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Magbuhos, Francis Gatdula, Ivanheck

Lorenz Llanto, Angelene Kim
Añonuevo, Grean Miguel, Joyce Ann
Ariola, Dean Chester Marie
Baloloy, Heralynn Quiapon, Jennifer
Castro, Arnel Aivan Quintos, Louisa Marie
Eroles, Jan Marlon Salcedo, Natasha
 Soul – not a thing; a property, set of properties or ability of
the living body
 More Scientific, Biological Approach – Questions of soul in
the context of living things
 To have a soul means to be alive
 Main Categories of Life:
 Plants – merely grow and reproduce
 Animals – can move spontaneously and feel sensation
 Human Beings – having all these capabilities plus power
of thought
 “soul is to body as form is to matter”
 Something special about the mind, or power of thought – it
could allow it to exist apart from the living body
 Final end – happiness – make life worth living
 Fulfillment lies in the exercise of rational abilities
Soul = Life??
 We have this certain idea that having
a “Soul” means having “Life”. Hence,
an entity with a “Soul” is obviously
different from one which has none,
because one which has “Soul” is a
“Living thing”
 And in order to further understand
this, we have to define what Living
What does it mean “To
 Living, according to the article, may mean:
“[T]hinking or perception or local movement and rest, or
movement in the sense of nutrition, decay, and growth”
Due to this statement, we think of plants as
living things, for they too posses the
capacity to grow and to decay, the sense
of self-nutrition, and moreover, the
capacity to live as long as it continues to
absorb nutrients.
The same way for Animals, because, not
only that they have the capacity to grow
and decay, animals also observe the
possession of sensation and local
movement, which plants don’t have.
The Inseparability
Soul from Body
Human Soul leaving its Body Pervading image
of soul in our
…What is a
..but we are in a habit of RECOGNIZING

..and to recognize WHAT IS, we can thus

approach it in several SENSES

(a) In the sense of matter or that which in itself is not

“a this”
..and (b) in the sense of form or essence, which
precisely in virtue of which a thing is called “a
..thirdly, (c) in the sense of that which is compounded
of both (a) & (b)
“Matter is potentiality, form actuality.”

Expounding it..

Relates to form as potentiality

does to actuality

•Among substances are by general consent

reckoned bodies & especially natural bodies; They
are the principles of all other bodies.
•Some natural bodies have life in them, others
•By LIFE we mean self-nutrition and growth
(with its correlative decay)
•..every natural body which has life in it is a
substance in the sense of composite
 Body cannot be a soul
 Body = subject or matter
 Soul must be a substance in the
sense of form of a natural body
having life within it.
 Substance is actuality; thus soul is
actuality of a body as above
 Actuality:
 Possession of knowledge
 Actual exercise of knowledge

 Knowledge comes before exercise

The general formula applicable to
all kinds of soul:

The soul is the first grade of actuality of a

The Eye and Sight
(Matter and Substance)
 Eye- matter
 Sight- substance
 The sight corresponds with the eye, the eye being the
matter of seeing. Without the sight, the eye will not be a
real eye anymore
 The departmental sense is to the bodily part which is its
organ, that the whole faculty of sense is to the whole
sensitive body as such.
 Soul is actuality in the sense corresponding to the power in
the tool (the tool being the pupil of the eye); the Body
corresponds to what exists in potentiality (which is the
power to see or simply the eyesight).

E.g., Pupil- corresponds to its potentiality

Sight- sense within the eye
Pupil + Sight = EYE
From this it is indubitably follows that the soul
is inseparable from its body…
Or at any rate that certain parts of it are – for
the actuality of some of them is nothing but
actualities of their body parts…
Yet some may be
separable because they
are not the actualities of
any body at all…
We have no
evidence yet
as about mind
or the power
to think; it
seems to be a
different kind
of soul…
Differing as
what is
eternal from
what is
It alone is
capable of
existence in
isolation from
all other
All the other parts of
soul are, in spite of
certain statements
to the contrary,

Incapable of
separate existence

Though, of course,
distinguishable by
 the good that we are seeking seems to be
different in different actions and arts.
i.e., the good that we seek in medicine differs from
that of in strategy, architecture, and in other fields.

 “ What then is the good of each?”

In medicine it is health, in strategy victory, in
architecture a house, in any other field something
different, and in every action and pursuit the end.
- pursuit the end – it is the reason why men do
whatever else they do.

 THEREFORE, if there is an end for all that we

do, this will be the good achievable by action,
and if there are more than one, this will be the
goods achievable by action.
 There are evidently more than one end.
 Not all ends are final ends.
 Chief Good is something final.
 Something which is in itself worthy of pursuit is considered
more final than that which is worthy of pursuit for the sake
of something else.
 Something that which is never desirable for the sake of
something else is considered more final than the things that
are desirable both in themselves and for the sake of that
other thing.
 Therefore, we call final without qualification that which is
always desirable in itself and never for the sake of
something else.
Road to Happiness

Honour Pleasure
First Stop: Second Stop:
Having high-respect or A feeling of happy
esteem :) satisfaction and enjoyment
Reason Virtue

Third Stop: Fourth Stop:

Justification for an action or Behavior showing high
event :) moral standards :)

 Feeling or showing pleasure or

 Final good
 Self-sufficient
 End of action
Function of Man

* Does man have a function?

* For all things that have a function or activity,
the good and the ‘well’ is thought to reside in
the function.
* What then is the function of man?
- There remains an active element that has
a ‘rational principle’
* ‘ Life of rational element’
- life in the sense of activity is what we
- eminence in respect of goodness being
added to the name of the function
e.g.: a lyre – player and a good lyre –
-------if this is the case, human good turns out
According to the Aristotelian
anthropological composition of man, the soul is
regarded as an attribute of the human being
having life; thus is inseparable from the body
(though the intellect, said to be a part of the
human soul, can exist alone.)

It is also stated that happiness, considered

to be our final end, lies in our capacity to use
our rationality. Since the soul is the actuality of
our potentiality to rationality, it could then be
implied that part of the core essence of man is
to be happy with his life.
© 2008
This document may be freely
printed and distributed
providing its use is strictly
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educational purposes only.