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# Review of Last Class

Electrical Design
Insulator Characteristics: Homogeneous, low leakage, high
dielectric and mechanical strength and long life.
Ratings: Working voltage, Flashover voltage and Puncture
Voltage
Materials: Porcelain, Glass, Polymeric insulation materials
Type of insulators: Pin, Suspension, Strain
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Pin Type Insulator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulator_(electrical)
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Suspension Type Insulators
http://www.electrotechnik.net/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulator_(electrical) 3
Strain Type Insulator
http://lifeatllu.blogspot.com/2009_03_01_archive.html
4
Shackle, Post and Polymeric insulators
http://www.electrotechnik.net/
Shackle insulators or
spool insulators
Post type insulators Polymeric insulators
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Potential Distribution over String
Capacitance of disc:
Capacitance between metal
work of the insulator units;
some times called as mutual
capacitance.
Capacitance to ground:
capacitance between metal
work of insulator to tower.
http://www.epemag.net/electricity-generation-pylons.html
C
mC
m = =
ground to e Capacitanc
insulator per e Capacitanc
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Potential Distribution over the String
If V is voltage across the conductor and
ground. We have:
Also
(

+ =
m
V V
1
1
1 2
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Potential Distribution over the String
Similarly,
(

+ + =
2
1 3
1 3
1
m m
V V
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Potential Distribution over the String
Similarly,
(

+ + + =
3 2
1 4
1 5 6
1
m m m
V V
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String Efficiency
Let m = 5
(

+ =
m
V V
1
1
1 2
(

+ + =
2
1 3
1 3
1
m m
V V
(

+ + + =
3 2
1 4
1 5 6
1
m m m
V V
1 2
2 . 1 V V =
1 2
64 . 1 V V =
1 2
41 . 2 V V =
% 8 . 63 100
41 . 2 4
) 41 . 2 64 . 1 2 . 1 1 (
100
1
1
=

+ + +
=

=
V
V
line to adjacent unit across Voltage n
String Across Voltage
Ef f ciency String
10
Methods of Equalizing the Potential
Methods to improve string efficiency
Selection of m
Static shielding or guard rings

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Selection of m
If the value of m is increased, which can
be achieved by increasing the cross-arm
length.
Increased cross-arm length decreases the
capacitance between earth and metallic
connections.
However increasing cross-arm length is
not economical after certain distance.
Theoretically, one can achieve equal
voltage distribution when m is infinity.
It is found that value of m greater than
10 is not economical.
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Voltage across capacitor is
inversely proportional to the
capacitance for given current.
capacitances complete equality
voltage can be achieved.
We have,
( )
1 2
1 2
1 1 2
C C C
V C V C V C
I I I
C
+ =
+ =
+ =
e e e
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( )
( )
( )C C C
C C C
V C C V C V C
C C C But
V C V C V C
I I I
C
2 1
3
2
2
1 3
1 3
1 3
1 2
2 3
2 2 3
+ + =
+ =
+ + =
+ =
+ =
+ =
e e e
e e e
Generalized case:
( ) ( )C n C C
n
1 3 2 1
1
+ + + + + =
on so and , 11 , 8 , 6
4 3 2
C C C C C C = = =
Therefore, if C
1
=5C, then
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Thus if capacitance of one unit is
fixed other capacitances can be
easily determined.

This requires units of different
capacities, which is uneconomical
and impractical.
Therefore this method is usually
not employed except for very high
voltage lines.
In that case, string is graded in
groups, may be two/three.
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Static Shielding
3 3 4
2 2 3
1 1 2
C z
C y
C x
I I I I
I I I I
I I I I
+ = +
+ = +
+ = +
( ) 1
) 1 (
1

=
=
=
n
C
C
V C V n Cx
I I
x
C x
e e
Voltages can be equal if
Also,
( ) 2
2
2 ) 2 (
2

=
=
=
n
C
C
V C V n Cy
I I
y
C y
e e
Similarly, and
( ) 3
3

=
n
C
C
Z
( ) p n
pC
C
p

=
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Static Shielding
In practice, it is very difficult to
achieve the condition of equal
voltages.