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resented by Gu|ded by
N|rma|k1homas Mr V|nod Shokeen
M1ech VLSI Mr 8hupendra S|ngh
Lnro|| no A2326411010
W underwaLer wlreless opLlcal communlcaLlon has
been used for esLabllsh a llnk beLween moblle
vehlcles and/or flxed nodes because llghL
especlally ln Lhe blue/green reglon allows Lo
achleve hlgher daLaraLe Lhan acousLlcal or
elecLromagneLlc waves for moderaLe dlsLances
W Pere underwaLer sensor neLworks are employed
for Lhe effecLlve communlcaLlon beLween Lhe
Auv and Lhe 8ecelver
W Pere varlous meLhods are used for Lhe
effecLlve underwaLer opLlcal communlcaLlon
and Lhey are as follows
W vecLor 8adlaLlve 1ransfer 1heory
W lorward Lrror CorrecLlon Scheme
W ,odulaLlon 1echnlques
vecLor 8adlaLlve 1ransfer 1heory
W 1he vector rad|at|ve transfer equat|on captures the mu|t|p|e
scatter|ng nature of natura| water and a|so |nc|udes the
po|ar|zat|on behav|our of ||ght
W nere we emp|oy an underwater channe| mode| as fo||ows
W recelved slgnal y(t) ls qlveo by
W y(t) x(t) (t) - o(t)
v81 cnLd
W Channel model lnvolves boLh scaLLerlng and absorpLlon of
llghL ln underwaLer envlronmenLs and Lhe nolses
W AfLer characLerlzlng Lhe parLlcles resldlng ln sea waLer lL
employ Lhe radlaLlve Lransfer Lheory Lo capLure Lhe llghL
scaLLerlng and absorpLlon behavlours under such an
W 1he lmporLanL parameLer for Lhe vecLor radlaLlve Lransfer
equaLlon ls Lhe ,ueller maLrlx whlch descrlbes Lhe scaLLerlng
characLerlsLlcs of Lhe channel
8esulLs from v81
W 1he mulLlple scaLLerlng effecL resulLs ln lnLer symbol
lnLerference whlch sLrongly deLerloraLes Lhe daLa
W 1he correspondlng blLerrorraLe performance ls lnvesLlgaLed
lllusLraLlng Lhe llmlLaLlon of daLa communlcaLlon as Lhe
dlsLance lncreases
W When Lhe dlsLance lncreases Lhe slgnal Lo nolse raLlo
decreases and Lhe dlsLorLlon lncreases 1herefore Lhe blL
errorraLe lncreases
lorward Lrror CorrecLlon Scheme
W 1he mosL common modulaLlon scheme used ls Lhe onoff
keylng(CCk) due Lo lLs slmpllclLy ln sysLem lmplemenLaLlon
W 8uL Lhere are many parameLers presenL ln ocean LhaL
deLorlaLes Lhe performance and Lo avold LhaL we employ Lhe
W Pere LLu based opLlcal wlreless sysLem ls used wlLh lLC Lo
lmprove underwaLer CommunlcaLlon
W Pere we conslder Lhe 1rade off beLween blL error raLe daLa
raLe and lmplemenLaLlon complexlLy
lLC slmulaLlon
W 8eed Solomon (8S) and 8ose Chaudhurl Pocquenghem (8CP)
codlng was chosen for Lhe underwaLer opLlcal wlreless sysLem
W 8S code works by oversampllng a polynomlal consLrucLed from Lhe
daLa 1he polynomlal ls evaluaLed aL several polnLs and Lhese
values are senL or recorded As long as lL recelves Lhe polnLs
correcLly Lhe recelver can recover Lhe orlglnal polynomlal even ln
Lhe presence of a few bad polnLs
W 8CP code ls generallzed form of hammlng codes and lL makes use of
polynomlal derlved from flnlLe flelds Lo encode and decode daLa
1helr performance can be calculaLed by uslng of n2m1 where
lLC 8esulLs
W 1he Sn8 ls Lhe prlnclpal parameLer LhaL affecLs Lhe performance of
recelved opLlcal slgnal and 8L8 ls Lhe parameLer LhaL descrlbes Lhe
way a dlglLal communlcaLlon llnk behaves and how we can rely on
W 1he numerlcal slmulaLlons resulLs of uncoded CCk sysLem and
CCk sysLem wlLh 8CP and 8S codlng for undersea communlcaLlon
are shown
W 1he slgnal nolse raLlo of 8S codlng can be lmprove up Lo 4d8 aL Lhe
103 blL error raLe envlronmenL 1he resulLs show LhaL by
lncorporaLlng Lhe error conLrol codlng Lechnlque ln opLlcal wlreless
sysLem lL could be used Lo lmprove Lhe rellablllLy Lo LransmlL
opLlcal slgnal ln Lhe complex oceanography envlronmenL
CLher ,odulaLlon Schemes
W lL ls demonsLraLed LhaL Lhe ulse oslLlon ,odulaLlon (,) ls
beLLer sulLed for low powered undersea sysLems and Lhe phase shlfL
keylng (Sk) ylelds Lhe besL performance ln Lerm of bandwldLh and
error performance wlLh poor power efflclency
W 1he slmulaLlon resulLs show LhaL Lhe red llghL has beLLer
Lransmlsslon characLerlsLlcs ln waLers wlLh hlgher chlorophyll
W lor hlgh bandwldLh appllcaLlon Lhe lmprove , modulaLlon such
as u, can be used Lo lncrease lLs bandwldLh performance
nereus Pybrld underwaLer vehlcle
W 1he nereus underwaLer vehlcle ls deslgned Lo perform sclenLlflc
survey and sampllng Lo Lhe full depLh of Lhe ocean slgnlflcanLly
deeper Lhan Lhe depLh capablllLy of all oLher presenL day
operaLlonal vehlcles
W nereus operaLes ln Lwo dlfferenL modes lor broadarea survey Lhe
vehlcle can operaLe unLeLhered as an auLonomous underwaLer
vehlcle (Auv) capable of explorlng and mapplng Lhe sea floor wlLh
sonars and cameras nereus can be converLed aL sea Lo become a
remoLely operaLed vehlcle (8Cv) Lo enable closeup lmaglng and
P?88lu vLPlCLL uLSlCn
W 1he nereus core vehlcle employs Lwln freeflooded hulls lL can be
reconflgured aL sea lnLo 8Cv mode or Auv mode
W Cn board elecLronlcs baLLerles and lnLernal sensors are housed aL
1aLmosphere ln novel llghLwelghL ceramlc/LlLanlum pressure
houslngs developed speclflcally for Lhls pro[ecL
W 1wo 0333m ouLslde dlameLer(Cu) ceramlc pressure houslngs
conLaln power swlLchlng and dlsLrlbuLlon sysLems uCuC power
lsolaLlon a Llnux conLrol compuLer a Llnux lmaglng compuLer uC
brushless moLor conLrollers mulLlpleglgablL LLherneL Lranscelvers
sLrap down navlgaLlon sensors and exLernal sensor and acLuaLor
Pv ueslgn cLd
W nereus's power ls provlded by a 16kWh rechargeable llLhlumlon
baLLery pack developed for Lhls pro[ecL conLalned ln Lwo addlLlonal
0333m ceramlc pressure houslngs
W LlghLlng ls provlded by llghLwelghL amblenLpressure llghL
emlLLlngdlode (LLu) arrays cusLomdeveloped for Lhe nereus
W 1he vehlcle's large meLacenLrlc helghL provldes passlve sLablllLy ln
roll and plLch
W 1wln afL verLlcal sLablllzers (le flxed verLlcal Lalls) provlde passlve
hydrodynamlc sLablllLy ln headlng
18lAL 8LSuL1S
W 1he cameras and llghLlng sysLem on nereus provlded a varled
vlewlng capablllLy of Lhe boLLom durlng LransecLs and sampllng
W 1he payload of Lhe nereus vehlcle ls relaLlvely small buL desplLe lLs
30 kg llmlL Lhe ablllLy Lo acqulre samples deploy experlmenLs and
observe Lhe deepesL and neverbefore sLudled reglons of Lhe
world's oceans wlll serve as a unlque and exclLlng sLlmulus for ever
bolder dlscovery ln Lhe world's oceans
W CollecLed numerous Lube cores of boLLom sedlmenL over 17
dlfferenL rock Lypes several hydroLhermal mlneral samples and
over 13 specles of organlsms from Lhese dlves
W SLudy of how Lo employ a underwaLer opLlcal wlreless
communlcaLlon ln Auv 's uslng Lhe varlous meLhodologles llke
v81 lLC ls done
W 1he nereus Auv's Lrlals show vlrLually unexplored area of Lhe
ocean almosL cerLalnly offers Lhe poLenLlal Lo make lmporLanL
blologlcal and geologlcal dlscoverles
W 1hls developmenL polnLs Lo a way forward for boLh sclenLlflc
and commerclal operaLlons Lhrough Lhe use of a unlque
comblnaLlon of Lechnologles
W 1 8 Allen 8 SLokey 1 AusLln n lorresLer 8 Coldsborough ,
urcell and C von AlL kLMUS a sma|| |ow cost AUV system
descr|pt|on f|e|d tr|a|s and performance resu|ts" ln 9n
l/M15 OcAN5 cof xlb ve 2 poqes 9941000 Ont
W 2 A u 8owen u 8 ?oerger C 1aylor 8 ,cCabe ! Powland u
Comezlbanez ! C klnsey , PelnLz C ,cuonald u 8 eLers 8
lleLcher C ?oung ! 8uescher L L WhlLcomb S C ,arLln S L
WebsLer and , v !akuba "1he Nereus hybrid underwoter robotic
veh|c|e for g|oba| ocean sc|ence operat|ons to 11000m depth#ln
9n l/M15 OcAN5 cof xlb Oeben 5ept 2008
W 3 P Cchl ? WaLanabe and 1 Shlmura "Lxper|ments of
underwater acoust|c commun|cat|on us|ng 16AM" 8t
loteootloo coqess o Anstlns kyt !apan 2004
8l8LlCC8AP? C1u
W 4 Sermsak !aruwaLanadllok ,ember lLLL Underwater W|re|ess
Cpt|ca| Commun|cat|on Channe| Mode||ng and erformance
Lva|uat|on us|ng Vector kad|at|ve 1ransfer 1heory" leee [ournal on
selecLed areas ln communlcaLlons vol 26 no 9pages 16201627
uecember 2008
W 3 xlnsheng ?u Welwel !ln ,elhong Sul key Lab of Submarlne
Ceosclences and rospecLlng 1echnlques ,lnlsLry of LducaLlon
Ccean unlverslLy of Chlna Zhlgong Lan CnCCC Lnergy 1echnology
Servlces LlmlLed 8el[lng 8ranch "Lva|uat|on of Iorward Lrror
Correct|on Scheme for Underwater W|re|ess Cpt|ca|
Commun|cat|on" 1hlrd lnLernaLlonal Conference on
CommunlcaLlons and ,oblle CompuLlng 2011
8l8LlCC8AP? C1u
W 6 uavlde AngulLa uavlde 8rlzzolara Clancarlo arodl Cllong Pu
ul8L ueparLmenL of 8lophyslcal and LlecLronlc Lnglneerlng
unlverslLy of Cenova "Cpt|ca| W|re|ess Underwater
Commun|cat|on for AUV re||m|nary S|mu|at|on and Lxper|menta|
kesu|ts" ILLL Cceans 2011
W Andrew u 8owen uana 8 ?oerger Chrls 1aylor 8oberL ,cCabe
!onaLhan Powland uanlel Comezlbanez !ames C klnsey ,aLLhew
PelnLz Clenn ,cuonald uonald 8 eLers !ohn 8alley Lleanor
8ors 1lm Shank Louls L WhlLcomb SLephen C ,arLln Sarah L
WebsLer ,lchael v !akuba 8arbara lleLcher Chrls ?oung !ames
8uescher aLrlcla lryer Samuel Pulme "I|e|d 1r|a|s of the Nereus
nybrid underwoter kobot|c Veh|c|e |n the Cha||enger Deep of the
Mar|ana 1rench" vo|1 ILLL 2011
1nANk CU