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Department of Technical Education

Andhra Pradesh
Name : R.Rama Rao
Designation : Lecturer.
Branch : Electronics & Communication Engineering.
Institute : Govt. Polytechnic (w), Bheemunipatnam,

Year/Semester : Third Semester.


Subject : Electronics circuits-1
Subject Code : E.C-302
Topic : Transistor Amplifiers.
Duration : 50min.
Sub-Topic : Thermistor & Sensistor Compensation techniques.
EC302.30 1
Teaching Aid : PPT.
RECAP

Earlier we have studied about

• Need for compensation.

• Types of bias compensation.

• Diode compensation.

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OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of this period you would be able to


understand

• Thermistor compensation.

• Sensistor compensation.

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•What is a Thermister?

Thermister is a device which is having negative

temperature coefficient

•What is a sensistor?

Sensistor is a device which is having positive

temperature coefficient

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THERMISTOR COMPENSATION

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Thermistor compensation circuit
Fig. 1

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Working

• Circuit shows thermistor compensation in a self – bias

CE amplifier.

• The thermistor RT has negative temperature

coefficient.

• Negative temparature coefficient means resistance

decreases exponentially with increse in temparature T.

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 Thermistor can be placed in any one of the two positions
as shown in Fig

 Thermister RT is used to minimize the increase in

collector current due to variations in ICO , VBE or β

with temperature .

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If the temparature increases

• Thermistor resistance decreases.

• Current flowing through RT (IT) increases.

• Since the voltage drop across RE increases in the

direction, it reverse biases the transistor Base –Emitter

junction which reduces IBand keeps IC constant.

• Thus RT compensates the increase in IC due to

temperature rise. EC302.30 9


The process is as follows

• Increases VE

• Reduces VBE

• VBE = VB - VE

• VBE = VCC X R2 / (R1+R2) (fixed)

• IB decreases

• IC remains constant

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• Thus the temperature sensitivity of RT provides

compensation to the increase in collector current IC

due to rise in temperature T.

• The same result is obtained if the transistor RT is placed

in the base circuit across R2 instead of in collector circuit.

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SENSISTOR COMPENSATION

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Sensistor compensation circuit
Fig.1
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• Instead of thermistor compensation, compensation

can be done by using sensistor.

• Sensistor is a temperature sensitive device.

• Sensistor has positive temperature coefficient.

• Sensistor is a heavily doped semi conductor.

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Generally sensistors have

• Temperature coefficient of resistance of 0.007 per 0C

• The range of temperature from - 600 0C to 1500 0C.

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• The sensistor may be placed either in parallel with R1.

• Or in parallel with RE

• The sensistor can also be placed in place of RE rather

than in parallel with RE.


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With the increase in temperature

• The resistance of RS increases.

• So, the resistance of parallel combination (RS || R1)

increases.

• Hence voltage drop across R2 decreases.

• VR2 = VCC*(R2 / (R1||RS) + R2)


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• Decrease in VR2 decreases the net forward emitter

Bias (VBE).

• Hence Collector current IC decreases.

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• Decrease in IC compensates the increase in collector

current IC due to increase in IC0 ,β or VBE because of

temperature rise.

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Summary
• We have discussed the circuits using thermistors

& sensistors.

• The circuits stabilize IC against variations in ICO,β

& VBE due to rise in temperature.

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Quiz

1. If the temperature increases,


thermistor resistance
A) Increases
B) Decreases
C) Constant
D) Zero

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• In compensation the value IC must be

A) Decreased

B. Increased

C) Constant

D) Zero

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1. If the temperature increase, sensistor resistance

A) Increases
B) Decreases
C) Constant
D) Zero

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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

• Explain with circuit diagram the thermistor

compensation?

• Explain with circuit diagram the sensistor compensation?

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