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Prepared by NILESH B. APTE 112040014 M-tech.

structures Department of Structural Engineering VJTI Matunga, Mumbai 19

Deep beams are structural elements loaded as beams in which a significant amount of the load is transferred to the supports by a compression thrust joining the load and the reaction. As a result, the strain distribution is no longer considered linear, and the shear deformations become significant when compared to pure flexure. E.g. :- Floor slabs under horizontal load, short span beams carrying heavy loads, and transfer girders

Stresses in deep beam can be determined by:

Finite Element Method Strut and Tie Mechanism Plane stress approach (stress function approach) photoelasticity

A beam may be classified as a deep beam depending on the ratio L/D ratio given below 1. Simply supported beam L/D < or = 2 2. Continuous beam L/D < or = 2.5 Where D = overall depth of the beam section L= effective span The effective span shall taken by the lesser of the following 1. Centre to centre distance between supports 2. 1.15 times the clear span

resist positive bending moment in any span of deep beam. 1. Shall extend without curtailment between the supports. 2. Shall be embedded beyond the face each support, so that the force of the support it shall have a development length not less than 0.8 times the development length for the design stress in reinforcement. Negative reinforcement : 1. Termination of reinforcement: half of the reinforcement may be terminated at a distance of 0.5D from face of the support. The remainder shall extend over the whole span. 2. Distribution : when ratio of clear span to overall depth is 1.0 to 2.5, tensile reinforcement over a support of a deep beam shall be placed in two zones comprising; 3. Zone of depth 0.2D adjacent to the tension face which is contain 0.5(L/D 0.5 ) times the negative reinforcement

Positive reinforcement: the tensile reinforcement required to

Zone of depth 0.2D adjacent to the tension face which is contain 0.5(L/D 0.5 ) times the negative reinforcement. Vertical reinforcement: If forces are applied to a deep beam in such a way that hanging action is required, bars or suspension stirrups shall be provided to carry all the forces concerned. Side face reinforcement : shall be provided vertically & horizontally. The spacing of such reinforcement shall not exceed 3 times the width of the beam. It shall not also exceed 450 mm

For flexural design, ACI Code 31883 (revised 1986) defines a deep beam as a beam in which the ratio of the clear span (lo) to the overall depth (h) is less than the limits in simple spans: lo/h<1.25 continuous spans: lo/h<2.5 Minimum tension reinforcement The main steel ratio shall not be less than min of Eqn min=200/fy where min=As/bd, As is the main tension reinforcement, b is the beam width, d is the effective depth and fy is the steel strength (lb/in2). For fy=460N/mm2 (about 66500 (lb/in2)), min is about 0.3%.

ACI Section 10.7.1 For Deep Beam: 1. L/d < 5/2 for continuous span; < 5/4 for simple span 2. ACI Section 11.8: L/d <5 (Shear requirement)

Strut-and-Tie Model: A conceptual framework where the stress distribution in a structure is idealized as a system of Strut Compressio n member Concrete

Tie or stirrups

Tension member

Reinforcem ent

The shear provisions of ACI Code 31883 (revised 1986) apply to top loaded simple or continuous beams having a (clear span)/(effective depth) ratio lo/d less than 5. Shear strength: simply supported deep beams Calculations are carried out for the critical section defined as follows. 1) For uniformly distributed loading, the critical section is taken as 0.15lo from the face of the support; 2) for a concentrated load, it is taken as half way between the load and the face of the support. The shear reinforcement required at the critical section shall be used throughout the span. The design is based on following formulae: Vu<Vn Vn=Vc+Vs

Typical Crack Patterns for a deep beam.

THE STRUT-AND-TIE MODEL OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES By Dr. C. C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E, The BEST Center ,University of Maryland Title ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL no. 102-S43 Reinforced Concrete Deep BeamsShear Strength Model and Design Formula by Gaetano Russo, Raffaele Venir, and Margherita Pauletta Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Edited by PROFESSOR F.K.KONG Professor of Structural Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONRETE STRUCTURES by S. Ramamrutham, Dhanpat Rai Publishing house