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# DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Name of the staff : KP Pratap
Designation : Lecturer in ECE
Institute : GMR Polytechnic Gajwel
Year : DECE 1
Subject : Electronic Components and Devices
Subject code : EC 105.
Topic : Capacitors used in electronic circuits
Duration : 50 minutes
Sub-topic : capacitance
Teaching Aids : Diagrams

EC 105.21 1
Objectives

able to know

## • Working principle of capacitor.

EC 105.21 2
Recap
• In previous classes we discussed about

EC 105.21 3
Introduction

resistor.

## • The name Capacitor has derived from the

word CAPACITY to store energy.

## • It was developed after discovery of LAYDEN

jar in 1745.

EC 105.21 4
• Capacitor consists of two conducting surface
separated by dielectric.

## different dielectric materials such as air,mica etc.

EC 105.21 5
• A capacitor consists of two parallel plates
separated by a dielectric material.

• Symbol of capacitor is

## • When a voltage is applied across the plates the

capacitor gets charged.

+ _

EC 105.21 6
Capacitance

## • The capacitance of capacitor is the ratio of charge stored

to the voltage applied.

## • C=Q/V where Q is charge stored units are columbs and

v is voltage applied across plates.

## • C is capacitors capacitance and its units are Farads.

• In any circuit the tendency of capacitor is to oppose
any change in voltage is also defined as capacitance.

EC 105.21 7
V V
C C

## Switch S is open Switch S is closed

EC 105.21 8
Charging and Discharging of capacitor

## ++++ ++++ ----

V V ---- ---- ++++
C C C C

## Circuit is Circuit is After total charge source Again capacitor is

open no closed is removed, capacitor is discharging in
charging charging discharging in opposite opposite direction
direction

EC 105.21 9
Charging and Discharging of Capacitors:
• When switch S is open no voltage is applied across
the plates of capacitor.
• When switch S is closed:
a) Electrons from negative of battery moves to plate A
of capacitor.
b) Free electronics from plate B of capacitor moves
towards +ve terminal of battery, due to electrons
on plate A repels the electrons on plate B.

EC 105.21 10
c) Now plate A is negatively charged.

## d) Plate B is positively charged because of

deficiency of electrons on plate B.

## A and Plate B and capacitor get charge.

• This charging process constitute a current through
the a capacitor.
• This process continues till plate A becomes
negative terminal of the battery and plate B becomes
+ve terminal of the battery.

EC 105.21 11
When switch is opened:

## • The surplus electrons on plate A and deficit electrons on

plate B of the capacitor will stay. The capacitor said to
be charged to the voltage of battery.

## • If plate A of capacitor is connected plate B capacitor

through a copper wire the surplus electrons from plate A
flows to plate B and neutralized the positive charge on
plate B.

EC 105.21 12
• The flow of electrons continue till all the surplus

## capacitor is said to be discharge.

EC 105.21 13
Quiz

1. A capacitor is a

c) Passive component

e) Active component

g) both

## i) None of the above

EC 105.21 14
2. A capacitor consists of two parallel plates
separated by a

d) Dielectric

f) Metal

h) Semi-conductor

## j) None of the above

EC 105.21 15
3. The units of capacitance are

e) Henry

g) Ohms

EC 105.21 16