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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH
Name of the staff : KP Pratap
Designation : Lecturer in ECE
Institute : GMR Polytechnic Gajwel
Year : DECE 1
Subject : Electronic Components and Devices
Subject code : EC 105.
Topic : Capacitors used in electronic circuits
Duration : 50 minutes
Sub-topic : capacitance
Teaching Aids : Diagrams

EC 105.21 1
Objectives

Upon the completion of this topic you would be


able to know

• Know the term capacitance.

• Working principle of capacitor.

EC 105.21 2
Recap
• In previous classes we discussed about

.Different types of Resistors

EC 105.21 3
Introduction

• Capacitor is a passive component like


resistor.

• The name Capacitor has derived from the


word CAPACITY to store energy.

• It was developed after discovery of LAYDEN


jar in 1745.

EC 105.21 4
• Capacitor consists of two conducting surface
separated by dielectric.

• Different types of capacitors have developed using

different dielectric materials such as air,mica etc.

EC 105.21 5
• A capacitor consists of two parallel plates
separated by a dielectric material.

• Symbol of capacitor is

• When a voltage is applied across the plates the


capacitor gets charged.

+ _

EC 105.21 6
Capacitance

• The capacitance of capacitor is the ratio of charge stored


to the voltage applied.

• C=Q/V where Q is charge stored units are columbs and


v is voltage applied across plates.

• C is capacitors capacitance and its units are Farads.


• In any circuit the tendency of capacitor is to oppose
any change in voltage is also defined as capacitance.

EC 105.21 7
V V
C C

Switch S is open Switch S is closed

EC 105.21 8
Charging and Discharging of capacitor

++++ ++++ ----


V V ---- ---- ++++
C C C C

Circuit is Circuit is After total charge source Again capacitor is


open no closed is removed, capacitor is discharging in
charging charging discharging in opposite opposite direction
direction

EC 105.21 9
Charging and Discharging of Capacitors:
• When switch S is open no voltage is applied across
the plates of capacitor.
• When switch S is closed:
a) Electrons from negative of battery moves to plate A
of capacitor.
b) Free electronics from plate B of capacitor moves
towards +ve terminal of battery, due to electrons
on plate A repels the electrons on plate B.

EC 105.21 10
c) Now plate A is negatively charged.

d) Plate B is positively charged because of


deficiency of electrons on plate B.

e) So potential difference is created between plate

A and Plate B and capacitor get charge.


• This charging process constitute a current through
the a capacitor.
• This process continues till plate A becomes
negative terminal of the battery and plate B becomes
+ve terminal of the battery.

EC 105.21 11
When switch is opened:

• The surplus electrons on plate A and deficit electrons on


plate B of the capacitor will stay. The capacitor said to
be charged to the voltage of battery.

• If plate A of capacitor is connected plate B capacitor


through a copper wire the surplus electrons from plate A
flows to plate B and neutralized the positive charge on
plate B.

EC 105.21 12
• The flow of electrons continue till all the surplus

electron at a plate A moves to plate B. Now the

capacitor is said to be discharge.

EC 105.21 13
Quiz

1. A capacitor is a

c) Passive component

e) Active component

g) both

i) None of the above

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2. A capacitor consists of two parallel plates
separated by a

d) Dielectric

f) Metal

h) Semi-conductor

j) None of the above

EC 105.21 15
3. The units of capacitance are

c) Farads

e) Henry

g) Ohms

i) All of the above

EC 105.21 16
Frequently asked Questions

1. Define capacitance
2. Explain charging and
discharging of capacitor.

EC 105.21 17