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Cardiovascular Physiology

& Urine Formation

BIOLOGY 25
LECTURE
A. Santiago
Lecture Content
• Capillary transport of O2 and CO2
(as a continuation of respiration)
• Cardiac Physiology
– Cardiac muscle structure
– Cardiac action potential & conduction system
– Cardiac cycle, EKG & arrhythmias
– Cardiac Output
• Vascular Physiology: Dynamics of blood circulation
• Urine Formation: Ultrafiltrate of Blood
• Blood Pressure and Urine Formation

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1.5%

O2 Transport 98.5%

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O2 Transport

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O2 –Hb Dissociation Curve

•The graph relates


the percentage
saturation of
Hemoglobin’s O2-
carry power to the
PO2.
•Remember that
Hb can carry 4
oxygen molecules
•Even at PO2
=~70 mmHg, Hb is
almost saturated

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Shifting the Curve

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CO2 Transport and Cl- Movement

7-10%
20-30%

60-70%

Conten
t
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Cardiac Muscle

• Muscle of the Heart


• Each cell usually has 1-2 centrally
located nucleus/nuclei
– Intercalated disks (gap junctions)
– Striated (organized myofibrils)
– Autorhythmic cells

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Electrically,
cardiac muscle
behaves as
single unit

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Orientation of cardiac muscle fibers

• Unlike skeletal muscles,


cardiac muscles have to
contract in more than
one direction.
• Cardiac muscle cells are
striated, meaning they
will only contract along
their long axis.
• In order to get
contraction in two axes,
the fibers wrap around.
Conten
t
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Cardiac Muscle Action Potential
Action
potentials of
longer
duration and
longer
refractory
period
prevents
tetanic
contracti
ons

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Cardiac Muscle Refractory Period

• Absolute: Cardiac muscle cell


completely insensitive to further
stimulation
• Relative: Cell exhibits reduced
sensitivity to additional
stimulation
• Long refractory period prevents
tetanic contractions
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Cardiac vs. Skeletal Action Potential

• AP in skeletal muscle is very


short-lived
– AP is basically over before an
increase in muscle tension can
be measured.

• AP in cardiac muscle is very


long-lived
– AP has an extra component,
which extends the duration.
– The contraction is almost over
before the action potential has
finished.
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Cardiac conducting system

Pacemaker (Sinoatrial node) Potential

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Heart contraction steps

Conten
t 16
Cardiac Cycle
• Heart is composed of two pumps that work
together: the right and left halves
• Repetitive contraction (systole) and relaxation
(diastole) of heart chambers
• Blood moves through the circulatory system
from areas of higher to lower pressure.
– Contraction of heart produces the pressure

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Heart sounds
• First heart sound or “lubb”
– Atrioventricular valves and
surrounding fluid vibrations as valves
close at beginning of ventricular
systole
• Second heart sound or “dupp”
– Results from closure of aortic and
pulmonary semilunar valves at
beginning of ventricular diastole,
lasts longer
• Third heart sound (occasional)
– Caused by turbulent blood flow into
ventricles and detected near end of
first one-third of diastole
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EKG

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Cardiac Arrhythmias

• Tachycardia: Heart rate in excess of


100bpm
• Bradycardia: Heart rate less than 60 bpm
• Sinus arrhythmia: Heart rate varies 5%
during respiratory cycle and up to 30%
during deep respiration
• Premature atrial contractions: Occasional
shortened intervals between one
contraction and succeeding, frequently
occurs in healthy people
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Conten
t 22
Cardiac Output/ Blood Flow
volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute (mL/min)

HR = heartbeats per minute


minut

SV = mL blood per heartbea


(60-70 mL)
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Stroke Volume: Preload

• Volume of blood at the ventricles at the end of diastole


OR pressure exerted against the ventricular walls at the
end of diastole
• End Diastole Volume (EDV) OR End Diastole Pressure
(EDP)

•Represents fluid returning to the


heart
•“filling pressure”
•↑preload : ↑myocardial O2 demand

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Stroke Volume: Afterload

• Amount of pressure the ventricle must work against


during systole to open the valve.
• Strength of ventricular contraction

↑afterload
↑ myocardial O2 demand
↑ work of the heart
Pulmonary vascular resistance
(PVR):
right ventricle afterload
(800-1200 dynes/sec/cm-5)
Systemic vascular resistance (SVR):
left ventricle afterload (~1/6th of
PVR)
(100-250 dynes/sec/cm-5)
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Contractility

• The heart’s contractile force or muscle


strength
• Factors that influence contractility:
– Starling’s Law
– Sympathetic nervous system
– Pharmacologic agents
Starling’s Law:
The force of ventricular ejection
is dependent on preload (EDV)
and myocardial stretching

Conten
t 26
Dynamics of Blood Circulation

• Interrelationships between
– Pressure
– Flow Poisseuille’s Law

– Resistance
– Blood flow through vessels

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Poiseuille’s Law: Pressure, Blood Flow and Viscosity

∆P = (Pa – Pv)/R

Vascular resistance
(PVR and SVR)

olume of blood packed with RBCs 28


Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP)

Cardiac output
MAP = (CO ⋅ SVR) + CVP (eq. 1)
Because CVP is usually at or near 0 mmHg,
this relationship is often simplified to:
MAP approx = CO ⋅ SVR (eq. 2)

Central Venous
Pressure

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Vascular Cross-Sectional Area

• As diameter of
vessels decreases,
the total cross-
sectional area
increases and
velocity of blood flow
decreases
• Much like a stream
that flows rapidly
through a narrow
gorge but flows
slowly through a
broad plane 30
Blood volume distribution among vessels

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Laminar and Turbulent Flow

• Laminar flow
(normal)
– Streamlined
– Outermost layer
moving slowest and
center moving fastest
• Turbulent flow
– Interrupted
– Rate of flow exceeds
Arteriosclerosis (vessels
less elastic due to aging) critical velocity
– Fluid passes a
constriction, sharp
turn, rough surface
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Nervous Innervation of
the Heart & Blood Vessels

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Urine Formation

1. Filtration
Initial Urine = blood plasma – proteins and cells = urea,
uric acid, glucose, water, vitamins, amino

acids
4. Reabsorption
Filtrate  interstitial fluid  peritubular capillaries 
blood system
6. Secretion
Blood system  peritubular capillaries  interstitial fluid
 filtrate

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Blood Pressure & Urine Formation

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Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone
Mechanism

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Vasopressin (ADH) Mechanism

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