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by Rahul R. Raut Dessai, Goa College of Engineering.

The device comprises of three main units :

Housing unit ii. Base unit iii. Sensing unit


The base unit is pivotally connected to the housing unit. The base unit includes electrical circuitry, a flexible ring and a receptacle. The sensing unit includes a pressure transducer, flexible diaphragm and interface layer. Non-invasive technique.

Lifetime of 24 to 72 hrs. Annual production 17 million units per year, with a unit

price less than $10.

A conventional disc-type sensor can use only 10% of its total area for sensing. MEMS-based donut-type sensor can increase the sensing area to 50% of its total area.

Sensing unit

A conventional disc type sensor uses only 10 % of its total area for sensing.
MEMS based donut type sensor can increase sensing area to 50 % of its total area.






Device that integrates one or several laboratory functions

on a single chip.
Scaling of single or multiple lab processes down to chip-

Small size - millimeters to a few square centimeters. Small fluid volumes - less than Pico liters. Consists of mechanical flow control devices like pumps

and valves or sensors like flow meters and viscometers.

Basic fabrication processes is photolithography. Initially most processes were in silicon, as these welldeveloped technologies were directly derived from semiconductor fabrication. Demands for specific optical characteristics, bio- or chemical compatibility, lower production costs and faster prototyping increased. New processes have been developed such as glass, ceramics and metal etching, deposition and bonding, PDMS processing (e.g., soft lithography), thickfilm- and stereo lithography. Fast replication methods via electroplating, injection molding and embossing.

Low fluid volumes consumption . Faster analysis and less response time.

Better process control.

Compact systems. Lower fabrication costs.

Physical and chemical effects capillary forces,

surface roughness, chemical interactions of construction materials on reaction processes become more dominant on small-scale.
Low signal to noise ratios - detection principles may

not always scale down in a positive way.

Real time polymerase chain reaction(PCR) - amplify a

single or a few copies of a piece of DNA.

Biochemical assays - testing or measuring the activity of

a drug or biochemical in an organism or organic sample. extract DNA.

Blood sample preparation - can lyse (break down) cells to

Testing the safety and efficacy of new drugs. Glucose meter.