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Emission Controls

Emission Controls

Emission Controls

  • Before beginning to understand emission

controls you should know the reason why

emission controls were installed into the automobile.

  • 1. To reduce the amount of pollutants entering the atmosphere .

Emission Controls

  • Smog is a term developed from smoke and fog

  • Smog is form when airborne pollutants is formed with oxygen and other atmospheric gasses to produce a grayish yellow smoke. The resulting smoke is called photochemical smog.

Smog

  • Smog is can be a major problem in larger cities (New York and LA)

  • Smog can be harmful to

    • A. Humans

    • B. Plants

    • C. Animals and even effect paint rubber and other materials.

Smog

  • One of largest producer of photochemical smog is the automotive internal combustion engine.

  • The EPA (environmental protection agency) begin putting restriction on automotive manufactories in the mid 60.

Motor Vehicle Emissions

  • Motor vehicle emission are emission produce by motor vehicles. They include

    • A. Hydrocarbons (HC)

    • Carbon monoxide (CO)

    • Oxides of nitrogen (NOx)

Exhaust Gasses

  • Hydrocarbons (HC) are emission of unburned petroleum products being released into the atmosphere.

  • All petroleum products and made of hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon compounds) this includes:

    • Gasoline

    • Diesel

LP-gas.

motor oil.

Exhaust Gasses

  • Hydrocarbons are produced because of incomplete fuel combustion or fuel

evaporation.

  • Hydrocarbons emission is considered a hazardous form of air pollution because of.

    • Eye.

    • Throat.

    • Lung irritation.

    • And possibility cancer.

Exhaust Gasses

  • In north Carolina a vehicle must not exceed 220 ppm of hydrocarbons emissions.

  • High hydrocarbon emission are the results of a:

    • cylinder misfire.

    • Improper ignition timing

    • Worn cylinder rings (pumping oil into the combustion chamber

Exhaust Gasses

  • Carbon monoxide emission are exhaust emission that is the result of partially burned fuel.

  • A high carbon monoxide emission can be caused by a:

    • Restricted or dirty air cleaner.

    • Advance ignition timing.

    • Clogged fuel injectors.

Exhaust Gasses

  • Oxides of nitrogen, (NOx) are emission produced by extreme heat.

  • Air consist of approximately 79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen

  • When combustion chamber temperature

reaches 2500 degrees F or 1370 degrees

C nitrogen and oxygen combine to

produce oxide of nitrogen (NOx)

  • In North Carolina the standard for Carbon Monoxide is 1.2 % of the total exhaust output.

Muffler Exhaust output
Muffler
Exhaust output

HC 220 ppm

CO 1.2%

Exhaust Gasses

  • Oxides of nitrogen is responsible for the dirty brown color is SMOG.

  • NOx is a eye and respiratory irritant.

  • Newer high compression, learn air fuel mixture and hotter running engine produces more NOx than earlier engine.

Exhaust Gasses

  • The same factors that increases NOx will tend to

improve fuel mileage and lower HC and CO2

production.

  • This means that to increase fuel economy and

lower HC and CO2 production NOx will

increase.

  • For this reason emission controls have beedn

added to lower all form of emissions

Exhaust Gasses

HC increases NOx increases Richer Leaner 14.7 – 1 AFR NOx Hc and Co decreases decreases
HC increases
NOx
increases
Richer
Leaner
14.7 – 1 AFR
NOx
Hc and Co
decreases
decreases

Exhaust Gasses

  • Before understanding emission controls we need to first understand where they come from.

  • Particulates: are solid particle of carbon soot and fuel additives that blow out the tail pipe.

  • Engine crank case blow by. Caused by heating

of oil and unburned fuel vapors that blow past the engine rings.

Exhaust Gasses

  • Fuel vapors: different chemicals that enter the atmosphere as fuel evaporates.

  • Engine exhaust gasses: are harmful

chemical that are produced inside the

combustion chamber and are blow outr the tail pipe.

Fuel Solid particulate Exhaust manifold Catalytic Converter CO Fuel Vapors Air Fuel Fuel Tank Fuel Pump
Fuel
Solid particulate
Exhaust
manifold
Catalytic
Converter
CO
Fuel
Vapors
Air
Fuel
Fuel
Tank
Fuel
Pump
HC

Exhaust Gasses

  • Automotive manufactures agree the best way to lower exhaust emission is to burn all the fuel entering the combustion chamber.

  • Modern engine have introduced several modification to ensure all fuel entering the

combustion chamber is burned.

Exhaust Gasses

  • Some engine modification are:

  • Lower compression ratio, by lowering

compression ratio vehicle can burn unleaded fuel. The use of unleaded fuel allows for catalytic

converters that help reduce HC and CO

emissions.

  • Lower compression ratio also lower combustion

temperature reducing NOx emission.

Exhaust Gasses

  • Smaller combustion chambers, allows for more heat to remain inside the combustion chamber that can aid in the burning of fuel.

  • Reduce quench areas, the areas between the piston and the cylinder head is the quench area.

If this areas is to close fuel will not burn completely increasing HC and CO emissions. Modern engine are design to reduce high

quench areas.

Exhaust Gasses

Exhaust Gasses Quench area

Quench area

Exhaust Gasses

  • Decrease valve overlap, is used to decrease exhaust emission. A larger valve overlap increases power but dilutes incoming fuel mixture and requires a richer air fuel mixture at lower engine speed therefore increasing HC and CO emissions.

Exhaust Gasses

Overlap Intake Exhaust
Overlap
Intake
Exhaust

Exhaust Gasses

  • Higher combustion chamber temperature, are used to reduce HC and CO emissions.

    • Today vehicles used hot thermostats than earlier model helping to increase combustion chamber temperature.

  • Leaner air-fuel mixtures help fuel burn better lower HC and CO emissions.

  • Wider spark plug gaps, are used to burn the

leaner fuel mixture and helps prevent spark plug

fouling.

Exhaust Gasses

Exhaust Gasses Wider spark plug gap Some are .080 thousands Thermostats are now 190 degrees

Wider spark plug gap

Some are .080 thousands

Exhaust Gasses Wider spark plug gap Some are .080 thousands Thermostats are now 190 degrees

Thermostats are

now 190 degrees

Learning Quiz

  • 1. When is photochemical smog formed?

  • A. when airborne pollutants is formed with oxygen and other atmospheric gasses

  • B. When Oxygen is mixed water inside the catalytic converter.

  • C. When exhaust gasses is heated to over 2500 degrees

  • D. All the above

Learning Quiz

  • 2. Smog can be harmful to:

    • A. Humans

    • B. Plants

    • C. Rubber and medals

    • All the above

Learning Quiz

  • 3.Technician A says CO is a hazardous exhaust emission. Technician B says HC is a hazardous exhaust emission. Who is correct?

    • A. Technician A only

    • B. Technician B only

    • C. Both technician A and B

    • D. Neither technician A nor B

Learning Quiz

  • 4. Oxides of Nitrogen is produced when:

    • A. Combustion chamber temperature is to cold.

    • B. Combustion chamber temperature is too hot.

    • C. Atmospheric condition is humid.

    • D. all the above

Learning Quiz

  • 5. High hydrocarbon are caused by:

    • A. Cylinder misfire

    • B. Dirty air filter

    • C. Low fuel pressure

    • D. Defective air filter.

Learning Quiz

  • 6. A rich fuel mixture will cause and increase in:

    • A. Hydrocarbons

    • B. Oxides of Nitrogen's NOx

    • C. Both a and B

    • D. Neither A nor B

Learning Quiz

  • 7. In North Carolina the maximum amount of Hydrocarbon emission allowed by a vehicle is:

    • A. 1000 ppm

    • B. 1.2% by exhaust volume

    • C. 220 ppm

    • D. 1% by exhaust volume

Learning Quiz

  • 8. Technician A says Oxides of Nitrogen emission increases when combustion chamber temperature decreases. Technician B says Hydrocarbon emission is the result of a cylinder misfire. Who is correct?

    • A Technician A only

    • C. A and B

B. Technician B only D. Neither A nor B

Learning Quiz

  • 9. The best way to decrease exhaust emission is to:

    • A. Increase valve overlap.

    • B. Increase compression Ratios.

    • C. Increase combustion chamber size.

    • D. Burn all fuel enter the combustion chamber.

Learning Quiz

  • 10. Technician A says crankcase blowby is not a source of vehicle emission. Technician B says modern vehicle have use unleaded fuel to increase emissions and allow for the use of catlic converters. Who is correct?

  • A. Technician A only

  • C. A and B

B. Technician B only D. Neither A nor B

Vehicle Emission Control

SyEngine Performancestems

  • There are several different types of emission control system used on modern vehicles.

    • Positive crankcase ventilation system (PCV) is used to recalculate engine

crankcase fumes back into the combustion chamber.

Vehicle Emission Control

  • A PCV valve uses manifold vacuum to draw blow-by gasses from the engine into the intake manifold for reburying by the engine.

  • In earlier years automotive manufactories uses road draft tubes to remove

crankcase blowby gasses.

Vehicle Emission Control

  • The uses of road drift tube allowed for blowby gasses containing HC, CO, particulates, sulfur and small amounts of water to be vented in the atmosphere.

  • At idle when there is high engine vacuum the PCV value is pulled open to remove

blow-by gasses from inside the engine.

Vehicle Emission Control

  • At part throttle when vacuum is lower a spring inside the PCV valve forces the valve partially closed. But still allows for some blowby gasses to be vented back into the intake manifold for burning by the engine.

Vehicle Emission Control

PCV

Plunger

  • When engine Vacuum is High PCV valve plunger is nearly closed

PCV Plunger When engine Vacuum is High PCV valve plunger is nearly closed When engine vacuum
PCV Plunger When engine Vacuum is High PCV valve plunger is nearly closed When engine vacuum

When engine vacuum is low plunger

Opens. Allowing exhaust gasses into

Engine.

PCV Plunger When engine Vacuum is High PCV valve plunger is nearly closed When engine vacuum
Typical PCV valve

Typical PCV valve

Evaporative Emissions Control Systems

EVAP

The EVAP system prevents Hydrocarbons

in the form of fuel vapors from entering the

atmosphere even when the vehicle is not running.

An EVAP system is considered a closed

system.

Fuel vapor are stored in a charcoal canister

when the engine is off.

Evaporative Emissions Control Systems

EVAP

  • When the engine is started vacuum pulls fuel vapors into the engine fur burning.

  • EVAP system different from per emission

vehicle because no fuel or vapor is vented

into the atmosphere.

Unvented Fuel Cap Rollover Valve Intake Manifold Vacuum Charcoal Canister Fuel Tank
Unvented Fuel Cap
Rollover Valve
Intake
Manifold
Vacuum
Charcoal Canister
Fuel Tank
  • A rollover valve is uses to prevent fuel spillage in case of a rollover.

  • A liquid-vapor separator is sometime used to prevent liquid fuel from entering the charcoal canister.

  • A charcoal canister is used to store fuel vapor when the engine is not operating.

  • Most modern vehicles electrically control the EVAP system to ensure a cleaner burning engine.

  • The EVAP system uses purge lines to connect the fuel tank to the charcoal canister and the intake manifold.

12 Volts with engine on

PCM EVAP Solenoid Fuel Tank
PCM
EVAP
Solenoid
Fuel Tank
12 Volts with engine on PCM EVAP Solenoid Fuel Tank Rollover Valve Charcoal Canister

Rollover Valve

Charcoal Canister

Enhanced EVAP system

  • An enhanced EVAP system has the following additional components.

    • Fuel tank pressure sensor: This sensor monitor internal fuel tank pressure

    • Canister Vent Solenoid: An electrically operated solenoid that replaces the Fresh air valve on earlier systems

    • Service Port: is a test point located in the engine compartment and is used for testing the EVAP system

Enhanced EVAP system

  • A normally open purge solenoid allows fresh air to enter the charcoal when in purge mode.

  • An enhanced EVAP system requires the uses of a bi-directional scan tool for several diagnostic procedures.

12 Volts When ignition is on EVAP Solenoid PCM Fuel Tank Pressure Engine Sensor Test port
12 Volts When ignition is on
EVAP Solenoid
PCM
Fuel Tank Pressure
Engine
Sensor
Test port
Rollover Valve
Fuel Tank
Charcoal
Canister

Exhaust Gas Recirculation System

(EGR)

  • An EGR system has two important jobs

  • 1. The recirculation system is used to burn un-burns gasses (HC and CO) By recirculation of un-burn gasses lower emissions can be achieved.

  • 2.By Lowering combustion chamber temperature. By lowering combustion chamber temperature NOx emission can be lowered.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation System

(EGR)

EGR Control Solenoid

PCM Controlled Vacuum Line Exhaust Gasses To EGR valve EGR Valve Vacuum source
PCM Controlled
Vacuum Line
Exhaust Gasses
To EGR valve
EGR Valve
Vacuum source

0 Vacuum Gauge Vacuum off throttle Exhaust Gasses
0
Vacuum Gauge
Vacuum
off
throttle
Exhaust Gasses

Exhaust Gasses to Engine

Exhaust Gas Recirculation System

(EGR)

  • Later model vehicles use an electronic EGR value.

  • The PCM is used to control the flow of vacuum to the EGR valve.

  • By controlling vacuum to the EGR valve better exhaust gas metering can be

obtained.

Electronic EGR Valve

PCM EGR Solenoid Intake Throttle Position Sensor
PCM
EGR Solenoid
Intake
Throttle
Position
Sensor

Vacuum present when Solenoid open by PCM



EGR Valve

 EGR Valve Charcoal Canister

Charcoal Canister

  • To better control EGR flow later model vehicles Have begin using digital EGR valves.

  • A digital EGR valve is constructed using 3 EGR valve and 3 Electrical solenoid

Top of Digital EGR Valve

PCM
PCM

12 from ignition

Bottom of Digital EGR valve

Bottom of Digital EGR valve Ports to Intake manifold

Ports to Intake manifold

Emission Quiz

  • 1.Two important job or the EGR valve is

to:

  • A. Increases ignition timing and lower compression ratio.

  • B. Increase HC and CO emissions

  • C. Decrease HC emission and increase ignition timing.

  • D. Recirculation of unburned gasses and lower combustion chamber temperature.

Emission Quiz

2.Technician A says that a PCV valve is

used to remove blow-by from the

crankcase. Technician B says the PCV valve is used to prevent HC from being

vented into the atmosphere. Who is

correct? A Both A and B

C. A only

B. Neither A nor B

D. B only

Emission Quiz

3. Technician A says that the EGR valve should

operate at idle with the engine cold. Technician

A says the EGR flow should increase combustion chamber temperature. Who is correct?

  • A. Technician A only

  • B. Technician B Only

  • C. Both A and B

  • D. Neither A nor B

Emission Quiz

  • 4.Technician A says lower combustion chamber temperature will increase NOx. Technician B says increasing combustion chamber temperature will lower HC. Who is correct.

  • A. Technician A only

  • B. Technician B only

  • C. Both A and B

  • D. Neither A nor B

Emission Quiz

  • 5.Technician A says NOx is not a harmful exhaust emission. Technician A says that O2 is not a harmful exhaust emission. Who is correct?

  • Technician A only

  • Technician B only

  • Both Technician A and B

  • Neither A nor B

Emission Quiz

  • 6. A says a lean misfire can be caused by stuck closed EGR valve.

    • A. True

    • B. False

Emission Quiz

  • 7. Photochemical SMOG is harmful to:

    • A. Humans

    • B. Plants

    • C. Rubber and plastic

    • D. All the Above

Emission Quiz

  • 8. Technician A says the charcoal canister is used to store fuel vapors. Technician B says the charcoal canister vents fuel vapor into the intake manifold. Who is correct?

  • A. Technician A only

  • B. Technician B only

  • C. Both A and B

  • D. Neither A nor B

Emission Quiz

  • 9. Digital EGR valves are controlled.

    • A. Mechanically

    • B. By the PCM

    • C. Both A and B

    • D. Neither A nor B

Emission Quiz

  • 10. Technician A says fuel vapor from the fuel tank should be vented into the atmosphere. Technician B says a defective PCV valve can cause engine oil to become diluted. Who is correct?

    • A. Technician A only

    • C. Both A and B

B. Technician B only D. Neither A nor B

Catalytic Converters

  • In the mid 70s automotive manufacture begin installing catalytic converters to assist in meeting tougher emission standards.

  • A Catalytic is a material that can speed-up chemical action without changing itself.

Catalytic Converters

  • Automotive catalytic converter are made of platinum, palladium and rhodium or a combination of these materials.

  • Platinum and palladium are used to change HC and CO into CO2 and Water.

  • Rhodium acts to reduce NOx emissions

Catalytic Converters

  • Due to enhance emissions standard later model catalytic converters now use cerium to attract and release oxygen inside the converter to aid in the process of changing HC and CO to CO2 and H2o

Catalytic Converters

  • The catalyst agent inside a catalytic converter is either ceramic beads or a honeycomb-shaped

blocks.

  • All catalytic converters are encased in a stainless steal housing.

  • NOTE: stainless steal is used on newer vehicle with catalytic converters because the production

of water will rust traditional exhaust system

medals in only a few years

Catalytic Converters

Catalytic Converter CO2 H2o HC and CO Engine
Catalytic Converter
CO2
H2o
HC and CO
Engine

Exhaust Flow from engine through converter

Catalytic Converters

  • Stainless steal catalytic converter housing are design to resist heat.

  • Before the catalytic converter can operate

an operating temperature of around 300

degrees F must be reached.

Catalytic Converters

  • This is a honey-comb block type catalytic converter.

  • Exhaust gasses flow thru the honey-comb block

Catalytic Converters  This is a honey-comb block type catalytic converter .  Exhaust gasses flow

Catalytic Converters

  • There are a few different types catalytic converters.

    • Monolithic Converter

    • Two way converter

    • Three way converter

    • Dual bed converter

Catalytic Converters

  • Monolithic converter uses a ceramic honey-comb catalytic

  • Small ceramic beads converter are referred to as a pellet type catalytic converter

Catalytic Converters

  • Two way catalytic converters only convert HC and CO

  • With a two way converter NOx is not converted

  • Two way converter are coated with

platinum only

  • Two way converter are sometime referred to as oxidation converters

Catalytic Converters

  • Three way catalytic converters can convert all three exhaust gasses

    • HC

    • CO

    • NOx

Catalytic Converters

  • A three way catalytic converter is usually plated with rhodium and platinum

  • Three way converter are also called

reduction converters.

Catalytic Converters

  • Dual bed catalytic converter is an oxidation and reduction converter built into one unit.

CO,

HC

and

NOx

Catalytic Converters  Dual bed catalytic converter is an oxidation and reduction converter built into one

Mixing Chamber

CO2 and H20

Catalytic Converters

  • Dual bed catalytic converters must be at an operating temperature of 130 degrees F

  • When the engine is cold additional air is forced into the exhaust manifold to aid in the burning and reduction of HC and CO

Catalytic Converters

  • On a warn engine air is forced into the converter to aid in burning exhaust gasses.

  • As exhaust gasses flows iinto the front part of the converter HC,CO and NOx is reduced.

  • As exhaust flow into the mixing chamber additional air is added to continue the burning

process.

  • Exhaust gasses is the passed into the rear part of the converter to reduce HC,CO2 and NOx

ever more.