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Electrical Design

Insulator Characteristics: Homogeneous, low leakage, high

dielectric and mechanical strength and long life.

Ratings: Working voltage, Flashover voltage and Puncture

Voltage

Materials: Porcelain, Glass, Polymeric insulation materials

Type of insulators: Pin, Suspension, Strain

1

Pin Type Insulator

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulator_(electrical)

2

Suspension Type Insulators

http://www.electrotechnik.net/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulator_(electrical) 3

Strain Type Insulator

http://lifeatllu.blogspot.com/2009_03_01_archive.html

4

Shackle, Post and Polymeric insulators

http://www.electrotechnik.net/

Shackle insulators or

spool insulators

Post type insulators Polymeric insulators

5

Potential Distribution over String

Capacitance of disc:

Capacitance between metal

work of the insulator units;

some times called as mutual

capacitance.

Capacitance to ground:

capacitance between metal

work of insulator to tower.

http://www.epemag.net/electricity-generation-pylons.html

C

mC

m = =

ground to e Capacitanc

insulator per e Capacitanc

6

Potential Distribution over the String

If V is voltage across the conductor and

ground. We have:

Also

(

+ =

m

V V

1

1

1 2

7

Potential Distribution over the String

Similarly,

(

+ + =

2

1 3

1 3

1

m m

V V

8

Potential Distribution over the String

Similarly,

(

+ + + =

3 2

1 4

1 5 6

1

m m m

V V

9

String Efficiency

Let m = 5

(

+ =

m

V V

1

1

1 2

(

+ + =

2

1 3

1 3

1

m m

V V

(

+ + + =

3 2

1 4

1 5 6

1

m m m

V V

1 2

2 . 1 V V =

1 2

64 . 1 V V =

1 2

41 . 2 V V =

% 8 . 63 100

41 . 2 4

) 41 . 2 64 . 1 2 . 1 1 (

100

1

1

=

+ + +

=

=

V

V

line to adjacent unit across Voltage n

String Across Voltage

Ef f ciency String

10

Methods of Equalizing the Potential

Methods to improve string efficiency

Selection of m

Grading of units

Static shielding or guard rings

11

Selection of m

If the value of m is increased, which can

be achieved by increasing the cross-arm

length.

Increased cross-arm length decreases the

capacitance between earth and metallic

connections.

However increasing cross-arm length is

not economical after certain distance.

Theoretically, one can achieve equal

voltage distribution when m is infinity.

It is found that value of m greater than

10 is not economical.

12

Grading of Units

Voltage across capacitor is

inversely proportional to the

capacitance for given current.

By correct grading of

capacitances complete equality

voltage can be achieved.

We have,

( )

1 2

1 2

1 1 2

C C C

V C V C V C

I I I

C

+ =

+ =

+ =

e e e

13

Grading of Units

( )

( )

( )C C C

C C C

V C C V C V C

C C C But

V C V C V C

I I I

C

2 1

3

2

2

1 3

1 3

1 3

1 2

2 3

2 2 3

+ + =

+ =

+ + =

+ =

+ =

+ =

e e e

e e e

Generalized case:

( ) ( )C n C C

n

1 3 2 1

1

+ + + + + =

on so and , 11 , 8 , 6

4 3 2

C C C C C C = = =

Therefore, if C

1

=5C, then

14

Grading of Units

Thus if capacitance of one unit is

fixed other capacitances can be

easily determined.

This requires units of different

capacities, which is uneconomical

and impractical.

Therefore this method is usually

not employed except for very high

voltage lines.

In that case, string is graded in

groups, may be two/three.

15

Static Shielding

3 3 4

2 2 3

1 1 2

C z

C y

C x

I I I I

I I I I

I I I I

+ = +

+ = +

+ = +

( ) 1

) 1 (

1

=

=

=

n

C

C

V C V n Cx

I I

x

C x

e e

Voltages can be equal if

Also,

( ) 2

2

2 ) 2 (

2

=

=

=

n

C

C

V C V n Cy

I I

y

C y

e e

Similarly, and

( ) 3

3

=

n

C

C

Z

( ) p n

pC

C

p

=

16

Static Shielding

In practice, it is very difficult to

achieve the condition of equal

voltages.

However the partial advantage

can be gained by this method

(guard ring) and used normally.

Further, when the horn gap is

also used, it also protect the

insulator from the flashover.

17

Numerical Method (FEM, BEM, FDM, etc.)

18

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