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# RESPIRATION

BIOLOGY 25 LECTURE
A. Santiago
Lecture Content:
Respiration
• Basic Concepts & Types
• Properties of Gases in Air
– Partial Pressures (Dalton’s Law)
– Atmospheric Pressure
– Alveolar Gas Pressure
• Property of Gases in Liquid (Henry’
• Lung Ventilation & Respiration
• Lung Volumes & Anatomic Dead Sp
• Control of Lung Ventilation
Respiration
• Exchange of gases (O2 & CO2)
• Types
1. External = between environment &
gills/lungs
2. Internal = between blood & tissues
• Goal of the respiratory system
– Acquire O2 and expel CO2
– Accessory functions: defense &
language
Partial Pressure of Gases
• Dalton’s Law
in a mixture of gases, the pressure
exerted by each gas is independent
of the pressure exerted by the
others
Partial Pressure of Gases
• Simply because gas molecules are
far apart
• So….the total pressure of the entire
gas mixture (say, air) is the sum of
all the pressures of each gas
molecule
• That’s why we call the pressure of a
specific gas in air as partial
pressure (denoted as Pwhatevergas)
• It is influenced by temperature &
Atmospheric Pressure
• partial pressures of all gases in the
air
• 760 mmHg at sea level
• varies depending where you are in
the world
• since air is 79% nitrogen & 21%
oxygen, to determine PO2 at sea
level….
0.21 X 760 mmHg = 160 mmHg
• now determine PNitrogen at sea level
Alveolar Gas Pressure
• Normal alveolar PO2 = 105 mmHg;
PCO2 = 40 mmHg
• Why do we not consider the
abundant nitrogen? It’s biologically
inert under normal conditions &
does not undergo exchange in the
alveoli
• Consider the atmospheric PO2 & PCO2
at sea level…specifically PCO2 = 0.3
mmHg then CO2 net movement is
Property of Gases in Liquid
• Henry’s Law
the amount of gas dissolved will be
directly proportional to the partial
pressure of the gas with which the
liquid is in equilibrium
• Example, if the PO2 in air is high
then the amount of O2 molecules
that enter & dissolve in water/ liquid
is also high  there is net
movement of O2 into the water
Property of Gases in Liquid

## • If the PO2 in air = PO2 in water, then

there is no net movement of O2
• Of course, this can also be applied
to PCO2
• For gill respiration, gas exchange is
Lung Ventilation &
Respiration
• Amphibians (simple lungs):
Pulse pump – Diffusion
• Avians (parabronchial lungs):
Two cycle Crosscurrent
(Unidirectional) – Alveolar Gas
Exchange
• Reptiles & Mammals (alveolar lungs):
Aspiration pump – Alveolar Gas
Exchange
Amphibians

## Stored fresh air in buccopharyngeal space

Does not mix with expired air from previous
Step.
Avians
1 - On first inhalation, air flows through the
trachea & bronchi & primarily into the
posterior (rear) air sacs

## 2 - On exhalation, air moves from the

posterior air sacs & into the lungs

## 3 - With the second inhalation, air moves from

the lungs & into the anterior (front) air sacs

## 4 - With the second exhalation, air moves from

Non-Avian Amniotes
• Pressures that influence air flow
inside lungs
• Alveolar pressure (Palv) = inside the
lungs
• Atmospheric pressure (Patm) =
environment
• Transpulmonary pressure = Palv – Pip
(pressure inside the pleural cavity)
• The difference between Palv and
Patm is achieved through the
•Patm = 760 mmHg at sea level
Palv = 760 mmHg in between breaths
•Only Palv varies based on expansion
and compression of the thoracic
cavity

## •The pressure inside the

pleural cavity is always
subatmospheric (4
mmHg below Patm)
•This prevents the lungs
from collapsing
•Transpulmonary
pressure is always 4
mmHg above the Patm
Boyle’s Law states
So to make things short… that at constant
ventilation/ air flow in the temperature,
lungs is based on increasing the volume
of the container
decreases the
pressure exerted by
the gas

A Volume
Lung
I
R

## F That’s why lung volume must

k flow is influenced by lung volume vary through respiratory
L muscles to modify Palv.
O
Lung Volumes
Control of Lung Ventilation
• Stimulus: CO2 content in CSF
(actually H+ ions)
• Sensor: Central chemoreceptors
bathed in CSF at the medulla
oblongata (detect pH levels of blood)
CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3-
• Response: Breathing rate (increases
as pH ↓)
Control of Lung Ventilation
• Stimulus: O2 content in arterial blood
• Sensor: Peripheral chemoreceptors
known as carotid and aortic bodies
• Response: Breathing rate (increases
as PO2 ↓)