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PERCEPTION: ATTRIBUTION THEORY, FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR

PERCEPTION

A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment

A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment

Factors That Influence Perception


Factors can reside in the perceiver; in the object or target being perceived; or in the context of the situation in which the perception

Person Perception

Person Perception refers to the different mental processes that we use to form impressions of other people. Subjective process depending on :Characteristics of the person being observed Context of situation Own personal characteristics

Attribution Theory
Observation Interpretation Attribution of Cause

Role Play

Attribution Factor 1

Consensus
Engineering

Exam

Attribution Factor 1
The Result
Sr. No 1
2 3 4 5

Name of Student
Vishal Maheshwari Neha Shah Janki Desai Harshael Sawant Kishore Kannan

Marks Obtained 08
06 09 03 10

Result
FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL

Attribution Factor 2

Consistency

Attribution Factor 3

Distinctiveness

Fundamental Attribution Error


The tendency of a person to overestimate the internal cause and underestimate the external causes is known as fundamental attribution error.

Fundamental Attribution Error

Actor-Observer Bias

Fundamental attribution error does not consider the interpretations of ones own behaviour. This discrepancy is known as actor-observer bias.

Self Serving Bias

The tendency of individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and failures to external factors

WAYS TO REDUCE THE ERRORS

Taking

heed of the consensus


with the target

Empathizing

Look

at situation in a rational and logical manner.

Judging Others

JUDGING OTHERS

1.Selective Perception
Selective perception is the personal filtering of what we see and hear so as to suit our own needs.
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. How does selective perception work?

JUDGING OTHERS

JUDGING OTHERS

3.Stereotyping

Judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which that person belongs.

JUDGING OTHERS

PROJECTION

Attributing ones own characteristics to other people

People engaged in projections, can distort perceptions made about others.

APPLICATION OF SHORTCUTS IN ORGANISATION


Employment Interview
Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers judgments of applicants.

Performance Expectations
Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.

APPLICATION OF SHORTCUTS IN ORGANISATION

Ethnic Profiling
A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled outtypically on the basis of race or ethnicityfor intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation.

PERCEPTION & DECISION MAKING


Problem
A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state.

Outcomes
Decisions
Choices made from among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant.

Every decision requires interpretation and evaluation of information. The perceptions of the decision maker will address these two issues Individuals in organizations make decisions; they make choices from among two or more alternatives Decision-making occurs as a reaction to a problem

OUTCOME

TO CONCLUDE

Q&A