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McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 3

Introduction to Affect and Cognition

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Wheel of Consumer Analysis

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Affect and Cognition as Psychological Responses


Affect and cognition- different types of psychological responses consumers can have in consumer environment
Affect- feeling responses Cognition- mental (thinking) responses

Consumers can have both affective and cognitive responses to any element in the Wheel of Consumer Analysis

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Types of Affective Responses

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The Affective System


Basic characteristics of the affective system are:
The affective system is largely reactive People have little direct control over their affective responses Affective responses are felt physically in the body The system can respond to virtually any type of stimulus Most affective responses are learned
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What is Cognition?
Cognition- broadly refer to the thoughts and meanings produced by the cognitive system, as well as to mental processes such as:
Understanding Evaluating Planning Deciding Thinking

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Functions of Cognitive Systems


Major functions of peoples cognitive systems are:
To interpret, make sense of, and understand significant aspects of their personal experiences To process these interpretations or meanings in carrying out cognitive tasks

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Types of Meanings Created by the Cognitive System

Relationship between the Affective and Cognitive Systems


Differing views among researchers
Affective and cognitive systems are independent Affect is largely influenced by the cognitive system Affect is the dominant system Affective and cognitive systems are highly interdependent

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Relationship between the Affective and Cognitive Systems cont.

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Affect and Cognition-Marketing Implications


Both affect and cognition are important for understanding consumer behavior Affective responses are especially important for so-called feeling products

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Using Metaphors to Communicate Affective and Cognitive Meaning


Metaphors:
Represent one thing in terms of something else Can communicate both cognitive and affective meanings (thoughts and feelings) about a brand or a company Are critical components of effective marketing strategies

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Consumer Decision Making


Consumer decision making involves three important cognitive processes:
Interpretation of relevant information in the environment Combining or integrating this knowledge Retrieving product knowledge from memory to use in integration and interpretation processes

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Cognitive Processes in Consumer Decision Making

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Cognitive Processes in Consumer Decision Making cont.


Consumer decision making involves two cognitive processes:
Interpretation processes require exposure to information and involve two related cognitive processes:
Attention Comprehension

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Cognitive Processes in Consumer Decision Making cont.


Integration processes concern how consumers combine different types of knowledge to:
Form overall evaluations of products, other objects, and behaviors Make choices among alternative behaviors, such as a purchase

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Cognitive Processes in Consumer Decision Making cont.


Product knowledge and involvement
Concern the various types of knowledge, meanings, and beliefs about products that are stored in consumers memories

Product involvement
Consumers knowledge about the personal relevance of the products in their lives

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Cognitive Processes in Consumer Decision Making cont.


Influences on interpretation and integration:
Product knowledge Meanings Beliefs in memory

Additional characteristics of the cognitive system:


Activation is automatic and largely unconscious Operations are unconscious Consumers have little control over spreading activation It has limited capacity Develops automatic processing
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Consumer Decision Making-Marketing Implications


Need to understand how consumers interpret marketing strategies Consumer integration processes critical Activation of product knowledge

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Knowledge Stored in Memory


Types of knowledge
General knowledge of environment and behaviors concerns peoples interpretations of relevant information in their environments
It is stored in memory as propositions It is either episodic or semantic

Procedural knowledge about how to do things


It is stored in memory as a special type of if . . . then . . . proposition that links a concept or an event with an appropriate behavior

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General Knowledge

Procedural Knowledge

Structures of Knowledge
General and procedural knowledge is organized to form structures of knowledge in memory Cognitive systems create associative networks that organize and link many types of knowledge together Part of the knowledge structure may be activated on certain occasions

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Types of Knowledge Structures


Two types of knowledge structures:
Schemas contain mostly episodic and semantic general knowledge Scripts are organized networks of procedural knowledge

Each is an associated network of linked meanings Both can be activated in decision-making situations, and they can influence cognitive processes
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An Associative Network of Knowledge or Schema

Graphic Representation of Eating at a Fast-Food Restaurant

Hypothetical Script of Appropriate Procedures for Dining

Types of Knowledge StructuresMarketing Implications


To understand consumers behavior, marketers need to know the product knowledge consumers have acquired and stored in memory Marketers may need information on:
Contents of consumers product schemas or shopping scripts Types of knowledge likely to be activated by particular marketing strategies

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Cognitive Learning
Cognitive learning occurs when people interpret information in the environment and create new knowledge or meaning This can occur in three ways:
Direct personal use experience Vicarious product experiences Interpret product-related information

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Three Types of Cognitive Learning

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Types of Cognitive Learning


Interpreting information about products and services can result in three types or levels of cognitive learning:
Accretion Tuning Restructuring

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Cognitive LearningMarketing Implications


Marketers often:
Present simple informational claims about their products Hope that consumers will accurately interpret the information and add this knowledge to their knowledge structures

Marketers may:
Sometimes try to stimulate consumers to tune their knowledge structures Rarely encourage consumers to restructure their knowledge
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Summary
Important internal factors of affect and cognition and the affective and cognitive systems were introduced Identified four types of affective responses Described the cognitive system and the various types of meanings it constructs Emphasized that the two systems are highly interrelated and the respective outputs of each can elicit responses from the other Presented a model of the cognitive process involved in consumer decision making
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Summary cont.
Discussed the content and organization of knowledge as associate networks or knowledge structures Described how meaning concepts are linked together to form propositions and productions that represent general knowledge and procedural knowledge Described two types of knowledge structuresschemas and scripts
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