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Good morning and Welcome

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Md. Rakibul Islam RAKIB ID-11102088 Md. Saddam Hosain ID-11102091 Md. Hasibul Islam ID-11102098

Sunday, April 29, 2012

Chapter -3
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Sentences should adapt to readers Task of arranging-words into clear sentence

Study readers what they know, how they think

Use the simpler sentence structure for those less able people

to understand Use the more complex structure when appropriate or with more verbal able people Simplicity is needed for the best communication effect Making each sentence express a main idea Engaging and informing busy readers Ordering the sentence elements according to accepted rules Delivering contents in easy-to-digest chunks
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Writing effective sentence Do grouping an ordering the information How much information will we put into each sentence? Familiarity with different sentence elements Whether or not we know readers grammatical levels Many kinds of clauses, phrases, and types of modifiers

will help us design sentences that manage the information

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Now I am giving two example of it

1.Bill Jones, a drill press operator who has been with allied manufacturing for 15 years will be retiring on June 15 2.Bill Jones will be retiring on June 15.he has been a drill press operator with allied manufacture for 15 years Both ways indicate that Bill Jones will be retiring the first version adds the order facts as modifying phrases, whereas the second version gives certain additional facts a bit more significance by putting them in their own sentence. Which way is better ? It depends on the effect we want to achieve
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Using short sentences

Favoring short sentences can save readers time Short sentences communicate is better because of

mind limitation. Short means about 16-18 words for middle-level reader for less advanced readers,it should be lower Short sentence can be achieved in two waysLimiting content is one ways to make short sentences is through word economy Seek shorter ways of saying things. following are some suggestions-

Sunday, April 29, 2012

Avoid cluttering phrases, substitute shorter expressions

Cluttering phrases
At the present time For the purpose of For the reason that In the near future In very few cases With a view to

Shorter substitutions
Now For Because, since Soon Seldom To

in the meantime


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Eliminate surplus word

Contains surplus word
His performance was good

Eliminate surplus word

His performance was good

enough to qualify him for the promotion There are four rules that should be observed I am prepared to report the effect that sales increased

enough to qualify him for the promotion four rules should be observed I am observed to report that sales increased

Sunday, April 29, 2012

Avoid roundabout ways of saying things example

Round about
The president is of the

The president believes the tax

opinion that the tax was paid He criticized everyone he come in contact with The price increase will afford the company an opportunity to retire the debt

was paid
He criticized everyone he met The price will enable the

company to retire the debt

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Repeat words only for effects and emphasis

Needless repetition
He stated that he believes

Repetition eliminated
He stated that he believes we are

that we are responsible The provision of section 5 provides for a union shop In my opinion, I think the plan is sound We must assemble together at 10:30 am in the morning

responsible section 5 provides for a union shop I think the plan is sound We must assemble at 10:30 am

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Determining emphasis in sentence design

We should give every item its due emphasis
Short sentence emphasis contents Long sentence de-emphasis contents

Determining emphasis is a matter of a good judgments

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Giving the sentence unity

All parts of a sentence should concern one thought There are 3 causes of unity error First, placing unrelated ideas in a sentence, violets

unity You can avoid this error by (1) putting unrelated ideas in separates sentence (2) subordinating an idea or (3) adding words that show relationship Excessive detail is another cause of lack of unity. So can mixed constructions Active and passive voice in same sentence can violet unity
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Arranging sentence elements for clarity

Clear writing requires that we follow the established

rules of grammar These rules are based on custom and logical relationship For example, dangling modifiers confuse meaning So do unparallel constructions, pronouns without antecedents, and subject-verb disagreements

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Care in paragraph design

Paragraphing shows and emphasizes organization

It involves logical thinking

The contents of a paragraph should concern one topic

or idea (unity) Generally paragraphs should be short Short paragraphs shows organization better than long ones Most readers prefer to read short paragraphs A good practice is to question paragraphs over 10 lines The topic sentence can come first, middle or last

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Thats all for today Thank you all .

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Have you any question ?

Sunday, April 29, 2012