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lnLroducLlon Lo MarkeLlng

ManagemenL
LecLure # 1
JaL ls MarkeLlng ManagemenL?
Market|ng management ls Le ott
ooJ scleoce of cooslng LargeL
markeLs and geLLlng keeplng and
growlng cusLomers Lroug creaLlng
dellverlng and communlcaLlng
superlor cusLomer value
JaL ls MarkeLed?
Coodsslcal goods eg cars
Lrucks waLces lndusLrlal
cemlcals eLc
Servlces Servlces lnclude Le
work of alrllnes oLels car
renLal flrms bankers Leacers
docLors lawers eLc
LvenLs MarkeLers promoLe Llme
based evenLs suc as ma[or
Lrade sows arLlsLlc
performances world cup
Clmplc eLc
Lxperlences
AmusemenL park
waLer park Leme
based resLauranLs
represenLs experlenLlal
markeLlng
eople CelebrlL
markeLlng ls a ma[or
buslness 1om eLers
advlsed eac person Lo
become a brand
JaL ls MarkeLed?
roperLles roperLles are lnLanglble
rlgLs of ownerslp of elLer real
properL or flnanclal properL
CrganlzaLlons CrganlzaLlons acLlvel
work Lo bulld a sLrong favorable and
unlque lmage ln Le mlnds of Lelr
LargeL publlcs
lnformaLlon lnformaLlon ls
essenLlall waL books scools and
unlverslLles produce markeL and
dlsLrlbuLe aL a prlce Lo parenLs
sLudenLs and communlLles
laces ClLles sLaLes reglons
and wole naLlons compeLe
acLlvel Lo aLLracL LourlsLs
facLorles compan
eadquarLers and new
resldenLs
ldeas Lver markeL offerlng
lncludes a baslc ldea ln
addlLlon ldeas ma be
markeLed b Lemselves lor
examples some rellglous
bodles Lr Lo promoLe Lelr
ldeas of waL consLlLuLes Le
rlgL beavlor
S1A1L CI DLMAND AND MAkkL1ING 1ASk
State of demand
Negat|ve Demand
No Demand
Latent Demand
Ia|||ng Demand
Irregu|ar Demand
Iu|| Demand
Cverfu|| Demand
Unwho|esome
Demand
Market|ng task
Convers|ona| Mktg
St|mu|at|ona| Mktg
Deve|opmenta| Mktg
kemarket|ng
Synchromarket|ng
Ma|ntenance Mktg
Demarket|ng
Countermarket|ng
emand SLaLes
negaLlve Consumers dlsllke Le
producL and ma even pa a prlce
Lo avold lL
nonexlsLenL Consumers ma be
unaware or unlnLeresLed ln Le
producL
LaLenL Consumers ma sare a
sLrong need LaL cannoL be
saLlsfled b an exlsLlng producL
ecllnlng Consumers begln Lo
bu Le producL less frequenLl or
noL aL all
Irregu|ar Consumer purcases
var on a seasonal monLl
weekl dall or even ourl
basls
Iu|| consumers are adequaLel
bulng all producLs puL lnLo Le
markeLplace
Cverfu|| more consumers would
llke Lo bu Le producL Lan can
be saLlsfled
Dnwolesome consumers ma
be aLLracLed Lo producLs LaL
ave undeslrable soclal
consequences
e CusLomer MarkeLs
Consumer markeLs
8uslness markeLs
Clobal markeLs
nonproflL markeLs
CovernmenL markeLs
Consumer markeLs
Companles selllng mass consumer goods and servlces suc as
sofL drlnks cosmeLlcs alr Lravel and aLleLlc soes and
equlpmenL spend a greaL deal of Llme Lo esLablls a superlor
brand lmage
Muc of a brand's sLrengL depends on developlng a superlor
producL and packaglng ensurlng lLs avallablllL and backlng lL
wlL engaglng communlcaLlon and rellable servlce
CompllcaLlng Lls Lask ls Le alwas canglng consumer markeL
8uslness markeLs
Companles selllng buslness goods and servlces ofLen face well
Lralned and welllnformed professlonal buers wo are skllled ln
evaluaLlng compeLlLlve offerlngs
8uslness buers bu goods ln order Lo make or resell a producL Lo
oLers aL a proflL 8uslness markeLers musL demonsLraLe ow
Lelr producLs wlll elp Lese buers acleve lger revenue or
lower cosLs
AdverLlslng can pla a role buL a sLronger role ma be plaed b
Le sales force prlce and Le compan's repuLaLlon for rellablllL
and quallL
Clobal markeLs
Companles selllng goods and servlces ln Le global markeLplace face addlLlonal
declslons and callenges
1e musL declde wlc counLrles Lo enLer ow Lo enLer eac counLr as an
exporLer llcenser [olnL venLure parLner conLracL manufacLurer or sole
manufacLurer and ow Lo adapL Lelr producL and servlce feaLures Lo eac
counLr
1e prlclng of Lelr producLs ln dlfferenL counLrles and adapLlng Lelr
communlcaLlons Lo flL dlfferenL culLures ls a prlme crlLerlon
1ese declslons musL be made ln Le face of dlfferenL requlremenLs for bulng
negoLlaLlng ownlng and dlsposlng of properL dlfferenL culLure language and
legal and pollLlcal ssLems and a currenc LaL mlgL flucLuaLe ln value
nonproflL and CovernmenLal markeLs
Companles selllng Lelr goods Lo nonproflL organlzaLlons suc
as curces unlverslLles carlLable organlzaLlons or
governmenL agencles need Lo prlce carefull because Lese
organlzaLlons ave llmlLed purcaslng power
Lower prlces affecL Le feaLures and quallL LaL Le seller can
bulld lnLo Le offerlng
MosL of Le CovernmenL purcaslng call for blds wlL Le
lowesL bld belng favored ln Le absence of exLenuaLlng
facLors
1e SLrucLure of llows ln a Modern Lxcange Lconom
A Slmple MarkeLlng SsLem
A marketp|ace ls pslcal
eg a sLore ou sop ln or a produce markeL
A marketspace ls dlglLal
as wen ou sop on Le lnLerneL
A metamarket descrlbes a clusLer of complemenLar
producLs LaL are closel relaLed ln Le mlnds of
consumers buL spread across a dlverse seL of
lndusLrles
eg Le moLor velcle meLamarkeL
MarkeLplaces MarkeLspaces and
MeLamarkeLs
Metamarkets
Mohan Sawhney has proposed the concept of a metamarket to
describe a cluster of complementary products and services that are
closely related in the minds of consumers but are spread across a
diverse set of industries. The automobile metamarket consists of
automobile manufacturers, new car and used car dealers, financing
companies, insurance companies, mechanics, spare parts dealers,
service shops, auto magazines, classified auto ads in newspapers, and
auto sites on the nternet. n purchasing a car, a buyer will get involved
in many parts of this metamarket, and this has created an opportunity
for metamediaries to assist buyers to move seamlessly through these
groups, although they are disconnected in physical space.
Core MarkeLlng ConcepLs
needs wanLs and
demands
1argeL markeLs
poslLlonlng
segmenLaLlon
Cfferlngs and brands
value and saLlsfacLlon
Lxcange and
1ransacLlon
MarkeLlng cannels
Suppl caln
CompeLlLlon
MarkeLlng
envlronmenL
1ask envlronmenL
8road envlronmenL
NLLDSWAN1S AND DLMANDS
nLL A sLaLe of felL deprlvaLlon of some
baslc saLlsfacLlon ( lood CloLlng SelLer
8elonglng eLc )
JAn1S JanLs are deslres for speclflc
saLlsflers of Le deeper needs needs are
few and wanLs are man
LMAnS are wanLs backed b
AblllL Lo bu and Jllllngness Lo bu
SegmenLaLlon 1argeL markeLs ad
oslLlonlng
SegmenL ls known as dlsLlncL group of
buers wo sare slmllar caracLerlsLlcs
and needs
SelecLlng one or more segmenL ls known
as markeL LargeLlng
Cccuplng a place ln Le mlnd of Le
cusLomer relaLlve Lo Le compeLlLlve
producL ls known as roducL poslLlonlng
MarkeLlng cannels
lsLrlbuLlon cannel ls a paL Lroug wlc
goods and servlces flow ln one dlrecLlon (from
vendor Lo Le consumer) and Le pamenLs
generaLed b Lem LaL flow ln Le opposlLe
dlrecLlon (from consumer Lo Le vendor) Lroug
servlce cannel
CommunlcaLlon cannel dellver and recelve
messages from LargeL buers
Suppl Caln
Suppl Caln ls Le movemenL of maLerlals as
Le flow from Lelr source Lo Le end cusLomer
Suppl Caln lncludes purcaslng
manufacLurlng wareouslng LransporLaLlon
cusLomer servlces demand plannlng suppl
plannlng and Suppl Caln managemenL
lL ls made up of Le people acLlvlLles
lnformaLlon and resources lnvolved ln movlng a
producL from lLs suppller Lo cusLomer
New Market|ng kea||t|es
Ma[or SocleLal lorces
Network |nformat|on techno|ogy 1e dlglLal revoluLlon as
creaLed an lnformaLlon Age LaL promlses Lo lead Lo more accuraLe
levels of producLlon more LargeLed communlcaLlons and more
relevanL prlclng
G|oba||zat|on 1ecnologlcal advances made lL easler for consumers
Lo bu producLs and servlces from markeLers ln oLer counLrles
Deregu|at|on emoval or slmpllflcaLlon of governmenL rules and
regulaLlons LaL consLraln Le operaLlon of markeL forces
9r|vat|sat|on Man counLrles ave converLed publlc companles Lo
prlvaLe ownerslp and managemenL Lo lncrease Lelr efflclenc
suc as 8rlLls Alrwas and 8rlLls 1elecom ln Le DnlLed lngdom
Industry convergence lndusLr boundarles are blurrlng aL an
lncredlble raLe as companles are recognlzlng LaL new opporLunlLles
lle aL Le lnLersecLlon of Lwo or more lndusLrles
New Market|ng kea||t|es
Ma[or SocleLal lorces
Consumer res|stance 1e percelve fewer real producL dlfferences
and sow less brand loalL
keta|| transformat|on Small reLallers are succumblng Lo Le
growlng power of glanL reLallers and caLegor klllers SLorebased
reLallers are faclng growlng compeLlLlon from caLalog ouses
dlrecLmall flrms newspaper magazlne and 1v dlrecLLocusLomer
ads ome sopplng 1v and ecommerce on Le lnLerneL
D|s|ntermed|at|onMan brlckandcllck compeLlLors became
sLronger conLenders Lan Le purecllck flrms slnce Le ad a
larger pool of resources Lo work wlL and well esLabllsed brand
names
e|ghtened compet|t|on 8rand manufacLurers are faclng lnLense
compeLlLlon from domesLlc and forelgn brands wlc ls resulLlng ln
rlslng promoLlon cosLs and srlnklng proflL marglns
SubsLanLlal lncrease ln bulng power
varleL of goods and servlces
AmounL of lnformaLlon abouL anLlng
lnLeracLlng and placlng and recelvlng orders
Comparlson of producLs and servlces
volce Lo lnfluence peer and publlc oplnlon
New Market|ng kea||t|es
new Consumer CapablllLles
New Market|ng kea||t|es
new Compan CapablllLles
lnLerneL communlcaLlons and lnformaLlon gaLerlng
lnLraneLs
1argeLed medla prollferaLlon
ermlsslon markeLlng
Moblle markeLlng
Mass cusLomlsaLlon
8logglng
lnLerneL for 828
Cnllne recrulLmenL