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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH

Name : G.ANILA KUMARI.


Designation : Lecturer.
Branch : Electronics & Communication Engg.
Institute : Smt.B.SeethaPolytechnic.
Year / Sem : 1st year.
Subject : Electronic components and Devices.
Subject Code : EC-105.
Topic : Microphones and Loudspeakers.
Duration : 50 min.
Sub Topic : working of carbon microphone
Teaching aids : Diagrams, photographs and
animations.
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OBJECTIVES

AFTER COMPLETION OF THIS PERIOD, YOU


WOULD BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND:

• PRINCIPLE OF CARBON MICROPHONE.

• CONSTRUCTION OF CARBON MICROPHONE.

• WORKING OF CARBON MICROPHONE.

• APPLICATIONS OF CARBON MICROPHONE.

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PRINCIPLE OF CARBON MICROPHONE

• It works on the principle of varying resistance of a small

enclosure filled with carbon granules.

• The resistance of the enclosure varies linearly with the

sound pressure variations. Hence it is pressure

operated microphone.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CARBON MICROPHONE

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CONSTRUCTION

• It consists of light ,stiff and thin diaphragm made of


duralumin and a brass cup filled with carbon granules.

• Two metal electrodes are placed in carbon granules in


which one is fixed and the other is movable.
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• The diaphragm is in contact with granules through
movable electrode.
• A battery and a load is connected across two
electrodes as shown in fig.

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WORKING

• When sound waves strike the diaphragm it moves to


and fro.
• During compression, the carbon granules gets pressed
and hence the resistance decreases while the current is
increased.
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• During rarefaction , the carbon granules gets loosen
and hence the resistance increases while the
current is decreased.
• Finally because of the variation in the resistance as
well as in the current the electrical signal will be
given out accordingly.
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EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

R= Ro + r;
R= Net resistance in ohms;
Ro= Steady resistance without sound;
r= variations in resistance due to sound pressure;

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SPECIFICATIONS

• Sensitivity : 100 mV

• Signal to noise ratio : Poor

• Frequency response : 200 – 5000Hz

• Directivity : Omni- Directional

• Out put impedance : 100 Ohms

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ADVANTAGES

• Small size and low cost

• High electrical output and sensitivity

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DISADVANTAGES

• High distortion and self-noise.

• External bias supply is required.

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APPLICATIONS

• It is widely used in telephone and portable

communication systems.

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Visual-1 14
Carbon microphone which is used in telephones

Visual-2

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• Carbon microphones used in olden days

Visual-3

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SUMMARY
• Carbon microphone is pressure operated

microphone.

• The total resistance of enclosure which filled

with carbon granules, varies linearly with

pressure of sound waves.

• Frequency response is very poor.


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QUIZ

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1. Carbon microphone is

a). High impedance microphone

b). Bi-directional microphone

c). Velocity operated microphone

d) .Pressure operated microphone

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2. The diaphragm in carbon microphone is made up of

a). Aluminum

b). Duralumin

c). Steel

d). Carbon

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3. During compression condition, the resistance

a). Increases

b). Decreases

c). Remains same

d). None

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4. During rarefaction, the current through the circuit

• Increases

• Decreases

• Remains same

• None

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Frequently asked questions…

(1). Explain the principle of operation, construction and

working of carbon microphone ?

(2). Draw the equivalent circuit of carbon microphone and

list its ratings ?

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