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Crystal Reports

Version 3.0

The New Standard in Quality Education


Crystal Reports Overview

● Pre-requisites

● Introduction

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Objectives

“To enable you to develop your


own reporting solutions in Crystal
Reports with confidence”

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Course Overview

1 Data Structure
2 Simple Report Creation
3 Crystal Report Functions
4 Running Reports

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Scala Data Structure

Section 1

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Section Overview
● What is a Database?
● How do we connect to the Database?
● Scala data file structure

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How Do We Connect to the DB?
Scala Client
Win95, 98, NT
Web Browser

Scala Program Layer Scala5.x Modules

Btrieve or SQL data Data Management


management layer

Database

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How Do We Connect to the DB?

Crystal
Reports

DDF’s – Describe Database


(Btrieve) Read Only
ODBC – Connects to Database
table SYSOBJECTS
Database

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Database Structure
● So what is ODBC?

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ODBC Architecture

Application
(Access / Excel)

ODBC Driver Manager

}
(ODBC API connect methods)

Driver Driver Driver


= ODBC

SQL Btrieve Pervasive


Server Database SQL
Database 6.15 Database
7.x

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Data File Structure
● Scala Table Naming Definition

MMNNCCYY

Module Financial Year

Unique Number Company Code

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Data File Structure
● Format of Data files

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Data File Structure
● Format of Fields

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Data File Structure
● Database to Interpret field and file
names
● ScaDBconv.exe
● Scala5eu.mdb in Scala root directory
● Table in SQL database
SCA_TAB_COLUMNS

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Data File Structure
● Scala5eu.mdb welcome screen

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Data File Structure

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Break
● Break

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Section Review
● What is a Database?
● How do we connect to the Database?
● Scala data file structure

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Simple Report
Creation

Section 3

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Section Overview
● Report Style
● SQL Data Files
● Scala Data Files
● Scala Data Fields
● Preview Report

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Report Creation

Click

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Report Style
Report A - Stock Listing
Step 1 - Choose report style

Click

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Data Source
Step 2 - Select Data Source

Click

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Data Source
Step 3 - Choose Data Source

Note the different


database options!!

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Data Source
Step 3 - Choose Data Source

Need to
supply
user name
and
password

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Scala Data Files
Step 4 - Select Scala Data Tables

Select File(s)

Click
To
Finish

Select Single or Multiple Tables


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Scala Data Files
Confirmation of Selected Files

Click Next

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Scala Data Fields
Step 5 - Select Fields

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Scala Data Fields
● Report 1 Stock Listing
– Stock Code SC01001
– Description Line 1 SC01002
– Price Local Currency SC01004
– Stock Balance SC01042

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Scala Data Fields

Select Fields

Choose Add

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Field Tab

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Preview Report
When all fields are selected choose
FINISH

Click

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Report Creation

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Report Creation
● You can return to the report expert at
any time by using the function
● Recommend that the report is saved
before returning to the expert

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Break
● Break

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Section Review
● STEP 1 - Report Style
● STEP 2 - SQL Data Source
● STEP 3 - Scala Data Tables
● STEP 4 - Scala Data Fields
● STEP 5 - Preview Report

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Exercise

Exercise 1
Customer Listing

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Crystal Reports

Section 3

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Section Overview
● Design & Preview
● Report Options
● Guidelines
● Refreshing Data
● Right Click
● Sections

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Design & Preview Tabs

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Design & Preview Tab

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Preview Tab

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Report Options
● Options
● Report Options

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Options

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Options

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Options

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Guidelines

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Refreshing Data
● F5 Refreshes Data or
● Preview Sample

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Refreshing Data
● Preview Sample

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Right Clicking
● Useful in many areas of Crystal

● Short Cut to menu options


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The Magic Button
● Undo / Redo

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Sections
Left-hand side of design tab shows
report sections

Report
Sections

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Sections
● Right-hand clicking in the sections
area brings up menu
● Format sections command gives
further details of sections.
● Section can be hidden allowing drill
down function or suppressed

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Sections

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Section Review
● Design & Preview
● Report Options
● Guidelines
● Refreshing Data
● Right Click
● Sections

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Formatting

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Section Overview
● Adjusting Headings
● Increasing Field Width
● Adding new fields
● Adding Special fields
● Selection Expert
● Sorting
● Grouping
● Parameters
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Adjusting Headings
● Highlight field
● To rename double click or | edit |
text object
● As with many windows products
Crystal Reports supports drag and
drop and copy and paste

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Increasing Field Width
● Highlight the field

● Place pointer on blue boxes it


changes to arrow
● Field width and height can be
adjusted by dragging arrow
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Adding New Fields
Text Field

Drag And Click to Drop

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Adding New Fields
Field Explorer

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Adding New Fields
● Database fields

Select field

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Adding Special Fields

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Adding Special Fields
● A number of the special field values are
set in Summary info from file menu

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Selection Expert
● Choose Select Expert

● Then choose field to select items from.


Report on non-report field

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Selection Expert

Default to AND can


change to OR
through formula

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Selection Expert
● Example of Selection terms

New!

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Sorting Records
● You can sort by multiple columns.

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Sort Expert
● Brings up sort box

Sort
Fields

Report
Fields Sort Direction

● Automatic sort by column 1


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Grouping
● Used to group data together
● Similar to sorting but adds headers and
footers

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Grouping
● Used in Sub-Totaling
● User can define the order

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Grouping

Define Order

Extra Options
on Date field

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Grouping
● Specified Grouping – User defined
order

Select Groups

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Grouping
● Example of Grouping

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Parameters
● Used with selection terms
● Provides an easy way to change
selection terms when a report is
refreshed
● Parameter can be used as a field in the
report. For Example in the report title.
● Compatible with compiled reports or
web based reports

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Parameters

● Then click icon to create new parameter

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Parameters
Text that appears
when report is run

Type

Next Screen

Allows parameter to hold single value or multiple


values and Ranges. Experiment to see affect
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Parameters

Warning on Usage

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Parameters
● Example of Usage

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Parameters
● Enter Parameter as selection terms
● Parameter field denoted as (? Field)

● Now refresh data

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Parameter

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Section Review
● Adjusting Headings
● Increasing Field Width
● Adding new fields
● Adding Special fields
● Selection Expert
● Sorting
● Grouping
● Parameters
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Exercise

Exercise 2

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Break
● Break

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Totalling and
Formula’s

Section 6

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Section Overview
● Strings
● Converting Strings
● Totalling / subtotalling and
summaries
● Converting Dates

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Strings
● Scala 5.1 SQL holds the majority of
fields in the correct format.
However due to historical reasons
some fields will need to be
converted
● Strings are collections of characters
alpha and/or numeric
● Strings need to be converted to
numbers for Crystal to perform
operations
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Converting Strings to Numbers
● Create a new formula
Click New

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Converting Strings to Numbers
● Give the formula a name

● Tip - Give your formula name the


column name

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Converting Strings to Numbers
● This then brings up formula editor box

Fields Operators

Functions
Formula Text

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Converting Strings to Numbers
● To convert a string to a number type
Function Field

ToNumber({Field name})

● Be careful of Brackets
– (,) = function
– {,} = field
– [,] = field value (Seen later)
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Converting Strings to Numbers

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Converting Strings to Numbers
● Unfortunately this formula does not
always work.
● Scala leaves blanks in database
instead of zeros.
● Therefore we need to add to the
statement
If {field_name} = “” Then 0
Else ToNumber({Field_Name})

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Exercise

Exercise 3

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Totalling and Sub-totalling
● Sub total or grand total fields must
be numeric.
● Highlight the field you require a
total for and select totalling from
insert drop down menu.

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Totalling and Sub totalling
● Right hand clicking on the report
field will also bring up a shortcut
method to enter totalling.

● If the options are missing on the menu you have not


chosen a numeric field

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Sub-totalling
● Entering a sub-total

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Totalling
● Insert grand-totals

● Choice of sum, maximum,


minimum, average etc. Field
printed in report footer
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Summaries
● Similar to subtotal
but will give same
totalling options as
grand total function

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Converting Dates
● Again the majority of dates in Scala
database are held as datetime or
date fields. However some may
need conversion from a string field

19980915
YYYYMMDD

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Converting Dates
● Conversion requires following
formula:
– If {Field_Name} = “” then
– Date(0,0,0) Else
– Date(ToNumber({field_name}[1 to 4]),
– ToNumber({field_name}[5 to 6]),
– ToNumber({field_name}[7 to 8]))

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Section Review
● Strings
● Converting Strings
● Totalling / subtotalling and
summaries
● Converting Dates

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Exercise

Exercise 4

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Formatting Numbers &
Dates

Section 7
Optional

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Section Overview
● Formatting Strings
● Formatting Numbers
● Formatting Dates
● Conditional Formatting
● Highlight Expert
● Top N Selection
● Report Alerts
● Running Totals
● SQL Expressions
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Formatting Strings
● Right-hand click
on field or chose
format field from
format menu

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Formatting Numbers
●Extra Format
Tab

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Formatting Numbers

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Formatting Dates
●Extra Format
Tab Choose
Customize

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Conditional Formatting
●Conditional
Vs Absolute

Select a number
field for this
example
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Conditional Formatting
● Brings up the Formula Editor Box

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Conditional Formatting
● Button Changes to Red indicating value
is controlled conditionally

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Conditional Formatting
● Conditional formatting can be used
throughout Crystal reports
● Advanced technique that is particularly
useful in dealing with Sections

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Highlight Expert
● Works similarly to previous
example of conditional formatting
● Gives a Traffic Light effect to the
data

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Highlight Expert

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Report Alerts
● Similar to Highlight expert but a window
appears when a report is run to indicate
records correspond to a certain set of
conditions
● For Example – when printing a
customer statement shows customers
with a balance exceeding £1000
● New functionality in Crystal 8.5

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Report Alerts

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Report Alerts

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Report Alerts

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Report Alerts
● When report data is refreshed the
report will then produce an exception
report

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Top N Expert
● Used for finding the top N on any
column. For example the top 20
outstanding supplier balances on
purchase ledger.

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Top N Selection
● You must create a sub total or
summary before the top N selection
will work.

Specify value of N

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Running Totals
● Used to create cumulative totals in
reports
● Totals will be dependent on the
grouping of the report

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Running Total

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SQL Expression Fields
● Used only with SQL compatible
databases
● Allow SQL syntax to entered in Crystal
report
● Improves report performance when
grouping, selecting or sorting data as
query is run on server instead of
workstation
● Limited in functionality compared with
crystal formulas
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SQL Expression Fields
● Creating a new SQL expression

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SQL Expression Fields

Note limited functionality

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Field Explorer
Browse
Data Only New Edit Rename Delete
Toggle Field
Insert Type

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Field Explorer
● ? denotes Parameter field
● @ denotes formula field
● Σ denotes SUM or group field
● # denotes running total
● % denotes a SQL expression

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Section Review
● Formatting Strings
● Formatting Numbers
● Formatting Dates
● Conditional Formatting
● Highlight Expert
● Top N Selection
● Report Alerts
● Running Totals
● SQL Expressions
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Exercise

Exercises 5

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Linking Tables

Section 8

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Section Overview
● Why link tables
● Rules of linking
● What is an indexed field
● How to link tables

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Why Link Tables
● Scala holds data in multiple data
files
● For the majority of reports data files
need to be linked.
● Warning! Linking files will slow
down report speed. Keep the
number of data files to a minimum.

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Rules Of Linking
● Not all data files can be linked
directly
● Data files must have common
element
● Performance is improved if the
common element is an indexed
field

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Rules of Linking
● Linking must be done in a logical
sequence
● It must flow through the report
● Jot down blueprint of report before
starting to build it

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Linking Tables
● How do we link the following tables
together – Start with SL01
OR01 SC01
Stock Code
Order No
Customer Code

OR03 SL01

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What is an indexed field?
● A field that the data file uses as a
sort or search key
● Example Telephone directory

Smith A J 23 North Parade, Horsham 01403 215998

= The Index (Ordering)


Smith A J 23 North Parade, Horsham 01403 215998

= The Primary Key


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What is an indexed field?
Index 1 Key 1 Key 2
2087 2307 Clive's Coffee Shop Customer Address

2190 2087 Arnot Limited Customer Address

2307 2498 Drew PLC Customer Address

2498 2190 Blackmore Electronics Customer Address

Index 2 Key 1 Key 2


Arnot Limited 2307 Clive's Coffee Shop Customer Address

Blackmore Electronics 2087 Arnot Limited Customer Address

Clive's Coffee Shop 2498 Drew PLC Customer Address

Drew PLC
Drew PLC 2190 Blackmore Electronics Customer Address

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How to Link Tables
● To an existing report

Select
In this example use report
with SL01 and link SL03

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How to Link Tables

Select

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How to Link Tables

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How Link Tables

OK

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How to Link Tables
● Smart Linking works on following
conditions
– Field name is same in both tables
– Field size is the same in both tables
– Field type is the same in both tables
● Note: Because of this you may receive
warnings when linking tables because
of different data type
● Linking can only be done between
database fields. (NOT FORMULA’S)
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How to Link Tables

Drag and Drop from SL01001 to SL03001

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Linking Tables

Crystal supports
different join types
One to One (equal)
One to Many (Left Outer)
Many to One (Right Outer)
And others….

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Linking Tables
● Once the tables are linked click OK
● The fields in the table then become
available to report on
● To return to the visual linking
expert

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Section Review
● Why link tables
● Rules of linking
● What is an indexed field
● How to link tables

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Exercise

Exercise 6

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DAY 2 - Overview
● Scala Database Structure
● Simple Report Creation
● Crystal Functionality
● Formatting
● More formatting and field types
● Linking Tables

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Extra Crystal Functionality

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Section Review
● Pictures and Logo’s
● Hyperlinks
● Lines / Boxes
● Charting
● Mapping Function
● Report Style / Auto Arrange

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Extra Functionality
● Picture files can be embedded in report
to give them a professional finish
● Crystal supports

bitmap BMP, jpeg


JPG, tiff and png files

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Extra Functionality

● In the properties of the picture or any


field a hyperlink can be set so when
clicking on the logo it takes you directly
to the web site

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Extra Functionality

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Lines and Boxes
● These extra formatting tools are
available from the insert menu

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Lines and Boxes

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Charting
● Tool can be used to create professional
looking graphs and charts that can be
embedded into the Crystal report
● Drill down functionality can be used in
conjuncture with charts
● Charting works on subtotal values in the
report however the whole report can be
suppressed with just the chart being
visible

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Charting

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Charting

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Charting

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Mapping
● If you report works with geographical
data then there is also an option to map
this data

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Mapping

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Charting and Mapping
● Once you have a chart of map inserted
into your report you then have the
analyzer drop down menu that provides
the formatting and functionality options
of the map or chart

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Report Style / Auto Arrange
● Used to provide quick formatting to a
report
● Make sure you save the report before
running this function as you can’t undo

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Report Style / Auto Arrange

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Report Style
● For examples of report styling check out
Crystal Web Site or the demo reports
that are installed with Crystal
● There is also a section in your binders
that shows a few of the reports that
have been designed by Scala

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Section Overview
● Pictures and Logo’s
● Hyperlinks
● Lines / Boxes
● Charting
● Mapping Function
● Report Style / Auto Arrange

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Exercise

Exercise 7

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Running Reports

Section 9

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Section Overview
● Exporting
● What is compilation and
Distribution?
● Compiling
● Report Distribution Expert
● Web Reporting

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Exporting
● Crystal has links with other software
including excel, adobe, HTML, RTF,
text and XML
● To export report file | print | export
or

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Exporting
● The report can also be emailed or
saved to an exchange or lotus
notes folder for publication

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What is Compilation?
● Reports can be saved as an
executable
● Report users then need no
knowledge of Crystal design tools -
they can just run the report
● Selection terms or parameters can
be changed

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Compiling
● Historically Seagate software has
included the compiling and
distributing tool as part of the
standard product
● In Version 8 & 8.5 this tool was
replaced by web reporting however
due to demand they included an
update to the product which can be
downloaded at
● http://www.crystaldecisions.com/
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Compiling
● Select compile report from report
menu

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Compiling
● Brings up compile box

File name

No

● Click OK to compile

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Compiling
● Users can run compiled reports
only if they have crystal reports
installed on their workstation

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Compiling

Defaults to
refresh if no data
saved with report

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Report Distribution Expert
● Can be used where user does not
have Crystal installed
● Copies program files that report
needs to run.
● Users who run report will need to
ODBC connection to the Scala
Database set-up

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Report Distribution Expert

Can Distribute more


that one report at a time

Indicate shared destination directory

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Report Distribution Expert
● This expert will then run the report in
the background and prepare a list of
dll’s it needs to run the report. It warns
about ODBC components but doesn’t
include them
● You can adjust the included dll’s but
this is not recommended
● Then click on build which produces a
setup.exe file which then needs to be
run on clients
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Web Reporting
● Crystal Version 8.5 requires crystal
enterprise in order to run web reports
● If you purchased the Professional or
Developer edition of Crystal Reports,
then you also received the Crystal
Enterprise Standard CD, along with five
free concurrent access licenses of
Crystal Enterprise Standard.
● More information is available on the fact
sheet
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Web Reporting
● Scala’s new product iScala Web
reporter uses Crystal enterprise
technology
● Crystal enterprise is not currently
included in this course

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Section Review
● Exporting
● What is compilation
● Compiling
● Report Distribution Expert
● Web Reporting

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Exercise

Exercise 8

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Database Features

Section 11

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Section Overview
● Crystal Report Functions
● Crystal Data Dictionaries
● Crystal SQL Designer
● SQL Views
● Scala SQL View Manager

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Crystal Report Functions
● SQL query produced automatically
when building the report
● This query can be viewed and manually
edited in Crystal reports

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Crystal Report Functions

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Verifying Database
● If database is changed while user is
connected in Crystal need to run
function in order to update Crystal

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Crystal Data Dictionaries
● Modify ODBC connection to make it
more user friendly
● Can be used to restrict access to
tables however this should be done
through security in SQL server

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Crystal Data Dictionaries
● Start | programs | Seagate crystal report
tools | Crystal dictionaries

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Crystal Data Dictionaries

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Crystal Data Dictionaries

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Crystal SQL Designer
● Used for Querying data
● Primitive Report
● Accesses data through ODBC
● Allows the Use of Structured Query
Language script for speed
● Can be used by Crystal report for data
source however cannot use any other
source in conjecture with it

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Crystal SQL Designer

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Crystal SQL Designer

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Crystal SQL Designer

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Crystal SQL Designer

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Database Features

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SQL Views
● Can only be written by a system
manager of the SQL server
● Similar in design to Crystal SQL
designer however far more powerful
● Are important for reporting in certain
area of Scala as they cut down the
number of sub-reports needed and cut
down on complexity of report

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SQL Views
● Improve Crystal report performance as
sorting and linking completed on the
server
● Need access to SQL enterprise
manager in order to build views

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SQL Views

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SQL Views

Tables and Linking

Select Columns sorting and criteria

SQL Query

Result Set

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SQL Views

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SQL Views
● SQL Views are particularly useful for
– Creating Alias for column names
» E.g. SL01001 = Customer Code
– Changing data types for Columns
– Working with tables SY24 general code file
and SL23 payment / delivery terms
– Working with General ledger transaction
file GL06 which contains a binary field type
for transaction type

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Scala SQL view Manager
● Include on the application CD
– Convert\SQL view manager.exe
● Translates column numbers into
meaningful names by the way of
creating SQL views for each table

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Scala SQL view Manager

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Scala SQL view Manager

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Scala SQL view Manager

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Scala SQL view Manager
● Views need to be created for each
company
● Recreate views when a new financial
year is created in Scala
● Recreate views when a service release
is applied to Scala

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Section Review
● Crystal Report Functions
● Crystal Data Dictionaries
● Crystal SQL Designer
● SQL Views
● Scala SQL View Manager

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Exercise

Exercise 9

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Report Experts

Section 11
Optional

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Section Overview
● Standard
● Form Letter
● Form
● Cross-Tab
● Sub-Report
● Mail Label
● Drill Down
● OLAP
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Report Experts

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Report Experts
● Drill down report created by hiding
sections
● Mail Label Report – Self Explanatory
● OLAP report (On-Line Analytical
Processing).
– Uses cubes of data to report on
– Cubes Create with SQL server
– Advanced Technique

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Form Report
● Form report asks for bitmaps for
different sections of report. These
bitmaps need to be created first
outside Crystal
● An example of a report using Form
expert is in Section 6 of the course
binders
● Get Similar result inserting pictures
into sections
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Form Letter
● Used for sending out letters with data
from database
● Design the report as usual getting the
basis or the report together with the
Expert
● Example in Section 6 of Course Binders
● Form Letter creates one large text block
per section

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Form Letter

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Form Letter

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Cross Tab
● Cross Tab combines the use or rows
and columns along with a summarized
field
● Expert creates the cross tab in report
header section
● Example of Cross Tab in section 6 of
the course binders

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Cross Tab

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Cross Tab

Summarized
field format

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Cross Tab

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Sub Report
● Can be used to combine any two
reports together
● Example In Section 6 of Course
Binders
● A Sub report can be entered into an
existing report using the function on
the insert menu
● Sub Reports can be linked using a
common element ( parameter field )

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Sub Report

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Sub Report

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Sub Report
● The sub report is inserted into a section
on the main report and is run every time
that section occurs
● The sub Report is an advanced
technique but can provide good results.
● Data can be passed from the sub report
to the main report by the use of
variables

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Section Review
● Standard
● Form Letter
● Form
● Cross-Tab
● Sub-Report
● Mail Label
● Top N
● OLAP
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Exercise

Exercise 10

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Appendices

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Appendix A

Section 14
Reporting on Accounting
Strings

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Accounting Strings
● In Scala 5 accounts cost centres
etc are not in separate fields they
are held in one long field.
● Therefore to produce reports you
may need to Separate this field into
each dimension.
● Before you start you need to know
the exact length of each dimension

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Accounting Strings
To separate accounting string you
will need to use formulas

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Accounting Strings

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Accounting Strings
● If account code is longer than 6 just
adjust the field values at end of
formula
● Continue on like this for cost
centre, product, project etc.

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Accounting Strings
● You may get problems with the
previous formula if you are using
alpha numeric cost centres,
products or projects.
● As we have seen before these
does not convert to a number
● If this is the case then use the next
formula

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Accounting Strings

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Accounting Strings

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Accounting Strings
The trim function does exactly what it
says it trims a field down to the
lengths controlled by the square
brackets [].

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Exercise

Exercise 11

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Appendix B

Converting Reports from


Btrieve to SQL

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Crystal Reports
● Converting report from BTR to SQL
● Open up the crystal report and select
convert database driver from the
database drop down menu

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Crystal Reports
● Select the correct data source

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Crystal Reports
● Then get error as below
– Solution set location of data files in
database drop down menu (remove the
.dat at the end)

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Crystal Report

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Crystal Reports
● Map the fields across to the SQL
database
● The SQL database holds all field names
as numbers e.g. SC01001 for stock
code. Therefore use the scala5eu.mdb
database to lookup the correct field
codes for field names
● Alternatively create views from the SQL
database using the SQL view manager
and map your fields to theses
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Crystal Reports

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Crystal Reports
● Once all data files are mapped across
check the visual linking expert for the
correct file linking
● Then run report. The report will
probably give errors due to the different
types of field type e.g. Numbers are
formatted as numbers in SQL not as
strings
● Then check report is returning the same
information / totals
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Btrieve

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Btrieve Data Tables

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Data File Structure Btrieve
Scala5
DAT
GL
PL
GL06ccyy.DAT
cc = Company Code
yy = Financial Year

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Btrieve DDF Files
 Description of files, fields,
indexes
 Gives location of Data


Btrieve Information database
 Scala5

File.ddf
Field.ddf
Index.ddf

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Crystal Report Errors

Click

Click

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Crystal Report Errors

Click

Solution
– Set Location of Scala’s data files

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Set Location

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Set Location

Set Location

Select File Location

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Set Location
● The setting of location only needs
to be done once.
● Each subsequent time the report is
ran Crystal will find the data.

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DDF Builder
● Scala 5.1 Btrieve does not come with
the data dictionary files (DDF) these
files need to be created using a
program called Scala DDF Builder
● The Scala DDF Builder can create
DDF’s for companies, years and
modules

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Crystal Reports
● To install DDF Builder

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Crystal Reports

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Crystal Reports

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Crystal Reports

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Crystal Reports

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Crystal Reports
● Help for DDF builder
– If you install DDF builder to the Default
location help can be found in
» C:\program files\DDFstart\ddfbuilder.hlp
● At year end you can add the next years
DDF files to you current files
● This program saves a lot of time over
smithware DDF builder although it is not
as reliable

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