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Zacharias Jansen1595

He was known as "street seller" who was constantly in

trouble with the local authorities. Invented the first microscope.

Anton van Leewenhoek1668

Came from a family of tradesmen, had no fortune,

received no higher education or university degrees. Succeeded in making some of the most important discoveries in the history of biology.
Discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic

protists, sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and much more.
His research opened up an entire world of microscopic

life to the awareness of scientists.

Leeuwenhoek is known to have made over 500

"microscopes," of which fewer than ten have survived to the present day. Early compound microscopes were not practical for magnifying objects more than about twenty or thirty times natural size; Leeuwenhoek built microscopes that magnified over 200 times, with clearer and brighter images than any of his colleagues could achieve.

Leewenhoeks Microscope

Robert Hooke1678 Relatively little is known about Robert Hooke's life. Was educated at home by his father, entered Westminster School at the age of thirteen, and from there went to Oxford, where some of the best scientists in England were working at the time. Devised the compound microscope, one of the best microscopes of his time.

His most famous microscopic observation was of thin

slices of cork. . . . I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like a Honey-comb, but that the pores of it were not regular. . . . these pores, or cells, . . . Hooke had discovered plant cells -- more precisely, he saw the cell walls in cork tissue. Hooke coined the term "cells": the boxlike cells of cork reminded him of the cells of a monastery.

Thin slices of corkplant cells!

Matthias Schleiden--1838
German botaniststudied plants.
Stated that all plants are composed of cells.

Theodore Schwann1839
German physiologist.
Stated that all animals are composed of cells.

Rudolph Virchow1855

Stated that every cell originated from a preexisting


Cell Theory (Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow)

1. All living organisms are composed

of cells. They may be unicellular or multicellular. 2. The cell is the basic unit of life. 3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells.

Most cell are microscopic, ranging from about 1-100 micrometers in size. Why are cells so small and why do large organisms consist of many cells rather than one large cell?
1. 2.

To quickly get the information inside the cell. To ensure the information is accurate.

Does it take longer to get from the plasma membrane

to the center of the cell in a small cell or a large cell?

Large cell

Is it more efficient to take less time or more time to

pass on information?
Less time

The greater the surface area, the more rapidly

substances can be exchange with the environment. When a cell increases in size, its volume increases more rapidly than its surface area.
Very large cell would exchange materials too slowly to

survive. Many small cells can have the same total volume as one large cell but still enough surface area for rapid changes.

One large cell

Many small cells

Example: whole package of cookie dough

Example: individual cookies