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Worldwide Interoperability

for
Microwave Access
( Wi - MAX)

D C Sonkhla,
SDE Computer, BRBRAITT
Introduction

WiMax: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave


Access. Wi-MAXis a wireless industry coalition whose
members organized to promote IEEE 802.16
standards for Broadband Wireless Access (BWA)
networks. Wi-MAX 802.16 technology is expected to
enable multimedia applications with wireless
connection and enable networks to have a wireless last
mile solution. IEEE 802.16 covers the Fixed Wireless
Access technologies (known as LMDS) with radio
from 10 to 66 GHz.
Oct 22, 2008 2
Introduction

The Wi-MAX certification mark is


given to product that pass
conformity and interoperability
test for the IEEE 802-16
standard which caters for the Air
interface standard for point-to-
multipoint broad-band Internet
access over a wireless
connection.
Oct 22, 2008 3
Introduction

Wi-MAX is an acronym that stands for


World-wide Interoperability for Microwave
Access.
It is an ideal method for ISP to deliver high
speed broadband to locations where wired
connections would be difficult or costly.
Wi-MAX delivers a point-to-multipoint
architecture.
It doesn't require a direct line of sight
between the source and endpoint and it
has a service range of 50 Kms.
It provides a shared data rate of up to 70
Mbps, which is enough to service up to a
thousand homes with high-speed access.
Oct 22, 2008 4
Advantages of Wi-MAX

High speed of broadband service


upto 70 Mbps.
Wireless rather than wired access,
so that it would be a lot less
expensive than cable or Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL) and much
easier to extend to suburban and
rural areas.
Broad coverage like the cell phone
network instead of small Wi-Fi
hotspots , 50 Kms.
Oct 22, 2008 5
Wi-MAX standards

IEEE 802.16-2004 is for fixed point-to-point


and point-to-multipoint wireless access. It is
akin to a faster, airborne version of Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable-modem
services, It is also called first Non Line of Sight
(NLOS), Broad-Band Wireless access (BWA)
standard.
IEEE 802.16e is for mobile wireless access
from laptops and hand held. It is analogous to a
faster version of third-generation (3G)
telecommunications technology. (Wi-Max
proponent Intel Corp. has promised 802.16e-
enabled laptops by early 2007)
True roaming cell-like wireless broadband , is
IEEE standard 802.20, which is compatible
with Wi-MAX.

Oct 22, 2008 6


Working of Wi-MAX

Wi-MAX operates similar to Wi-Fi but at


higher speeds, over greater distances and
for a greater number of users. It consists
of following two parts:
b. A Wi-MAX tower, similar in concept to a
cell-phone tower, and which can provide
coverage to a very large area as big as
3,000 square miles (~8,000 square km).
c. A Wi-MAX receiver, and antenna could be
like a PCMCIA (Personal Computer
Memory Card International Association)
card, or they could be built into a laptop
similar to Wi-Fi access.

Oct 22, 2008 7


Working of Wi-MAX

It can provide two forms of wireless service:


The non-line-of-sight, Wi-Fi sort of service,
where a small antenna on your computer
connects to the tower. In this mode, Wi-
MAX uses a lower frequency range - 2 GHz
to 11 GHz (similar to Wi-Fi). As lower-
wavelength transmissions are not as
easily disrupted by physical obstructions
they provided non line of sight coverage.
The line-of-sight service, where a fixed
dish antenna points straight at the Wi-
MAX tower from a rooftop or pole. The
line-of-sight connection is stronger and
more stable, so it is able to send a lot of
data with fewer errors. Line-of-sight
transmissions use higher frequencies,
with ranges reaching a possible 66 GHz. At
higher frequencies, there is less
Oct 22, 2008 interference and lots more bandwidth as 8
Fig 1
Oct 22, 2008 9
Working of Wi-MAX

Wi-MAX operates on the same general


principles as Wi-Fi.
A typical Wi-MAX network sends data from one
computer to another via radio signals.
A computer (either a desktop or a laptop)
equipped with Wi-MAX would receive data from
the Wi-MAX transmitting station, using
encrypted data keys to prevent unauthorized
users from stealing access.
The fastest Wi-Fi connection can transmit up to
54 megabits per second under optimal
conditions.
Wi-MAX should be able to handle up to 70
megabits per second. Even once those 70
megabits is split up between several dozen
businesses or a few hundred home users, it will
provide at least the equivalent of cable-modem
Oct 22, 2008 transfer rates to each user. 10
Working of Wi-MAX

The Wi-MAX protocol is a way of


networking computers together Wi-MAX
does not conflict with Wi-Fi.
It is designed to interoperate with Wi-Fi
and may indeed complement it.
This complementarity to Wi-Fi also extends
to all flavors of wired Ethernet (IEEE 802.3
), token ring (IEEE 802.5) and non-IEEE
standards that use the same Logical Link
Control (LLC) including Fiber Distribution
Data Interface (FDDI) and cable modem
Data Over Cable Service Interface
Specification (DOCSIS).

Oct 22, 2008 11


Technical Advantage of Wi-MAX

IEEE 802.16 networks use the same Logical Link


Controller (standardized by IEEE 802.2) as other
LANs and WANs.
It can be both bridged and routed to them.
Wi-MAX is a wireless Metropolitan Area Network
(MAN) technology that can connect IEEE 802.2
(Wi-Fi) hotspots to the Internet and provide a
wireless extension to cable and DSL for last
mile (last km) broadband access.
IEEE 802.16 provides up to 50 kms (31 miles) of
linear service area range and allows users
connectivity without a direct line of sight to a
base station.
Note that this should not be taken to mean that
users 50 kms (31 miles) away without line of
sight will have connectivity.

Oct 22, 2008 12


Technical Advantage of Wi-MAX

The technology also provides shared data


rates up to 70 Mbps, which, according to
Wi-MAX proponents, is enough bandwidth
to simultaneously support more than 60
businesses with T1-type connectivity and
well over a thousand homes at 1Mbps DSL-
level connectivity.
An important aspect of the IEEE 802.16 is
that it defines a MAC layer that supports
multiple Physical Layer (PHY)
specifications .
The MAC is significantly different from that
of Wi-Fi (and Ethernet from which Wi-Fi is
derived).
Oct 22, 2008 13
Technical Advantage of Wi-MAX

In Wi-Fi, the Ethernet uses contention


access: all subscriber stations wishing to
pass data through an access point are
competing for the Access Points (AP's),
attention on a random basis.
This can cause distant nodes from the
Access Point (AP) to be repeatedly
interrupted by less sensitive, closer nodes,
greatly reducing their throughput.
By contrast, the 802.16 MAC is a scheduling
MAC where the subscriber station only has
to compete once (for initial entry into the
network).
After that it is allocated a time slot by the
base station.
Oct 22, 2008 14
Technical Advantage of Wi-MAX

The time slot can enlarge and constrict,


but it remains assigned to the subscriber
station meaning that other subscribers are
not supposed to use it but take their turn.
This scheduling algorithm is stable under
overload and over subscription (unlike
802.11).
It is also much more bandwidth efficient.
The scheduling algorithm also allows the
base station to control Quality of Service
(QoS) by balancing the assignments among
the needs of the subscriber stations.

Oct 22, 2008 15


Technical Advantage of Wi-MAX

The Wi-MAX outdistances Wi-Fi by


miles. Wi-Fi's range is about 100
feet (30 metres). Wi-MAX will
blanket a radius of 30 miles (50
kms) with wireless access.
The increased range is due to the
frequencies used and the power of
the transmitter.
Wi-MAX is both faster and has a
longer range than Wi-Fi. However,
Wi-MAX does not necessarily
conflict with Wi-Fi but is designed
to interoperate with it and may
Oct 22, 2008 indeed complement it. 16
Wi-MAX (IEEE 802.16) Specifications

Range: 30 miles (50-kms) radius


from base station.
Speed: 70 Mbps.
Line-of-sight not needed between
user and base station.
Frequency bands: 2 to 11 GHz and
10 to 66 GHz (licensed and
unlicensed bands).
Defines both the MAC and PHY
layers and allows multiple PHY-
layer specifications.
Oct 22, 2008 17
Network Scale

The smallest-scale network is a Personal


Area Network (PAN).
A PAN allows devices to communicate with
each other over short distances. Bluetooth
is the best example of a PAN.
The next step up is a Local Area Network
(LAN). A LAN allows devices to share
information, but is limited to a fairly small
central area, such as a company's
headquarters, a coffee shop or your house.
E.g. Wi-Fi to connect the network
wirelessly.
Wi-MAX is the wireless solution for the
next step up in scale, the Metropolitan
Area Network (MAN).
A MAN allows areas the size of cities to be
connected. (Figure 2)
Oct 22, 2008 18
Figure -2: The Network Scale

Oct 22, 2008 19


Standards

The current 802.16 standard is IEEE Std 802.16-


2004. It renders the previous (and 1st) version
802.16-2001 obsolete, along with its
amendments 802.16a and 802.16c.IEEE Std
802.16-2004 addresses only fixed systems.
802.16-2004: IEEE Standard for Local and
Metropolitan Area Networks Part 16 -- Air Interface for
Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems
802.16.2-2004: IEEE Recommended Practice for
Local and Metropolitan Area Networks -- Coexistence
of Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems.
802.16-2001 obsolete by 802.16-2004.
802.16a amendment, obsolete by 802.16-2004.
802.16c amendment, obsolete by 802.16-2004.
802.16e in progress, adds mobility to the standard.

Oct 22, 2008 20


Standards

An amendment to the standards,


802.16e, and addressing mobility
was concluded in 2005.
This is some times called “Mobile
Wi-MAX”, and should not be
confused with 802.20, the planned
standards for “Mobile Broadband
Wireless Access (MBWA)” itself
probably some years away.

Oct 22, 2008 21


The Wi-MAX Difference

Wi-MAX promises to provide high-speed


wireless connectivity more simply and
cost-effectively than current cellular
technologies, and it offers the scalability
to deliver affordable broadband access
across India.
Because its wireless infrastructure can be
extended to provide portable and mobile
device support in the future, Wi-MAX has
additional advantages for developing
economies such as that of India, that don’t
have widespread broadband infrastructure
already in place.
By leapfrogging to the latest technology,
they gain not only the best broadband
connectivity when in a fixed environment,
but also the potential to easily add fully
mobile high-speed data connectivity in the
Oct 22, 2008 future. 22
The Wi-MAX Difference

Because Wi-MAX is standards-based, it can


enable economies of scale that will bring
down the cost of broadband access and
ensure interoperability while increasing
ease of implementation.
Without standards, proprietary equipment
manufacturers provide the entire stack of
hardware and software building blocks,
and restrictive licensing can drive up costs.
For the service provider, standards-based
products with fewer variants and larger
volume production will drive the cost of
equipment down.

Oct 22, 2008 23


The Wi-MAX Difference

Competition among vendors will also lower


equipment costs, because service
providers will be able to buy from many
sources and shop for the best price.
For consumers, wireless products will be
differentiated by the service, not the
technology, and thus the consumer will
benefit from a variety of competitive and
cost-effective solutions that match their
communication needs.
Table 1 depicts the throughput comparison
between other cellular technologies and
Wi-MAX.
Wi-MAX delivers greater throughput and
greater scalability to meet consumer’s
needs.
Oct 22, 2008 24
Table1. Comparison of cellular
technologies and Wi-MAX

Cellular Wi-MAX
Metric 1xEVDO 802.16- 802.16
Edge HSPDA
2004 e
Technoloy
Familyand
TDMA
Modulation GMSK
and 8-
PSK

Oct 22, 2008 25


Oct 22, 2008 26
The Wi-MAX Difference

Wi-MAX suits India’s broadband requirement


because, there is no comprehensive wired
communications infrastructure in place today.
Wired broadband technologies like Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL) connectivity can reach
only about 5 Kms (~ 3 miles) from the central
office switches, making them an expensive and
unrealistic option to reach the rural and remote
areas of India.
Planning and expanding the wired “last-mile”
solution is a challenge in these areas.
In new localities, it is a challenge for
telecommunications operators to estimate
physical wiring infrastructure needed for future
growth, and maintenance and upgrading may
necessitate excavating the earth to lay many
Kms/miles of extra cables.
Both add significant operational costs.

Oct 22, 2008 27


The Wi-MAX Difference

Cable broadband service is another


wired last-mile solution.
Most cable broadband services in
India offer just 64 Kbps of
connectivity.
This is not significantly faster than
a dial-up connection and does little
to improve the Internet user
experience.
There is also no consistent
infrastructure quality or
organization and local Internet
service providers, so Internet users
Oct 22, 2008
don’t experience consistent Quality 28
Evolution of Wi-MAX

The first phase of Wi-MAX technology


(based on IEEE 802.16-2004) is providing
fixed wireless connections via outdoor
antennae from the first half of 2005.
In the second half of 2005, Wi-MAX is
available for indoor installation, with
smaller antennae similar to a Wi-Fi access
point today.
In this fixed indoor model, Wi-MAX is
available for use in wide consumer
residential broadband deployments, as
these devices become "user installable,"
lowering installation costs for carriers.
By 2006, the technology will be integrated
into mobile computers to support roaming
between Wi-MAX service areas.
Figure 3 depicts the evolution of Wi-MAX.
Oct 22, 2008 29
Figure -3: Evolution of Wi-MAX

Oct 22, 2008 30


Advantages of Wi-MAX

The broad band Internet access has


biggest limitation of last mile solution and
higher data rate.
The presently available technologies like
Wi-Fi does not provides sufficient band
width coverage is very limited roaming ,
backhaul, interference and security are
also its limitations.
Wi-MAX has been evolved takes care all
these limitations.
The coverage area of one site is very large
the coverage radius is 50Kms as compare
to Wi-Fi which requires 650 access points
to cover 10 Sq Km area.
The bandwidth of 70 Mbps is good enough
to cater hundreds of home users.
Roaming and mobility is available, security
Oct 22, 2008
features are better that Wi-Fi. 31
Advantages of Wi-MAX

The Wi-MAX standard offers a great deal of


design flexibility including support for
licensed and license-exempted frequency
bands, channel widths ranging from 1.5
MHz to 20 MHz, per-connection Quality of
Service (QoS) and strong security
primitives.
802.16 is optimized to deliver high, bursty
data rates to the subscriber but the
sophisticated Medium Access Control
(MAC) architecture can simultaneously
support real-time multimedia and
isochronous applications such as Voice
over IP as well.
This means that Wi-MAX is uniquely
positioned to support applications
requiring advanced QOS, such as Internet
telephony & streaming video.
Oct 22, 2008 32
Indian Scenario of Wi-MAX Role out

In India, WebSky has created a joint


venture with World-Wide Wireless India
(WWWI) to design, build and run a network
that could address 75m people.
WebSky will provide the funding and will
construct the system while WWWI will
contribute its licensed frequencies in
3.5GHz spectrum, which cover nine large
cities, including Mumbai (Bombay), Delhi,
Calcutta, Chennai (Madras), Bangalore and
Hyderabad.
The first build-out will occur in the city of
Ludhiana, in the Punjab.
Also in India, telecom giant Bharat Sanchar
Nigam Limited (BSNL) has announced
plans to roll out Wi-MAX and Wi-Fi services
in 10 major cities, including Hyderabad,
Pune, Ahemdabad and Bangalore.The
installation and commissioning of Wi-Fi
Oct 22, 2008
and Wi-MAX certified equipment of BSNL is
under progress and will be rolled out 33
Indian Scenario of Wi-MAX Role out

It will build 400 to 500 Wi-Fi hotspots, in


the first phase, at public locations such as
airports, hotels, universities and hospitals,
and will use Wi-MAX for backhaul and for
some last mile services, complementing its
existing fixed, mobile and internet services
across India.
On trial basis BSNL has deployed Cambridge
Broadband’s Vectastar Equipment in
Gurgoan near Delhi.
Its CPEs are multi frequency and multi
sector.
Vectastar’s technology product is used for
both access and transmission with the
network combining IP based access services
with the backhaul of traffic from GSM, 3G,
Oct 22, 2008
Wi-Fi and Wi-MAX base stations. 34
Indian Scenario of Wi-MAX Role out

French telecom major Alcatel has joined


hands in an agreement with the Centre for
Development of Telematics (CDoT) to set
up a global research and development
centre in India for broadband wireless
products.
The joint venture facility, to be established
in Chennai, will employ 1,000 people and
initially work on Wi-MAX technology.
Alcatel believes that broadband wireless
and particularly Wi-MAX is appropriate
technology for India keeping in mind the
requirements of the rural sector.

Oct 22, 2008 35


Indian Scenario of Wi-MAX Role out

Tokyo is having the first major


deployment of a Wi-MAX Metropolitan Area
Network (MAN) in the world .
The Yozan MetroZone will deliver high
speed IP connectivity with support for
voice, video and broadband data services.
Airspan Networks and partner Yozan has
commenced trials in the second quarter of
2005 and the commercial rollout has
begun from the fourth quarter of the year.
The contract is valued in excess of $12
million. This is a just a sample of how big
the market for Wi-MAX technologies can be
in India.

Oct 22, 2008 36


Abbreviations

1. LAN: Local Area Network.


2. AP: Access Point.
3. EP: Extension Point .
4. ISM: Industrial Scientific & Medical
5. MAC: Media Access Control.
6. CSMA/CA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Avoidance.
7. DSL: Digital Subscriber Line .
8. IEEE: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
9. OSI: Open systems Interconnect.
10. PCMCIA: Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association.
11. NLOS: Non Line of Sight .
12. BWA: Broadband Wireless access
13.C-DoT: Centre for Development of Telematics.
14.LLC: Logical Link Control.
15. DOCSIS:Data over Cable Service Interface Specification.
16. PAN: Personel Area Network.
17. WWWI: Worl-Wide Wireless India.

Oct 22, 2008 37


References

1. Article in PC Quest Magazine July 2004 issue.


2. Article in Telecommunications Nov-Dec 2005 issue.
3. Technical article at internet site: http://www.Wi-MAXforum.org.
4. Technical article at internet site: www.proxim.com

Oct 22, 2008 38


Introduction

IEEE 802.16a covers the Fixed Wireless Access


technologies (known as WIP) with radio under
10GHz. Frequency bands covered are: 2.4 & 5.8
GHz (both unlicensed) and 2.5 (MMDS) & 3.5 GHz
(both licensed). IEEE802.16d adds some
modifications to 802.16a in order to address full
indoor CPEs market. IEEE 802.16e is supposed to
add limited mobility to 802.16a in the future.

Oct 22, 2008 39


Introduction

Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) has been serving


enterprises and operators for years. IP-based
standard developed by the IEEE 802.16 has
accelerated the adoption of the technology with the
scope and the possibility of operating in unlicensed
frequency bands, unique performance under Non-
Line-of-Sight (NLOS) conditions, Quality of Service
(QoS) awareness, extension to mobility etc.

Oct 22, 2008 40


Introduction

Wi-MAX forum, backed by industry leaders, has


encouraged the widespread adoption of broadband
wireless access by establishing a brand for the
technology and pushing interoperability between
products.
The Wi-MAX Forum offers a means of testing
manufacturer's equipment for compatibility, as well
as an industry group dedicated to fostering the
development and commercialization of the
technology.
Oct 22, 2008 41
Definition

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave


Access (Wi-MAX) is the common name
associated to the IEEE 802.16a/REVd/e
standards.
These standards are issued by the IEEE 802.16
subgroup that originally covered the Wireless
Local Loop technologies with radio spectrum
from 10 to 66 GHz.

Oct 22, 2008 42


Definition

Wi-MAX has been dubbed “Wi-Fi on steroids”


and is governed by IEEE 802.16. Wi-MAX stands
for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access.
Wi-MAX is a wireless digital communications
system, also known as IEEE 802.16, that is
intended for wireless "metropolitan area
networks". Wi-MAX can provide broadband
wireless access (BWA) up to 50 km for fixed
stations, and 5 - 15 km for mobile stations.
Oct 22, 2008 43
Definition
Wi-MAX is a single wireless technology that can: -
• Bridge the digital divide by delivering broadband in
low-density areas,
• Connect enterprises and residential users in urban
and suburban environments where access to copper
plant is difficult,
• Make portable Internet a reality by extending public
WLAN hotspots to city hot zones,
• Further expand hot zones to metropolitan area
coverage for mobile data-centric service delivery.
Oct 22, 2008 44
Definition

Wi-MAX is state-of-the-art radio technology, offers


Broadband wireless access at data rates of several
tens of Mbit/s (up to 75 Mbit/s per base station) and
within a range of several tens of kilometers (up to
50 km). This same radio technology offers high-
speed data services to all nomadic terminals at a
better cost.
Wi-MAX incorporates Quality of Service elements
to offer multimedia services, including voice

Oct 22, 2008 45


Standards associated to Wi-MAX

IEEE 802.16 (2001)


Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access
System MAC and PHY Specifications for 10 – 66
GHZ (LOS)
One PHY: Single Carrier
Connection-oriented, TDM/TDMA MAC, QoS,
Privacy

Oct 22, 2008 46


Standards associated to Wi-MAX

IEEE 802.16a (January 2003)


In January 2003, the IEEE approved 802.16a as an
amendment to IEEE 802.16- 2001, defining (Near)
Line-Of- Sight capability,
MAC Modifications and Additional PHY
Specifications for 2 – 11 GHz (NLOS)
Three PHYs: OFDM, OFDMA, Single Carrier
Additional MAC functions: OFDM and OFDMA
PHY support, Mesh topology support, ARQ
Oct 22, 2008 47
Standards associated to Wi-MAX

IEEE 802.16d (July 2004)


Mid-2004, IEEE 802.16REVd, which should be
published under the name IEEE 802.16-2004, will
introduce support for indoor CPE (NLOS) and
nomadicity through additional radio capabilities
such as antenna beam forming and OFDM sub-
channeling,
Combines both IEEE 802.16 and 802.16a
Some modifications to the MAC and PHY
Oct 22, 2008 48
Standards associated to Wi-MAX

IEEE 802.16e (2005?)


Early 2005, an IEEE 802.16e variant will
introduce support for mobility.
Amendment to 802.16-2004
MAC Modifications for limited mobility.

Oct 22, 2008 49


Protocol

Oct 22, 2008 50


Protocol

IEEE 802.16 MAC – Highlights


Wireless MAN: Point-to-Multipoint and optional
mesh topology
Connection-oriented
Multiple Access: DL TDM & TDMA, UL TDMA;UL
OFDMA & TDMA, DL OFDMA & TDMA
(Optional)

Oct 22, 2008 51


Protocol

PHY considerations that affect the MAC


Duplex: TDD, FDD, FDX FDD BS and SS, HDX
FDD SS
Adaptive burst profiles (Modulation and FEC) on
both DL and UL
Protocol-independent core (ATM, IP, Ethernet)
Flexible QoS offering (CBR, rt-VBR, nrt-VBR, BE)
Strong security support
Oct 22, 2008 52
IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction

Coverage range up to 50km and speeds up to 70Mbps (shared


among users).

Oct 22, 2008 53


IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction

Oct 22, 2008 54


IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– MAC PDU Concatenation

Multiple MAC PDUs are concatenated into the same PHY burst

MAC PDU 1 MAC PDU 2 MAC PDU k


MAC PDU
HT MAC PDU Payload CRC HT MAC PDU Payload CRC ...... HT
Payload
CRC

FEC block 1 FEC Block 2 FEC Block 3


...... FEC block m
FEC

OFDM OFDM OFDM


PHY Burst Preamble symbol symbol ...... symbol
(e.g., TDMA burst) 1 2 n

Oct 22, 2008 55


IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– MAC PDU Fragmentation

A MAC SDU can be fragmented into multiple segments, each


segment is encapsulated into one MAC PDU

Fragmentation MAC SDU


Sub-Header
(8 bits)
MAC SDU MAC SDU MAC SDU
seg-1 seg-2 seg-3
F F
MAC PDU MAC PDU
F HT S CRC HT S CRC
Payload Payload
HT S MAC PDU Payload CRC H H
H

FEC FEC block ...... FEC Block FEC block ...... FEC Block
1 m1 1 m2

OFDM OFDM OFDM OFDM


Pre. symbol ...... symbol Pre. symbol ...... symbol
1 n1 1 n2

PHY Burst PHY Burst

Oct 22, 2008 56


IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– MAC PDU Packing

Packing with fixed size MAC SDUs (no packing sub-header is needed)

MAC MAC MAC Fixed size MSDUs, e.g., ATM


...... Cells, on the same connection
SDU 1 SDU 2 SDU k

HT MAC PDU Payload CRC

Packing with variable size MAC SDUs (Packing Sub-Heade is neeeded)


Variable size
MSDUs or MSDU
MAC SDU or MAC SDU or segments, e.g.,
Packing seg. 1 MAC SDU or seg 2
seg n IP packets, on
Sub-Heder
the same
(16 bits)
connection

HT PSH PSH ...... PSH CRC

Oct 22, 2008 57


IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
QoS

Three components of 802.16 QoS


Service flow QoS scheduling
Dynamic service establishment
Two-phase activation model (admit first, then
activate)
Service Flow
A unidirectional MAC-layer transport service
characterized by a set of QoS parameters,
e.g., latency, jitter, and throughput
assurances
Identified by a 32-bit SFID (Service Flow ID)
Three types of service flows
Provisioned: controlled by network
management system
Admitted: the required resources reserved by
BS, but not active
Active: the required resources committed by
the BS
Oct 22, 2008 58
IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– Uplink Service Classes

UGS: Unsolicited Grant


Services
rtPS: Real-time Polling
Services
nrtPS: Non-real-time Polling
Services
BE: Best Effort

Oct 22, 2008 59


IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– Uplink Services: UGS

UGS: Unsolicited Grant


Services
For CBR or CBR-like
services, e.g., T1/E1.
The BS scheduler offers
fixed size UL BW grants on a
real-time periodic basis.
The SS does not need to
send any explicit UL BW req.
Oct 22, 2008 60
IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– Uplink Services: rtPS

rtPS: Real-time Polling


Services
For rt-VBR-like services, e.g.,
MPEG video.
The BS scheduler offers real-
time, periodic, UL BW request
opportunities.
The SS uses the offered UL BW
req. opportunity to specify the
desired UL BW grant.
The SS cannot use contention-
based BW req.
Oct 22, 2008 61
IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– Uplink Services: nrtPS

nrtPS: non-real-time polling


services
For nrt-VBR-like services, such
as, bandwidth-intensive file
transfer.
The BS scheduler shall provide
timely (on a order of a second or
less) UL BW request
opportunities.
The SS can use contention-based
BW req. opportunities to send BW
Oct 22, 2008 req. 62
IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– Uplink Services: BE

BE: Best Effort


For best-effort traffic, e.g.,
HTTP, SMTP.
The SS uses the contention-
based BW request
opportunities.

Oct 22, 2008 63


IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– Bandwidth Grant

BW grants are per Subscriber Station:


Allows real­time reaction to QoS need, i.e., SS may re­
distribute bandwidth among its connections, maintaining QoS 
and service­level agreements 
Lower overhead, i.e., less UL­MAP entries compare to grant 
per connection
Off­ loading base station’s work 
Requires intelligent subscriber station to redistribute the 
allocated BW among connections

Oct 22, 2008 64


IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– BW Request/Grant Mechanisms

Implicit requests (UGS): No actual requests


BW request messages, i.e., BW req. header
Sends in either a contention­based BW req. slot 
or a regular UL allocation for the SS;he special B
Requests up to 32 KB with a single message 
Request
Incremental or aggregate, as indicated by MAC 
header– 
Piggybacked request (for non-UGS services only)
Presented in Grant Management (GM) sub­
header in a data MAC PDU of the same UL 
connection
is always incremental 
Up to 32 KB per request for the CID 
Poll-Me bit
Oct 22, 2008 Presented in the GM sub­header on a UGS  65
connection
IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
-- Contention UL Access

Two types of Contention based UL slots


Initial Ranging
Used for new SS to join the system
Requires a long preamble
BW Request
Used for sending BW req
Short preamble
Collision Detection and Resolution
Detection: SS does not get the expected response in a
given time
Resolution: a truncated binary exponential backoff
window

Oct 22, 2008 66


IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
UL Sub-Frame Structure

Source: http://www.cygnuscom.com/pdf/WP_PN_Article.pdf
Oct 22, 2008 67
IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– Ranging

Ranging is a process of acquiring the


correct timing offset, and PHY
parameters, such as, Tx power level,
frequency offset, etc. so that the SS
can communicate with the BS correctly.
BS performs measurements and
feedback.
SS performs necessary adjustments.
Two types of Ranging:
Initial ranging: for a new SS to join
the system
Periodic ranging (also called
maintenance ranging): dynamically
maintain a good RF link.

Oct 22, 2008 68


IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS
– Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)

A Layer-2 sliding-window based flow


control mechanism.
Per connection basis.
Only effective to non-real-time
applications.
Uses a 11-bit sequence number field.
Uses CRC-32 checksum of MAC PDU to
check data errors.
Maintain the same fragmentation
structure for Retransmission.
Optional.

Oct 22, 2008 69


IEEE 802.16 MAC
– Privacy Sub-layer (PS)

Two Major Functions:


Secures over-the-air
transmissions
Protects from theft of service
Two component protocols:
Data encryption protocol
A client/server model based Key
management protocol (Privacy
Key Management, or PKM)

Oct 22, 2008 70


IEEE 802.16 MAC – PS
-- Security Associations

A set of privacy information, e.g.,


encryption keys, used encryption
algorithm
Three types of Security Associations
(SAs)
Primary SA: established during initial
registration
Static SA: provisioned within the BS
Dynamic SA: dynamically created on the
fly
Identified by a 16-bit SAID
Connections are mapped to SAs
Oct 22, 2008 71
IEEE 802.16 MAC – PS
-- Multi-level Keys and Their Usage

Public Key
Contained in X.509 digital certificate
Issued by SS manufacturers
Used to encrypt AK
Authorization Key (AK)
Provided by BS to SS at authorization
Used to derive KEK
Key Encryption Key (KEK)
Derived from AK
Used to encrypt TEK
Traffic Encryption Key (TEK)
Provided by BS to SS at key exchange
Used to encrypt traffic data payload
Oct 22, 2008 72
IEEE 802.16 MAC – PS
-- Data Encryption

Use DES (Data Encryption Standard)


in CBC (Cipher Block Chaining) mode
with IV (Initialization Vector).
CBC IV is calculated from
IV parameter in TEK keying info;
and
PHY synchronization field in DL-
MAP.
Only MAC PDU payload (including
sub-headers) is encrypted.
MAC PDU headers are unencrypted.
Management messages are
unencrypted.

Oct 22, 2008 73


References

IEEE802.16-2004
Alcatel White Paper: WiMAX, making
ubiquitous high-speed data services a
reality
Intel White Paper: Understanding
WiMAX and 3G for Portable/Mobile
Broadband Wireless
WiMAX Forum: www.wimaxforum.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMax

Oct 22, 2008 74


IEEE 802.16 MAC – commonly used terms

BS – Base Station
SS – Subscriber Station, (i.e., CPE)
DL – Downlink, i.e. from BS to SS
UL – Uplink, i.e. from SS to BS
FDD – Frequency Division Duplex
TDD – Time Division Duplex
TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access
TDM – Time Division Multiplexing
OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing
OFDMA - Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiple Access
QoS – Quality of Service

Oct 22, 2008 75


Application

There are two main applications of Wi-MAX


• fixed Wi-MAX applications are point-to-
multipoint enabling broadband access to
homes and businesses
• Mobile Wi-MAX offers the full mobility of
cellular networks at true broadband speeds.
Both fixed and mobile applications of Wi-
MAXare engineered to help deliver
ubiquitous, high-throughput broadband
wireless services at a low cost. .

Oct 22, 2008 76


Application

Mobile Wi-MAX is based on OFDMA (Orthogonal


Frequency Division Multiple Access) technology
which has inherent advantages in throughput,
latency, spectral efficiency, and advanced antennae
support; ultimately enabling it to provide higher
performance than today's wide area wireless
technologies. Furthermore, many next generation 4G
wireless technologies may evolve towards OFDMA
and all IP-based networks as an ideal for delivering
cost-effective wireless data services
Oct 22, 2008 77
Advantages

Wi-MAX can effectively be used for point-to-point


backhaul over long distances (up to 30 Miles).
Unobstructed, Wi-MAX can span many miles and
cover wide areas (up to 30 Miles). 4-6 Miles in non
line-of-site applications vs. 150-300 ft for Wi-Fi.
This makes it suitable for entire cities and allows
development of Metropolitan Area Networks
(MANs) versus Local Area Networks for Wi-Fi.

Oct 22, 2008 78


Advantages

Wi-MAX promises to be internationally standardized,


facilitating large production runs by multiple suppliers,
bringing down equipment pricing.
Wi-MAX has a higher speed than Wi-Fi and, depending
on bandwidth availability, may produce data
transmissions of up to 70 Mbps vs. 54 for Wi-Fi.

Oct 22, 2008 79


Advantages

Wi-MAX can be used in both Line-of-Sight


(LOS), for back-haul applications (up to 30 miles
under ideal conditions), and non-LOS network
access applications.
Wi-MAX can be used to connect multiple
network hot spots, and provide last-mile
connectivity directly to the home or business.
Wi-MAXcan use licensed or unlicensed spectrum.

Oct 22, 2008 80


Advantages

Wi-MAX is symmetrical in most cases providing


the same throughput upstream and downstream
Since Wi-MAX does not use the Medium Voltage
power lines for transport, the Radio Frequency
Interference caused by signal transport over the
Medium Voltage system.

Oct 22, 2008 81


WiMax Management Information Base
(MIB).

Oct 22, 2008 82


WiMAX Mission Statement

The purpose of WiMAX is to promote deployment


of broadband wireless access networks by using a
global standard and certifying interoperability of
products and technologies

Writing test specs


Qualifying test labs
Certifying products
WiMAX is the next revolutionary technology after WiFi
Focus on interoperability
Oct 22, 2008 84
IEEE 802.16a/d/e

IEEE 802.16a – A Fixed Wireless Access standard


PtMP, connection oriented MAC layer
Three Physical layers: OFDM, OFDMA and Single
Carrier
Approved in April 2003
IEEE 802.16d – now called IEEE 802.16-2004
Approved in July 2004
Focused on fixed applications
Consolidates all amendments and base standard for
WiMAX
IEEE 802.16e – A Mobile Wireless Access standard
Incorporate features and protocols needed for
portability/mobility
Modes added to enhance portability/mobility
performance
• HIPERMAN – the
Expect final parallel H105
approval ETSI effort
• Identical to 802.16a and 802.16d, except:
• Only OFDM PHY
Oct 22, 2008 85
WiMAX Vision: Broadband Everywhere

3 1
2
FRACTIONAL RESIDENTIAL &
BACKHAUL for
T1 for SMALL SoHo DSL LEVEL
BUSINESS HOTSPOTS
Mobile
Backhaul SERVICE 4
WMAN Nomadic
T1+ LEVEL 802.16 802.1 Coverage -->
SERVICE d 6d handoff fromH HOT
ENTERPRISE H SPOTS
H

H H
H
H H
H
802.1
6e 5 = wide area
coverage outside of
Hot Spots
INTERNET
BACKBONE
BWA Operator
Network Backbone Mobility
Oct 22, 2008 86
Salient features of BSNL WI-
MAX
WIMAX IN 10 CITIES-
KOLKATA, CHENNA, HYDERABAD, BANGLORE
AHMEDABAD, PUNE, HISSAR, ROHTA, PINJORE
and KARNAL
150 TYPE 1 CPEs.(3 RJ 45)
VENDOR-MOTOROLA, APERTO TECNOLOGY
FREQ. ALLOTTED- 2 FDD SPOTS OF 3.5 MHz.
FOUR SECTORS
7.5MBPS*4 = 30 MBPS TOTAL NET THROUGHPUT
BS CAPACITY-1000CPE,50 SUBSCRIBER/CPE
MODEL-PM 5000 BS,PM 300i CPE.
BS IS WIMAX CERTIFIED
Oct 22, 2008 87
WIMAX BS

Oct 22, 2008 88


WIMAX CPE components

Oct 22, 2008 89


Management Traffic connected to PE router via 128kbps
MLLN circuit & data traffic to Tier-II

1. User Data is backhauled to the Tier II switch using Ethernet over SDH
or relevant media.
NMS Bangalore 2. Management Data is transported to the PE router using a 128kbps
MLLN backhaul.
3. EMS Client connected to the PE using 128kbps MLLN backhaul
4. All Management elements are part of a VPN.
EMS Server
City A

BTS Location
Provider
Router

MPLS CORE
Tier I Tier II
CPE
Locations

Provider
Broadband RAS/ User/ Backhaul Data
Router Eth over SDH Eth over SDH
Provider Edge

Tier I Tier II

EMS Client
Provider Edge
Router

128Kbps Managed Leased Line Network


Management Data

Oct 22, 2008 90


Snapshot of Frequency Spectrum for WiMAX (2.3 - 5.8 GHz)

MMDS 3.5GHz band Low/Mid Upper


~2500-2690 3400-3600 UNII-band UNII-band
2700-2900 (802.11a) ~5725-5850
5150-5350
3300-3400
ISM (11b/g) WRC (new)
5470-5725
2400-2480
US WCS WiMAX profiles available
2305-2320
2345-2360 Other Bands

Note : WPC has allotted two no of FDD frequencies of 3.5 MHz


(1) 3308.75 / 3358.75 MHz (2) 3312.25 / 3362.25 MHz
Oct 22, 2008 91
Performance Requirement from
WiMax

CPE Performance:
8 Mbps net throughput per sector
Shall support 50 subscriber per CPE
BSNL has specifically asked for V5.2,
G703,Gx interface in BS & POTS, VOIP,
USB,G703 interfaces in CPE besides the
normal FE interface in BS & CPE. BSNL
has given 1 Year time frame to bidder
to provide these interfaces since these
are not available with any bidders.

Oct 22, 2008 92


APPLICATIONS OF WIMAX

Multiple broadband from a single


CPE.(Each subs. With different SLA)
Backhaul of wi-fi
Backhaul of DSLMP
Internet lease line.
MPLS VPN sopport.

Oct 22, 2008 93


DSLAM BACKHAUL APPLICATION

Up to 20kmts

Ethernet Ethernet
CANOPY CANOPY CANOPY

Wi-Max
BTS
Wi-Max Wi-Max DSLAM
DSLAM CPE CPE
Location-2
Location-1
Ethernet
Switch

BRAS INTERNET
BACKBONE
Oct 22, 2008 94
FIG-2 Wireless Broadband Application
SME

ENTERPRISE

Wi-Max
Wi-Max CPE
CPE

KIOSK
CANOPY CANOPY CANOPY

Wi-Max
Base Station

Wi-Max
Wi-Fi CPE
Wi-Max
Access
CPE
Point
Wi-Fi
HOTSPOT

INTERNET BACKBONE

Oct 22, 2008 95


BROADBAND SERVICE USING WI-MAX

Ethernet
Cable
Wi-Max
CPE

Ethernet Wi-Max
Switch C A NO P Y C A NO P Y CANOPY
Base Station

INTERNET BACKBONE

Oct 22, 2008 96


BROADBAND SERVICE USING WI-FI AND WI-MAX

Wi-Max
CPE

Wi-Fi Wi-Max
Access C A NO P Y C A NO P Y CANOPY
Base Station
Point

INTERNET BACKBONE

Oct 22, 2008 97


FIG-5 MPLS-VPN CONNECTIVITY

SME

ENTERPRISE

Wi-Max
Wi-Max CPE
CPE
SME
CANOPY CANOPY CANOPY

Wi-Max
Base Station

SWITCH
Wi-Max
CPE

MPLS INTERNET BACKBONE


NETWORK

Oct 22, 2008 98


Combined VoIP, DSL & Wi-Max Solution for
URBAN and RURAL Telephony

CO Local
PSTN

Cu
Media Gateway Pairs
SIP Proxy &
Media POTS Splitter
Existing
Server
Loop SOHO
Network
Voice DSL CPE
10/100B &
1 T Data
ATA
BSNL
INTERNET
IP DSLAM
IP
BRAS
Rural Telephony 1
Aperto Aperto 2
Wi-Max
Wireless Access
Wi-Max CPE 3
Network 1 Analog 24 port
FXS gateway
2 2
4

Oct 22, 2008 99


Issues with WI-MAX Equipment

4. Site survey
5. 5.2/G703 interfaces at CPE & BS end.
6. Height of Antenna at CPE end for longer
distance.
7. Upgradation/Replacement to certified
equipment.

Oct 22, 2008 100


Issues
Issues with Wi-MAX

Upstream Bit Rate, Downstream Bit Rate,


Acceptable Outage Time, Security, and
Encryption, Video Quality, Internet Speeds,
Streaming Video, Bandwidth & Efficiency,
Voice over IP, Gaming Encryption,
Appropriate Frequency Tolerance to Interference and
Gateway Priority - Video Data

Oct 22, 2008 101


THANK YOU