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Short Story Unit


8th Grade

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Plot

Plot

refers to the series of related events or actions in a short story, novel, film, television series, etc. Every plot is made up of a series of instances that are related to each other The plot of a selected work is made up of the following: Exposition Conflict Rising Action Climax Falling Action

+ The Plot Diagram

+ Exposition

In the exposition the characters, setting, and situation are introduced. This usually occurs at the beginning of a short story. We find out who the story is about, where and when it takes place. We are also introduced to the main situation which leads to the problem of the story.

+Conflict

The conflict is the source of problems in a story. This is often called the struggle between two opposing forces. Person vs. Person (external) two people in an argument rival gangs fighting countries at war Person vs. Nature (external) a man being attacked by a bear a city being hit by a tropical storm a woman suffering from cancer

+ Conflict cont.

Person vs. Self (internal) telling your parents the truth about a party deciding what college to attend choosing whether or not to do drugs stealing food or allowing your family to starve

+ Rising Action

During the rising action the problems (conflicts) get worse.

Complications arise. Complications are events or actions within the story that cause the problem to get worse.

+ Climax

The climax of a story is the most exciting part of the story. This is also known as the turning point of a story.

+ Falling Action

The falling action occurs when the problem begins to be solved.

The complications have either ended or are no longer as important.

+ Resolution

The resolution comes when the conflict (problem) is solved or ended.

+ Notes:
The Plot Diagram:

+Notes:

Plot the series of related events in a story. Exposition introduces the characters, setting, and situation Conflict the problem; the struggle between two opposing forces Rising Action when the problem gets worse and complications are added Climax the most exciting part or the turning point of the story Falling Action then the problem begins to be solved Resolution the problem is solved or ended

+Assignment:

Write a simple short story using the parts of the plot diagram. (These are min. requirements.) Exposition Write two sentences where you introduce the characters, setting and situation of your story. Conflict Write one sentence that states the main conflict of your story. (Label the conflict internal or external.) Rising Action Write three sentences adding complications that make your conflict worse. Climax Write one sentence that creates a turning point for your story. Falling Action Write two sentences where the problem begins to be solved.

+The Monkeys Paw

Written by W. W. Jacobs 1863-1943 Born in England, Jacobs lived near the Thames River where he heard strange tales of foreign lands from passing seafarers. He used his childhood experiences to create his own tales where he often combined everyday life with elements of the supernatural.

+ Suspense and Foreshadowing

Suspense The quality of the story that keeps you reading to find out what will happen next. Creates intrigue and excitement. Makes the reader want to finish. Foreshadowing The use of hints about what will happen next. Authors often use foreshadowing to create suspense. These hints should be clear enough to make you realize something is going to

+Setting and Mood

Setting Where and when a story takes place. Mood The atmosphere or emotional condition created by the piece, within the setting. The general sense or feeling which the reader is supposed to get from the text; it does not, as a literary element, refer to the authors or characters state of mind. Mood must be described or identified; the author cannot simply, use mood. Authors use setting and mood as a way of creating suspense and foreshadowing future events in their

+Numbers in Literature: 3

The number three is prevalent in tales from all over the world. Three bears, three musketeers, three wishes The number three often has special significance deriving from beliefs and superstitions of various cultures Father, Mother, Child representing life itself Earth, Sea, Sky the unity and harmony of nature Father, Son, Holy Spirit (Holy Ghost) religious beliefs in a Holy Trinity

+Three wishes

On a separate piece of paper, write the three things you would wish for if you were given three wishes. Simply choose the first three things that come to mind. After each wish write one positive thing that could happen if your wish was granted. After each positive outcome, list a possible negative consequence to receiving your wish.

+ Assignment:

Read The Monkeys Paw on pages 31- 40. Do Responding to the selection questions 3-9 on page 41. Do Analyzing Literature questions 1-3 on page 41.

+Assignment
Fill

in the plot diagram worksheet for The Monkeys Paw Due today Begin reading Leiningen Versus the Ants on pages 43-58.

+ Leiningen Versus the Ants

Written by Carl Stephenson Born in 1893 and died in 1954 Lived his entire life in Germany Although many believed that Leiningen Versus the Ants was the only story Stephenson allowed published in his lifetime, Stephenson did publish other works under the pseudonym of Stefan Sorel.

+ Internal and External Conflict:

External Person vs. Nature Nature can cause devastating destruction hurricanes, tornadoes, wild fires In Leiningen Versus the Ants a natural phenomenon causes great problems for the characters. Internal Person vs. Self The struggle between opposing feelings, beliefs, or needs. In this selection, characters struggle between the instinct for survival and the faith in other human beings.

+ Metaphors and Similes

Metaphor a direct relationship where one thing or idea substitutes for another.

The Panther volleyball team, wild cats leaping

Simile an indirect relationship where one thing or idea is described as being similar to another Similes usually contain the words like or as. The panther football team devoured their opponent like a starving pack or wild cats.

+ Assignment:

Read Leiningen Versus the Ants on pages 43-58 Do Responding to the Selection questions 5-9 on page 59. Do Analyzing Literature questions 1-2 on page 59.

+ Luck

Written by Mark Twain (a.k.a Samuel Clemens)


Twain lived from 1835-1910 He was known as one of Americas greatest writers. Twain had a variety of jobs in his lifetime. He was a printer, a riverboat pilot, prospected gold, wrote, and lectured around the world. He is probably best known for his humorous writings, and for the novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Hucklberry Finn

Characterization +

Static/Dynamic Characters Static Characters Do not change during the course of the story. These characters do not learn from their actions. Their personalities, attitudes, and opinions are fixed. Dynamic Characters Change and often learn as a result of the events in the story. The changes affect their personality traits, attitudes, and beliefs. Round/Flat Characters Flat Characters have one basic character trait

+ Characterization cont.

VS

+ Characterization cont.

Round characters are usually dynamic. Flat characters are usually static.

+ Assignment:

Read Luck on pages 89-93. Do Responding to the Selection questions 2-10 on page 94 Pay attention to the character traits that Scoresby possesses. Be ready to discuss those tomorrow in class.

+Assignment

Write a formal essay comparing and contrasting the characterization of Leiningen and Scoresby. Make sure that you explain whether each is round/flat and static/dynamic characters. Use specific details that show that you have read the stories and understand the characters. Your essay must include an introduction, body, and conclusion. These essays should be at least four paragraphs long.

1st

Try this

Or this

paragraph introduction 1st paragraph introduction

2nd paragraph comparing 2nd paragraph Leiningen 3rd paragraph contrasting 3rd paragraph Scoresby 4th paragraph - conclusion

4th paragraph - conclusion

+ There Will Come Soft Rains

Ray Bradbury (1920- ) He is one of the worlds most celebrated and gifted science-fiction writers. He was born in Illinois and grew up on the shores of Lake Michigan. He began reading the stories of Edgar Allan Poe as a child and developed a fascination with horror movies and fantasyespecially futuristic fantasy. He often describes a future that reflects the possible outcomes of todays technology.

+ Setting

Setting the time and place of the storys action In some stories the author merely establishes setting as the background for the action of the story. In There Will Come Soft Rains, the setting is vitally important to the story. The setting is virtually the main character of this selection.

+ Assignment:

Read pages 121-124 Do Responding to the Selection questions 1-12 on page 125. Do Analyzing Literature questions 1-4 on page 125.

+ Setting Writing Assignment


Pick

three stories, books, movies, etc. and answer the following questions dealing with setting. Each story you write about should be about half a page (or more) long (1.5 pages at a minimum).

+ Setting Writing Assignment


Answer the following questions about the setting of 3 stories or movies of your choice.
How

does the setting create mood or atmosphere does the setting show the reader a different way of life does the setting make the action seem more real is the setting a source of conflict or

How

How

How

+ The Masque of the Red Death

Written by Edgar Allen Poe Poe lived from 1809-1849. Born in Massachusetts, Poe moved to Virginia after his parents died. He was adopted by Mr. and Mrs. John Allen He is known as one of Americas great horror story writers. Poe believed that stories should produce a single effect on their readers. The effect used the most was horror.

+Allegory

Allegory a story intended to be read on a symbolic level The characters, settings, and events are intended to have meanings independent of the action in the surface story.

+Fate

Many people believe that the outcomes of our lives are predetermined by fate. Do you agree or disagree? In The Masque of the Red Death, the main character tries to cheat fate.

+ Assignment:

Read The Masque of the Red Death on pages 167-172 Do Responding to the Selection questions 2,3,4,5,7,9,10 on page 173

+ Symbolism for The Masque of the Red Death

The story itself represents a truth about the human condition. The people, places, and events of the story represent what Poe believed to be a truth about life. the palace = the whole world Prince Prospero = Mankind / the lovers of wealth the masked ball (masquerade) = living life for pleasure only the masked figure = death the clock = the march of time towards death

+The Number Seven

Poes use of the number seven is important to understanding the story as a whole.

The Seven Stages of The Seven Rooms Life 1) Blue 1) Infancy 2) Purple 2) Childhood 3) Green 3) Adolescence 4) Orange 4) Puberty 5) White 5) Adulthood 6) Violet 6) Old Age 7) Black 7) Death The rooms are arranged east to west so that the sun first enters
the blue room and the day ends as the sun passes the black room. Yet another symbol of life and death.

The Number Seven cont. +


The 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Seven Deadly Sins Committed by Prospero and his followers Pride (also called vanity) Excessive belief in ones own abilities. Lust an inordinate craving for the pleasures of life, desire for things you should not have Envy the desire for others traits, status, abilities, or situation Covetousness (also called avarice or greed) the desire for material wealth or gain Gluttony the desire to consume more than one requires Anger (also known as wrath) the individual spurns love and opts for fury

+Assignment

In interpreting the meaning of a symbol, one should consider that there is usually a reason why the object was selected to be symbolic. For example: A lion is a ferocious beast that represents bravery to many people. Think of symbols to represent each of the seven deadly sins. Consider persons, animals, things, or even places. Draw and label your symbols.

+The Open Window

Written by Saki (the pen name of H.H. Munro) He lived from 1870 to 1916. He was born in Burma, but moved to England to live with his two aunts after his mother died. Sakis aunts were quite stern, and often the subjects of his satire. His early works were political satires that ran in newspapers. His satire evolved into mocking the English upper class. He enlisted in 1914 and was killed in battle during WWI.

+ Tone

Tone is the attitude implied toward the characters, situations, and readers. The characters in a story may also convey a tone (attitude) toward a situation or toward other characters. Examples of tones are: Respectful / Disrespectful Sympathetic / Unsympathetic Friendly / Challenging Characters attitudes are revealed primarily through their dialogue and actions. Tone can be inferred through the choice of words and their intent.

+ Assignment

Pay attention to the tone of the three main characters as you read pages 177-180. Do Responding to the Selection questions 1-10 on page 181. Do Analyzing Literature questions 1-3 on page 181. When finished, begin filling out the short story test review worksheet. Test Thursday.

+ Test Review:
The Plot Diagram:

+Review cont.

Plot the series of related events in a story. Exposition introduces the characters, setting, and situation Conflict the problem; the struggle between two opposing forces Rising Action when the problem gets worse and complications are added Climax the most exciting part or the turning point of the story Falling Action then the problem begins to be solved Resolution the problem is solved or ended

+Test Review cont.

Suspense The quality of the story that keeps you reading to find out what will happen next.

Foreshadowing

The use of hints about what will happen next.

Setting Where and when a story takes place. Mood The atmosphere or emotional condition created by the piece, within the setting. a direct relationship where one thing or idea substitutes for another.

Metaphor

The Panther volleyball team, wild cats leaping

Simile an indirect relationship where one thing or idea is described as being similar to another

Static

Test Review cont. +

Characters Do not change during the course of the story. These characters do not learn from their actions. Their personalities, attitudes, and opinions are fixed.

Dynamic Characters Change and often learn as a result of the events in the story. The changes affect their personality traits, attitudes, and beliefs.
Characters have one basic character trait

Flat

Round Characters have a variety of

+ Test Review cont.

Tone is the attitude implied toward the characters, situations, and readers. The characters in a story may also convey a tone (attitude) toward a situation or toward other characters. Tone can be inferred through the choice of words and their intent.

Setting the time and place of the storys action


Allegory a story intended to be read on a symbolic level The characters, settings, and events are intended to have meanings independent of the

+ Test Review cont. - Symbolism

The story itself represents a truth about the human condition. the palace = the whole world Prince Prospero = Mankind / the lovers of wealth the masked ball (masquerade) = living life for pleasure only the masked figure = death the clock = the march of time towards death

+ Test Review - Numbers in


Literature

The Number Seven


The Seven Rooms 1) Blue 2) Purple 3) Green 4) Orange 5) White 6) Violet 7) Black

The Seven Stages of Life 1) Infancy 2) Childhood 3) Adolescence 4) Puberty 5) Adulthood 6) Old Age 7) Death

The Number Seven cont. +


The

Seven Deadly Sins 1) Pride (also called vanity) 2) Lust 3) Envy 4) Covetousness (also called avarice or greed) 5) Gluttony 6) Anger (also known as wrath) 7) Sloth

+Test Review cont. Numbers in Literature: 3


Father,

Mother, Child representing life itself

Earth, Sea, Sky the unity and harmony of nature Father, Son, Holy Spirit (Holy Ghost) religious beliefs in a Holy Trinity Bad Luck Bad things come in threes.