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PR-MAC: A PRACTICALAPPROACH FOR EXPLOITING RELAY TRANSMISSIONS IN MULTI-RATE WLANS

GUIDED BY ASST.PROF. NELSON K J PRESENTED BY NOUSHAD A S1 M Tech CE&SP ROLL NO:11

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE PROXY RELAY-ENABLED MAC PROTOCOL
Proxy Relay Point selection Data transmission via relaying at PRP Header modification

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
Experiment results

CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
Relay communication Rate adaptation schemes Open-loop approaches o Auto rate fallback (ARF)

Closed-loop approaches
o Receiver-based auto rate (RBAR)

CONTD.
Proxy relay enabled MAC (PR-MAC) protocol

Proxy relay Point (PRP)


The role of frame relaying between an AP and stations

RELAY STATIONS
Multi-hop relaying at the MAC layer can support much higher

rate than a single hop transmission.


MAC protocols proposed to exploit the frame relaying at the

MAC layer.

The protocols has three operation parts:


Neighbor information gathering
Relay nodes decision Data exchange via relay nodes.
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DRAW BACKS OF EXISTING RELAY ENABLED MAC PROTOCOL


Peer stations relay data frames. The relay transmissions is

highly depend on the density of stations.


Some stations may not agree to relay data frames for other

stations.
Stations should change the MAC protocol by

modifying their device drivers. It is very difficult.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Proxy Relay Point (PRP) Relays data frames between an AP and stations. Special stationary infrastructure node that has a WLAN interface and external power supply. PRP is not connected to the ISP network and can be easily deployed with low cost. Each PRP associates with a specific AP and one AP can have

multiple PRPs within its service coverage.


Transmission rates can be enhanced by data relaying at the

MAC layer.

CONTD.
Proxy Relay-enabled Mac (PR-MAC) The goal of PR-MAC is enabling relay communications through PRPs without any modifications to legacy stations.
In PR-MAC Only the AP and PRP perform the operations related

to relay communications (relay-candidate selection and data frame relaying)

CONTD.
Users do not need to change the MAC protocol stack by

upgrading the device driver or firmware for WLAN interface


With PR-MAC, the administrator can enhance the network

capacity(upgrading AP and deploying PRP) users are free from complex system configurations.

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PROXY RELAY-ENABLED MAC PROTOCOL


A. Proxy Relay Point selection
Open-loop rate adaptation scheme such as ARF is used. AP determines an appropriate transmission rate for each station

according to the signal strength of received frames.


AP find the most proper transmission rate for the station ()

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CONTD.
Each PRP maintains the transmission rates for stations based

on the received signal strength


The transmission rate between PRP and the station ()

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CONTD.
The AP selects a proper PRP for each station.
PRP selection procedure relay candidate query (RCQ) frame relay candidate update (RCU) frame relay list announcement (RLA) frame

The PRP determines the transmission rate for the AP ()

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CONTD.

From the RCU the AP decides whether to use the PRP for the

station or not according to the following condition:

Relay Table STA ID : MAC addresses of the station PRP ID : MAC addresses of the PRP
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CONTD.
AP announces the contents of the Relay Table to PRPs by

broadcasting a RLA.

Relay table contains


STA ID
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Timing diagram of relay transmissions and address fields of data frames in PR-MAC.
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B. Data transmission via relaying at PRP


Dashed arrows from control and data frames indicate the

destinations of the frames


Four types of addresses in the MAC header (A1, A2, A3, and

A4) used in PR-MAC.

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DOWNLINK TRANSMISSIONS
When an AP has a frame destined to station , it first searches

the Relay Table using the stations address as the index No such entry there: the frame directly transmitted with for the station (). The AP obtains stored , , and for station in the Relay Table (denoted by ., . , and .) and then determines whether to exploit relay transmissions or not Frame be relayed via the PRP if and only if the following condition is satisfied:

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CONTD.
If the above condition is not satisfied Data is directly transmitted with the transmission rate of . At this time, if is different from ., then the AP updates the Relay Table by changing the value of . to . The PRP also changes the value of . in its Relay Table to

If condition satisfied
Then the downlink data frame is relayed via the PRP. The AP first

exchanges RTS and CTS with the PRP, and then transmits a data frame to the PRP with . . On receiving the data frame successfully, the PRP checks the original destination of the frame.

After that PRP relays the data frame to the destination station
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CONTD.
if the AP detects the relay transmission, it can understand

that the data frame has been successfully delivered to the PRP.
After relaying the data frame, the PRP overhears the ACK

transmission.

If the relay transmission fails, then retransmissions for the frame are performed by the PRP, not by the AP.

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UPLINK RELAY TRANSMISSIONS


Not similar to downlink relay transmissions stations operate with an open-loop rate adaption scheme. RTS and CTS are exchanged between station and the AP, and then the data frame is directly transmitted to the AP.

The AP and PRP determines relay transmission is needed or not

by checking the stations transmission rate


Current transmission rate is lower than or equal to .,

then the AP can successfully decode the frame

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CONTD.
A relay transmission is triggered if and only if the current

transmission rate is higher than ..


Instead of the AP the PRP transmits an ACK to the station. After

that, the PRP relays the data frame to the AP with . . If the transmission fails, then the PRP performs retransmissions just like the downlink transmission.

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C. Header modification
MAC header of data frames
Frame control field Duration/ID field Three address fields Sequence control field Address4 field Data payload Frame check sequence field.

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CONTD.
DATA FRAME EXCHANGE IN PR-MAC
Address4 field: not used in direct transmissions between the

AP and stations. When an AP sends a downlink frame to a station via a PRP, the address fields of the frame is configured as A1 The PRP reconfigures the address fields as A2, by moving the real destination address in Address4 to Address1. At this time, the frame has the same MAC header as the legacy 802.11 downlink data frame, and thus it can be delivered to the legacy station successfully

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UPLINK TRANSMISSIONS

Data frame sent by the source station address fields is configured

as A3. At a PRP, the address fields of the uplink frame are reconfigured as A4. The source Address in Address2 is moved to Address4 and the PRP address is inserted into Address2. PRP address is necessary for the MAC layer acknowledgment. Upon receiving the uplink data frame from the PRP, the AP sends an ACK frame to the PRP and restores the original MAC header by moving Address4 to Address2.

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
EXPERIMENT RESULTS Test-bed consists of three laptops that run on the Linux operating . system, and each of them operates as AP, PRP, and station.

Test-bed topology for experiments in indoor environment

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CONTD.
where the AP is located at the center office to provide wireless

access services in the office, and the PRP is installed.


The measured throughput at five points (P1-P5)is{0.45, 1.21,

16.9, 2.43, 0.57} in DCF, and {2.0, 8.06, 17.0,4.16, 3.13} in PRMAC(Mbps).

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CONCLUSION
A new relay-enabled MAC protocol, called PR-MAC, will

improve the capacity of IEEE 802.11 WLAN via relay transmissions. One of the unique characteristics of PR-MAC compared to existing relay enabled MAC protocols is that no modifications are required for the legacy WLAN stations. Experimental results show that PR-MAC can achieve improved throughput performance over IEEE 802.11 DCF. It can expect that proper deployments of PRPs can significantly improve the capacity of WLANs
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REFERENCES
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CoopMAC: a cooperative MAC for wireless LANs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.,vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 340-354, Feb. 2007. [2] A. So and B. Liang, Enhancing WLAN capacity by strategic placement of tetherless relay points," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, pp.474-487, May 2007. [3] MadWifi - a Linux kernel device driver for wireless LAN chipsets from Atheros. [Online]. Available: http://madwifi.org/ [4] 3Com OfficeConnect wireless 11g access point. [Online]. Available:http://www.3com.com/other/pdfs/products/en_US/40 0803.pdf.
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[4] H. Zhu and G. Cao, On improving the performance of

IEEE 802.11 with relay-enabled PCF," Mobile Networks Applications, vol. 9, pp. 423-434, Aug. 2004. [5] H. Zhu and G. Cao, rDCF: a relay-enabled medium access control protocol for wireless ad hoc networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, pp. 1201-1214, Sept. 2006. [6] S. Zou, B. Li, H. Wu, Q. Zhang, W. Zhu, and S. Cheng, A relay aided media access (RAMA) protocol in multi-rate wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 55, pp. 1657-1667, Sept. 2006.

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THANK YOU

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