenLed (1C9 SC19) and
connecLlonless (uu9)
W Pere we need LransporL layer address pott
met Lo choose among mulLlple processes
runnlng on Lhe desLlnaLlon hosL
W 9orL numbers are 16blL lnLegers beLween 0 and
63333 chosen randomly by LransporL layer
sofLware aL cllenL called epbemetfl pott met
W l fJJtess deflnes Lhe bost among Lhe dlfferenL
hosLs ln Lhe world pott met deflnes one of
Lhe processes on Lhls parLlcular hosL
W ANA kfqes tetet AsslqeJ Nmet
Jellkow potts 0 Lo 1023 asslgned conLrolled
keqlsteteJ potts 1024 Lo 49131 only reglsLered
yfmlc potts 49132 Lo 63333 ephemeral porLs
W ocket fJJtess l fJJtess - lott met
W 1ransporL proLocol needs a palr of sockeL
W 9 header 9 addresses
W uu9/1C9 header 9orL numbers
W MulLlplexlng demulLlplexlng
W 8ellablllLy (error conLrol) aL daLa llnk layer 2
nodes 8ellablllLy aL LransporL layer 2 ends
because neLwork layer ls unrellable (besLefforL)
uu9 user uaLagram 9roLocol
W ConnecLlonless unrellable
W 9erforms very llmlLed error checklng
W very slmple uslng mlnlmum of overhead
W Dset Jftfqtfms flxed slze header of 8byLes
W llelds
Source porL number 16blL long
uesLlnaLlon porL number 16blL long
LengLh 16blL fleld
uu9 lengLh 9 lengLh 9 header's lengLh
Checksum error deLecLlon
W Checksum lncludes
uu9 header
uaLa from app layer
W calculaLed checksum can never be all 1s because Lhls
lmplles LhaL Lhe sum ls all 0s whlch ls lmposslble
because lL requlres LhaL Lhe value of flelds Lo be 0s
W Cnly processes sendlng shorL messages should use
W no flow conLrol no wlndow mechanlsm
W Lrror conLrol checksum
W uu9 encapsulaLes decapsulaLes messages ln an
9 daLagram
W Oees are assoclaLed wlLh porLs
W n lncomlng queue can overflow uu9 sends pott
tefcbfle message Lo server ln Lhls case
W useful for process LhaL requlres slmple requesL
response communlcaLlon eg l19
W SulLable for mltlcfstlq
W used for managemenL processes such as SnM9
W used for 89 8ouLlng nformaLlon 9roLocol
1C9 1ransmlsslon ConLrol 9roLocol
W coectlootleteJ tellfle proLocol creaLes
vlrLual connecLlon beLween 2 1C9s Lo send
W uses flow error conLrol mechanlsms
W Wellknown porL numbers ln 1C9
20 l19 daLa
21 l19 conLrol
23 SM19
33 unS
80 P119
W ttefmotleteJ proLocol allows sendlng process
Lo dellver daLa as a sLream of byLes n allows
recelvlng process Lo obLaln daLa as a sLream of
W 1C9 needs buffer due Lo unequal speed of
sendlng recelvlng daLa
W 2 buffers sendlng n recelvlng
W keeps byLes ln buffer unLll lL recelves Ck
W 1C9 groups a number of byLes LogeLher lnLo a
packeL called a seqmet
W SegmenLs are encapsulaLed ln 9 daLagrams and
W Cffers llJplex commlcftlo ln whlch daLa
can flow ln boLh dlrecLlons aL Lhe same Llme
W uses Ck mechanlsm Lo check safe and sound
arrlval of daLa
W Nmetlq system keeps Lrack of Lhe segmenLs
belng LransmlLLed or recelved by
epece Nmet no of 1
byLe carrled ln a segmenL
8yte Nmet byLes are numbered sLarLlng from a
randomly generaLed number
AckowleJqemet Nmet Lo conflrm byLes have
been recelved for nexL expecLed byLe
1C9 luncLlons
W 9rovldes
llow cottol conLrols amounL of daLa Lo be senL by
Lhe sender
ttot cottol byLeorlenLed conslders a segmenL as
Lhe unlL of daLa for error deLecLlon
coqestlo cottol Lakes lnLo accounL congesLlon ln
Lhe neLwork
W eqmet packeL ln 1C9 ConLalns
Source porL address
uesLlnaLlon porL address
Sequence number
cknowledgemenL number
Peader lengLh
Wlndow slze deflnes slze of wlndow LhaL Lhe oLher
parLy musL malnLaln
urgenL polnLer valld only lf 'urgenL flag' ls seL
W 1C9 connecLlon
ConnecLlon esLabllshmenL
uaLa Lransfer
ConnecLlon LermlnaLlon
1C9 ConnecLlon
W ConnecLlon esLabllshmenL 3way handshake
W N N-Ack Ack
W elflosetvlce (o) fttfck n aLLacker
monopollzes Lhe server wlLh so many fake
requesLs LhaL Lhe server collapses and denles
servlce Lo every requesL even lf lLs genulne
W 1hls ls also called N llooJlq Attfck
W ConnecLlon LermlnaLlon 3way handshake
W lN lN-Ack Ack
1C9 llow ConLrol
W uses sllJlq wlJow for low cottol
W L ls yteotleteJ and vftlfleslze
W Slze mln recelver wlndow congesLlon wlndow
W kecelvet wlJow value adverLlsed by Lhe
opposlLe end ln a segmenL conLalnlng Ck
W coqestlo wlJow value deLermlned by Lhe
neLwork Lo avold congesLlon
W 1he wlndow can be opened or closed by Lhe
recelver buL should noL be shrunk
W 1he sender can always send a segmenL of 1 byLe
even afLer Lhe wlndow ls shuL down by Lhe
1C9 Lrror ConLrol
W 9rovldes mechanlsms for deLecLlng corrupLed
losL ouLoforder dupllcaLed segmenLs
W etectlo cottectlo 1) checksum 2) Ck
3) LlmeouL
W cbecksm 16blL fleld check for corrupLed
W Ack no sequence number noL Cknowledged
W kettfsmlsslo case 1 reLransmlsslon Llmer
explred case 2 3 dupllcaLe Cks recelved
SC19 SLream ConLrol 1ransmlsslon
W 8ellable messageorlenLed proLocol
W Comblnes besL feaLures of uu9 and 1C9
W 9reserves Lhe message boundarles and aL Lhe
same Llme deLecLs losL dupllcaLe and ouLof
order daLa
W lso has congesLlon conLrol and flow conLrol
W ueslgned for appllcaLlons llke u (Sun over 9)
M2u M3u (Lelephony slgnallng) P248
(medla gaLeway conLrol) P323 (9 Lelephony)
SC19 Servlces
W ltocesstoptocess communlcaLlon
W ,ltlple sttefms llows mltlsttefm setvlce
ln each connecLlonwhlch ls called fssoclftlo
W ,ltlbomlq llows mulLlple 9 addresses
for each end
W lllJplex communlcaLlon
W coectlootleteJ servlce
W kellfle servlce
SC19 leaLures
W unlL of daLa A1A cbk
W 1tfsmlsslo epece Nmet 1N Lo number
daLa chunks
W ttefm Jetllet 1o dlsLlngulsh beLween
sLreams each sLream has a unlque S
W ttefm epece Nmet N 1o dlsLlngulsh
beLween dlfferenL daLa chunks belonglng Lo Lhe
same sLream
W c1l bfs lfckets 1cl bfs seqmets
W ConLrol and daLa lnformaLlon are carrled ln
separaLe chunks
SC19 leaLures
W SC19 Ck number cbkotleteJ refer Lo
W ConLrol lnformaLlon conLrol chunk wlLh no
1Sn and are Cked by oLher conLrol chunks
W Ck number only Lo Ck daLa chunks
W mplemenLs low cottol coqestlo cottol
W 1N Ack used for ettot cottol
SC19 ssoclaLlon
W ssoclaLlon LsLabllshmenL 4way handshake
W N1N1 AckcOOk cnOcOOk Ack
W CCCkL chunks can carry daLa chunks
W ssoclaLlon 1ermlnaLlon 3way handshake
neLwork Layer
9 nLerneL 9roLocol
W nosttobost Jellvety and for rouLlng Lhe packeLs
Lhrough Lhe rouLers n swlLches
W wltcblq aL neLwork layer uses Jftfqtfm
fpptofcb Lo packeL swlLchlng
W commlcftlo aL neLwork layer ls
W lv4 tetet ltotocol vetslo 4
W 9rovldes esteott dellvery servlce
W no error conLrol no flow conLrol
W 8elles on hlgherlevel proLocols Lo care of
rellable and ln sequence dellvery of
89 ddress 8esoluLlon 9roLocol
W Maps loqlcfl address Lo pbyslcfl address
W SysLem sLores recelved 89 reply ln cache
memory 8efore sendlng an 89 requesL Lhe
sysLem checks lLs cache Lo see lf lL can flnd Lhe
W n Akl kepest ln 8tofJcfst
W n Akl keply ls lcfst
uPC9 uynamlc PosL ConflguraLlon
W Maps pbyslcfl address Lo loqlcfl address
W 9rovldes sLaLlc and dynamlc address allocaLlon
LhaL can be manual or auLomaLlc
W tftlc uPC9 server has a daLabase LhaL sLaLlcally
blnds physlcal address Lo 9 address CreaLed
W yfmlc uPC9 server has 2
daLabase wlLh a
pool of avallable 9 addresses whlch makes uPC9
dynamlc Serves requesL by asslgnlng an 9 for a
negoLlable perlod of Llme CreaLed ftomftlcflly
CM9 nLerneL ConLrol Message
W L ls a companlon Lo 9 proLocol
W CM9 messages are dlvlded lnLo 2 parLs
LrrorreporLlng messages 8eporL problems LhaL a
rouLer or a hosL may encounLer when lL processes
an 9 packeL
Cuery messages Pelp a hosL or a neLwork
manager geL speclflc lnformaLlon from a rouLer or
anoLher hosL
W lways reporLs error messages Lo Lhe orlglnal
CM9 nLerneL Croup ManagemenL
W Companlon Lo Lhe 9 proLocol lnvolved ln
W L manages qtop memetsblp
W Clves mulLlcasL rouLers lnformaLlon abouL Lhe
membershlp sLaLus of hosLs/rouLers connecLed Lo
Lhe neLwork
W 1hus lL helps a mulLlcasL rouLer creaLe and
updaLe a llsL of loyal members relaLed Lo each
rouLer lnLerface Lhereby savlng resources and
reduclng Lrafflc
W 1ypes Ceetfl pety peclfl pety ,emetsblp
tepott and efve tepott
W rouLlng proLocol ls a comblnaLlon of rules and
procedures LhaL leLs rouLers ln Lhe lnLerneL
lnform each oLher of changes
W lso lncludes procedures for comblnlng
lnformaLlon recelved from oLher rouLers
W 8ouLlng nformaLlon 9roLocol (89) lmplemenLs
dlsLance vecLor proLocol
W Cpen ShorLesL 9aLh llrsL (CS9l) lmplemenLs llnk
sLaLe proLocol
W 8order CaLeway 9roLocol (8C9) lmplemenLs paLh
vecLor proLocol